Koliko "Rusije" so v drugi svetovni vojni dejansko zasedli Nemci?

Koliko


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Dobro se zavedam, da je nemška invazija na Sovjetska zveza, kot je prikazano na takšnih zemljevidih, je leta 1941 pokazalo velike nemške uspehe, nato pa leta 1942 na poti proti Stalingradu.

Moje razumevanje pa je bilo, da so bili ti dobički v glavnem v baltskih državah, Belorusiji in Ukrajini ter da so Nemci zasedli le malo "Rusije" (kot bi jo lahko opredelili danes), razen za klance, ki so se borile na cesti proti Moskvi od oktobra 1941 do marca 1942, med katerim je bilo zavzetih in osvobojenih skoraj 100.000 kvadratnih kilometrov države. Podobno "izjemo" lahko naredimo za zemljišča med rekama Don in Volga konec leta 1942, ki so jih Nemci zasedli nekaj mesecev, preden so izgubili bitko pri Stalingradu. Če sploh kaj, je Rusija pridobila čete, civiliste in tovarne, ki so bili umaknjeni iz neruskega dela Sovjetske zveze v pričakovanju nemške okupacije, da bi nadomestili izgubljeno ozemlje.

Koliko "Rusije" (leta 1941) so Nemci zasedli v 1) največjem obsegu decembra 1941 in/ali 1942? in 2) po uspešnem zaključku ruskih zimskih protiofenziv? (Prosimo, uporabite Nemčijo, da marca 1943 ponovno zavzamete Harkov kot konec ruske protiofanzive.)

Moja težava je, da ne vem, kako naj opredelim "Rusijo". Želim si "predhodnico" leta 1941 današnji Rusiji (povojne spremembe verjetno pomenijo, da niso povsem enake). "Moje najboljše ugibanje je, da je najboljši posrednik za" Rusijo "Ruska federalistična sovjetska republika, ob predpostavki, da je v resnici najboljši "predhodnik".

Drugače povedano, vprašanje je, koliko ozemlja, ki ga zasedajo Nemci, je bila "Rusija" (kakor koli opredeljena) v nasprotju s preostalim delom Sovjetske zveze?


Naj začnem od vašega poleg zadnjega vprašanja:

... najboljši posrednik za "Rusijo" je Ruska federalistična sovjetska republika. Je to primerljivo z današnjo Rusijo?

Da, združljiv je z današnjo Rusko federacijo. Obstaja nekaj izjem.

Leta 1941 Rusija ni imela:

  • regija Kaliningrad (severni del Vzhodne Prusije, ki je bila vključena leta 1945);
  • Tuva (ki se je prostovoljno pridružila leta 1944);
  • regija Pechengsky (Petsamo) (ki ima precej zapleteno zgodovino pripadnosti Finske/ZSSR, vendar se zdi, da je bil zadnjič, ko so bila nekatera njena ozemlja prenesena, 1947).
  • Karelo-Finska SSR, ki je bila samostojna republika ZSSR, ki ni del RSFSR, danes pa je del Ruske federacije.

Tudi glede na odnos do krimskega referenduma in kasnejših dogodkov lahko rečemo, da danes Rusija nima Krima kot svojega dela, vseeno pa ga je imela Rusija leta 1941.

Upoštevati je treba tudi, da meje Rusije z Ukrajino, Belorusijo, Estonijo in morda Latvijo niso razmejene, zato na kopnem ni "palčne natančnosti".

Naslednji.

Ali pa obstaja boljša opredelitev Rusije (morda s pridom nazaj) za namen tega vprašanja

Obstaja nešteto definicij Rusije in katera je najboljša, je v veliki meri odvisna od političnih pogledov posameznika. Tudi definicija z nekim etničnim pristopom je zelo nezanesljiva in spolzka, če želite slediti tej poti, vso srečo, če najdete vire, za katere menite, da so vredni zaupanja.

Naj se torej držim definicije Rusije kot današnje Ruske federacije (vključno s Krimom), razen tistih delov, ki leta 1941 niso bili del ZSSR, to je regije Pechengsky in Kaliningrada, ker ste vprašali o "Rusiji "iz leta 1941.

Koliko "Rusije" (leta 1941) so zasedli Nemci

… Največji obseg decembra 1941 in/ali 1942?

To je bilo zasedeno leta 1941 (rdeča ročno narisana črta) in osvobojen med protiofanzivo decembra 1941 - aprila 1942 (zelena ročno narisana črta). Črte so bile narisane v skladu s samim zemljevidom, ki ni 100% natančen (vsaj opazil sem odsotnost izyumskega izstopa in polotok Kerč na Krimu ni označen kot osvobojen, čeprav je bil konec leta 1941) . Oranžna ročno narisana črta so trenutne meje Rusije, vključno s Krimom, razen regije Pechengsky in Kaliningrada. Kot prilogo k temu zemljevidu so drugi temno modri del zemljevida vzhodno od rdeče črte zajeli Nemci leta 1942 (vključno s Sevastopolom in polotokom Kerč na Krimu).

Koliko "Rusije" (leta 1941) so zasedli Nemci

... po uspešnem zaključku ruskih zimskih protiteles? (Prosimo, uporabite Nemčijo, da marca 1943 ponovno zavzamete Harkov kot konec ruske protiofanzive.)

Ta zemljevid prikazuje (poleg drugih stvari) nemški napredek leta 1942 (rdeča ročno narisana črta) in kasnejšo rusko protiofanzivo do nemškega ponovnega zavzema Harkova marca 1943 (zelena ročno narisana črta). Oranžna ročno potegnjena črta so trenutne meje Rusije, vključno s Krimom, razen regije Pechengsky in Kaliningrada.

Ali je res, da je bila okupirana Rusija "majhna" v primerjavi z ostalo okupirano Sovjetsko zvezo?

Če mislite na "majhno" v pomenu območja, jih lahko primerjate z zemljevidi, žal mi ni uspelo najti zanesljivega vira s številkami. Velik del RSFSR je bil okupiran leta 1942, vendar je bilo to obdobje okupacije precej krajše (7-8 mesecev), kot ga je imela na primer Belorusija (tri leta), zato mislim, da Nemčija teh zemljišč ni mogla izkoristiti do te mere, kot v zahodnih delih ZSSR.

Če mislite na "majhno" v smislu, da je Rusija v vojni manj trpela kot drugi deli ZSSR, se bojim, da je težko dati odgovor brez politične pristranskosti itd. Kljub temu (po mojem subjektivnem vtisu) v našem zgodovinopisje velja, da je v Belorusiji vzpostavljen najstrožji okupacijski režim, nekateri deli današnje Rusije so zelo trpeli, na primer Stalingrad ali oblegani Leningrad. Tudi drugi deli ZSSR, ki niso bili okupirani (na primer Uzbekistan, Kazahstan, Turkmenija, Tadžikistan), so si za zmago prizadevali sami in trpeli.

Upam, da je to odgovorilo na vaša vprašanja, naslednji so izvirni zemljevidi brez mojih ročno narisanih črt:


decembra 1941

V resnici ni bil "največji" obseg. Ozemlje, s katerim se je ZSSR borila pozimi 1941 - spomladi 1942, je bilo veliko manj kot območje, ki ga je nemška vojska zasedla med napredovanjem proti Stalingradu. Naslednji zemljevid to jasno dokazuje.

"Rumeno" območje je tisto, kar je ZSSR pridobila. Nemški dobiček je na jugu med obema črtama: Voroshilovgrad (zdaj Lugansk, Ukrajina), Rostov na Donu, Krasnodar, Stavropol, Elista itd.-vsi pripadajo RSFSR (in sodobni Rusiji).

Tudi izgube leta 1941 so vključevale več kot le "pot v Moskvo". To so bila velika mesta (RSFSR), kot so Smolensk, Belgorod, Bryansk, Kursk, Orel, Pskov itd.

Ali je res, da je bila okupirana Rusija "majhna" v primerjavi z ostalo okupirano Sovjetsko zvezo?

Upravne meje so vidne na zemljevidu. Ta področja so bolj ali manj primerljiva. Čeprav je izguba RSFSR večinoma "tanka" in "raztegnjena" od severa proti jugu.

Omeniti velja tudi, da je celotno zasedeno območje le približno 7% ZSSR, vendar je skupno število predvojnega prebivalstva teh ozemelj doseglo približno 40% celotno ZSSR (V grobem gledano je bilo predvojno prebivalstvo Ukrajine+Belorusije+Baltika približno 40-45 milijonov; predvojno prebivalstvo zasedenih delov RSFSR 30-35 milijonov.)

Rusija je pridobila vojake, civiliste in tovarne, ki so bili umaknjeni iz neruskega dela Sovjetske zveze v pričakovanju nemške okupacije, da bi nadomestili izgubljeno ozemlje

Čete zahodne fronte so bile leta 1941 popolnoma poražene. Pravzaprav so bile na novo ustvarjene številne vojske (tj. Razpuščene so bile redne divizije, novo ustanovljene prostovoljne divizije pa so dobile svojo identiteto).

Zaradi hitrega napredovanja sovražnikov ukrajinskih in beloruskih tovarn (večinoma) ni bilo mogoče evakuirati. SU so uspešno evakuirale tovarne evropskega dela RSFSR (vključno z industrijsko regijo Moskva). Šli so celo do Urala, kar je bila velika izguba časa za SU. In tovarne, ki so bile še vedno relativno blizu fronte, so bile nenehno pod napadi Luftwaffe.


Zemljevid v Mattovem odgovoru prikazuje, kaj so Nemci v resnici zasedli. Preostalo vprašanje je, kaj v resnici pomeni Rusija ali "ruska ozemlja". Mislim, da je Tom Au moral to natančno določiti, ko je postavljal to vprašanje. Lahko pa to komentiram.

Dvokliknite zemljevid in videli boste upravne meje znotraj Sovjetske zveze. Prikazani so tako ----- in to so meje med "sovjetskimi republikami" od leta 1939.

Če je torej vprašanje, koliko Ruske federacije (v mejah leta 1939) zasedali Nemci, je odgovor jasen tudi iz zemljevida.

Od takrat so se meje Ruske federacije spremenile. Sodobna Rusija torej ne sovpada z Rusko federacijo iz leta 1939. Največji spremembi sta Kaliningradska regija (nekdanja Vzhodna Prusija, zgodovinsko nemško ozemlje, prikazano v rjavi barvi), ki je bila priključena Nemčiji, in Krim, ki je bil prenesen v Ukrajino, nato pa ga je leta 2014 napadla in priključila Rusija.

Toda vprašanje je bolj zapleteno/dvoumno od tega, ker Rusija sama vsebuje tako imenovane "avtonomne republike" in "avtonomne regije", kjer velik del prebivalstva, včasih tudi večina, ni etnično Rusov. Meje teh regij niso prikazane na tem zemljevidu. To večinoma zadeva Severni Kavkaz, kraj, kjer so Nemci prodrli najbolj proti vzhodu.

Na zemljevidu so prikazana "ruska" mesta: (SZ do JV) Petrozavodsk (avtonomna republika Karelija), Pskov, Demiansk, Novgorod (na meji zasedenega območja), Rzhev, Vyazma, Smolensk (sporno med Rusi in Belorusi, Poljaki in Litovci stoletja) Bryansk, Orel, Kursk, Belgorod (na sami meji Ukrajine), Voronezh (na meji zasedenega območja).

Nato pojdite (JV Ukrajine) Rostov, Krasnodar, Kerč (regija, kjer živijo Don Kozaki, nekoč je bila to Ukrajina) in polotok Krim (naseljen s Tatari, Ukrajinci in Rusi, ki jih je Rusija trenutno okupirala od Ukrajine), Elista ( avtonomna republika Kalmikija, danes del Rusije, leta 1939 del ruske republike), Stavropol (severno-kavkaški kraj, z zelo mešanim prebivalstvom. Veliko zasedeno območje okoli Stavropola sestavlja 6 avtonomnih republik: Kalmikija, Dagestan, Čečenska republika, sever Osetija-Alanija, republika Kabardino-Balkar in republika Karačay-Cherkess).

Vsa druga mesta na zasedenem ozemlju, prikazana na tem zemljevidu, so v baltskih republikah, Belorusiji, Ukrajini in Moldovi.

Vizualno je roza del, ki je v Ruski republiki 1939, približno 1/4 do 1/3 celotnega rožnatega dela. Toda regije, ki jih zasedajo etnični Rusi, so verjetno 1/5 rožnate površine.


Na današnji dan, 2. junija 1941: Brutalni nacistični pokol v kretski vasi

2. junija 1941 se je v vasi Kondomari zahodno od mesta Hania zgodil brutalni pokol.

Bitka pri Kreti se je pravkar končala in zavezniške sile so otok predale napadalcem. Kljub izidu je bitka spremenila potek zgodovine druge svetovne vojne in bila epska na toliko ravneh, vključno z ostrim odporom, ki so ga nacisti naleteli od lokalnega prebivalstva Krete.

Nacisti so bili odpor umolknjeni, saj še nikoli v Evropi niso doživeli tako hudih bojev civilistov.

Kot povračilo za toliko nemških izgub je general Kurt Student odredil dolg niz množičnih povračil proti prebivalcem Krete.

Pokol v Kondomari je bil prvi, ki je začel brutalno teroristično kampanjo in poskušal vnesti strah v lokalno prebivalstvo.

Pokol je fotografiral vojni dopisnik nemške vojske po imenu Franz-Peter Weixler, čigar negativne so odkrili nekaj desetletij kasneje v zveznih nemških arhivih.

Weixlerjeve fotografije prikazujejo grozljivo in podrobno kronologijo dogajanja tistega usodnega dne v majhni grški vasici, ki je izgubila večino moškega prebivalstva.

Nacistični strelni vod je ubil skoraj 70 mož.

Ali je Pappas Post vreden 5 USD na mesec za vso prebrano vsebino? V vsakem mesecu objavimo na desetine člankov, ki izobražujejo, obveščajo, zabavajo, navdihujejo in bogatijo tisoče, ki berejo The Pappas Post. Prosim tiste, ki obiskujejo spletno mesto, da se priključijo in pomagajo ohraniti kakovost naše vsebine visoko in brezplačno. Kliknite tukaj in začnite z mesečno ali letno podporo še danes. Če se odločite za plačilo (a) 5 USD/mesec ali več ali (b) 50 USD/leto ali več potem boste lahko brskali po naši spletni strani popolnoma brez oglasov!

Gregory Pappas
Pet edinstvenih hotelov za počitnice v Grčiji
Hud dež teh Newyorčanov ni ustavil pri deljenju mesečne človečnosti

Morda vam bo všeč tudi

Zgodnje posneta grška pesem v Ameriki, uvedena leta.

Kako se je Hollywood zaljubil v Grčijo

Na današnji dan 11. junija 323 pred našim štetjem: Aleksander.

Oglejte si NakedNaousa: Redki pogled na Paros When.

Štipendisti helenske zbirke Tsakopoulos, ki raziskujejo fascinantno zgodovino

Recenzija knjige: Nektarijin recept za Dafno.

Revija filma: “Man of God ” - Delo.

Glasbeni spomin na padec Carigrada z Glikerijo.

Poglejte v Atenski osupljiv nov olimpijski muzej

Oljčno olje, marelice, mandlji in tahini torta by.

33 komentarjev

Νας σώθηκε σε μία εκτέλεση. Ηρθε ο πατέρας του οικιοθελώς, να τον αντικαταστήσει, και άρχισαν τον καυγά, τια τε Μετά από αυτό οι γερμανοί δεν το εκτέλεσαν.

Nacistični revizionisti poskušajo Wehrmachta spraviti v zadrego, saj trdijo, da so bili SS tisti, ki so zagrešili vsa grozodejstva, medtem ko je doktrina hladnokrvne rase prevladala nad vso nemško kulturo. Tovrstnega barbarstva iz dežele Beethovna in Schillerja ne moremo razumeti, dokler ne razumemo moči nekaterih iracionalnih doktrin, ki so se ujele v zgodnjem nacističnem gibanju in oblikovale njegovo veroizpoved rase. Korenine nacizma je mogoče najti pred prvo svetovno vojno v dementnih spisih vplivnega okultista Lans Von Liebenfelsa (Google ga), ki je v velikem številu izdal revijo “Ostara ”, revijo, ki so jo z navdušenjem brali Hitler in njegove zgodnje kohorte.

Narod, ki pozabi na svojo zgodovino, jo bo spet živel

Nikoli ne pozabite na človeško trpljenje.

Ne samo, da so te pošasti zagrešile to grozodejstvo, šle so celo tako daleč, da so to fotografsko dokumentirale. Odvratno. Ali so mislili, da se bodo prihodnje generacije čudile njihovi slavi in ​​košenju neoboroženih civilistov? In danes njihovo potomstvo vlada Evropi? Kako daleč smo 've nazadovali …

Fotografije so bile narejene v nasprotju z ukazom nemškega propagandnega agenta, ki je poskušal Nemce izpostaviti grozotam, ki so jih zagrešili. Vzel je te negative in jih dal obdelati, nato pa so jih našli pri njih in obsodili na petnajst let zapora za zločine proti državi. Med sojenjem so ga spoznali tudi za krivega, ker je pomagal več Kretanom pobegniti z otoka, kar mu je skoraj potrojilo kazen s 15 na 40 let. Nekoliko zloglasni negativi so mu bili zaseženi, vendar so jih našli po vojni (in po smrti fotografov).

Vesel sem, da ste objavili te moteče fotografije. Ljudje so spoznali resnico.

do te vasi ni bilo daleč, kjer sem nekoč živel in kjer imam prijatelje. To je grozljivo zaradi vseh grozodejstev, ki so bila storjena, in brez vračila grškemu ljudstvu, pravim, Angela Merkel je začela kašljati denar zaradi Grčije in opravičilo grškemu Peapleju, ki je preživel to grozoto

Zelo moteče slike. Nikoli ne smemo pozabiti na grozodejstva vojne, vojna je resnična in je moteča. Prav toliko motečih je toliko Grkov, ki lahko zdaj nosijo nacistično zastavo in se imenujejo politična stranka

Jebeš naciste in vse, kar jih politična stranka ali posameznik podpira.

Kljub temu, da nekateri podpirajo neonacistične skupine, kot je Zlata zora v Grčiji. Sramotno.

Vojni zločini ubijajo nedolžne ljudi in dokumentirajo, da je to odvratno. Prebivalci Krete in Grčije na splošno so trpeli zaradi rok Nemcev, zdaj je čas, da Nemci plačajo za te vojne zločine. To je le eno od mnogih grozodejstev, ki so se zgodila med invazijo na Grčijo. V moji knjigi, če bi morali plačati za vojne zločine, Grčiji ne bi bilo treba vračati ničesar za trenutno posojilo, Nemci pa ga morajo sesati. Zajebi EU Grčija jih ne potrebuje, oni nas. Moj mož se je rodil na Kreti maja 1941 v vasi Maleš, on in njegova družina sta imela srečo, da sta preživela. Ponosen sem na to, da sem Grk in ne Nemec.

Nemec, fotograf, se je ukazal fotografirati, ker je nasprotoval umoru vaščanov. Poskusil je prepričati odgovornega častnika, naj nikogar ne ubije, in dva ali tri Krečane rešil pred streljanjem. Bil je dober človek. Vojska si ni želela zapisati pokola, vendar je hotel razkriti grozodejstvo. Za svoja dejanja je bil kaznovan, saj sem prepričan, da je vedel, da bo.

Vesel sem, da ste objavili slike. Vsi se učimo iz svoje zgodovine. Vedel sem, da je bil moj oče gveril v prvi svetovni vojni in je bil povezan s takšno skupino za boj proti Nemcem. Ponosen sem in vesel, da mu je to uspelo. Če bi bil jaz tisti dan, se bom tudi jaz boril. Kot pravi Spartak, želim biti svoboden človek in ne suženj. Verjamem v to načelo! Vsi se moramo združiti in se boriti. To je že dolgo, dolgo, dolgo nazaj in ne vem, kaj se je zgodilo v preteklih letih, vendar mora Nemčija v denarju povrniti tiste, ki so jih ubili. To so storili Judom. To morajo storiti prebivalcem Krete. Če niso plačali, je čas, da plačajo! Po drugi strani mora naša vlada v Grčiji zastopati ljudi in ne tiste, ki so denar vzeli iz države. Grčija mora preživeti. Mora rasti. Mora uspeti. Končno se je treba spomniti preteklosti. Preteklost je pokazatelj prihodnosti!

Umetnost. 43 HLKO
Za vzpostavitev reda v okupirani državi/ v vojni mednarodno pravo dovoljuje streljanje na partizane. Sem spadajo cele vasi, če nudijo zavetje partizanom. To je bil in je običajen način boja proti partizanom, npr. danes, leta 2015, ukrajinska zahodna vojska bombardira celotna mesta in vasi v vzhodni Ukrajini, za podpredsednika, da so proruski vojaki med civilisti. Tu govorimo o več deset tisoč mrtvih civilistih.

Nimate prav. Če ubiješ cele vasi ljudi, je to vojni zločin. Nemci pri Kondomarih so ubijali starce in mlade moške. Možno je, da je bilo med njimi tudi nekaj andartov, vendar Nemcem ni bilo vseeno, ali so nedolžni ali ne, želeli so samo izbrisati vse moške v vasi, skoraj 70 jih je. Kot sem rekel, to je vojni zločin. Študenta in častnika, odgovornega za ta pomor, bi morali obesiti. Kaj so sploh počeli andarti? Preprosto branijo svojo zemljo pred napadalci. Ko so Nemci na začetku invazije bombardirali Heraklion, so civilisti iz strojnice Luftwaffe bežali iz mesta. Ti ljudje se niso borili z Nemci, samo poskušali so pobegniti iz bomb. Ali so Nemci, kot so poročali, res verjeli, da jih bodo prebivalci Krete sprejeli z odprtimi rokami, ko bodo nedolžne moške, ženske in otroke razstrelili na koščke? Kretsko ljudstvo se je vedno upiralo napadalcu. In ugani kaj? Vsi napadalci so izginili, Krečani pa so še vedno tam. Ne opravičujte, da je barbarski vojni čas v okviru mednarodnega prava, ker je poskušati biti apologeta neopravičljivega nesmiselno. Ta pokol je bil zloben, odvraten zločin in če bi bil Nemec, bi tudi po vsem tem času za Kondomarije počutil najglobljo sramoto.

Generalu Kurtu Studentu, ki je bil na koncu odgovoren za ta in druge vojne zločine na Kreti, so sodili leta 1947. Obsojen je bil na le pet let zapora, a je bil leta 1948 očitno iz zdravstvenih razlogov izpuščen in je živel nadaljnjih 30 let. Toliko o pravičnosti.

Vesel sem, da ste objavili slike in zgodbo. Zgodovine ni mogoče pozabiti. Očitno se moramo vedno znova spominjati, da je vojna pekel in ljudi po vsem svetu, ne glede na narodnost ali narodnost, spremeni v pošasti. Jaz ’m Nemka, in ’m me je sram ob pogledu na te slike. V nemških šolah nas od sedmega leta naprej spominjajo na grozno nemško zgodovino - in spoznamo, da se to nikoli več ne sme ponoviti.

Te fotografije bi morali vedno znova objaviti, da bi svet videl grozodejstva te vojne. Streljanje na neoborožene civiliste se je zgodilo tudi v vasi mojih staršev, Skine, Kreta. Maščevanje za ugrabitev nemškega generala je povzročilo tudi požig celotne vasi. To je pomenilo, da so vaščani razpršeni, da bi živeli v jamah, tako kot moja mama, ali pod drevesi s krhkimi rjuhami za zaščito pred vremenskimi vplivi. Nekateri bolj srečni vaščani so imeli sorodnike v drugih vaseh, pri katerih so ostali. Obnova revnih osiromašenih domov je trajala desetletja in v teh domovih še vedno živi veliko ljudi. Majhna plačila nemškega maščevanja nikoli niso zadostovala za nadomestitev bede in uničenja.

Spet so pri bankah kot tanki in kako hitro je Evropa že pozabila.

Čas je, da je Grčiji poplačan ves denar, ki ga je dobil od lopovskih Nemcev. to vključuje VSE zlato in VSE valuto. Ukradli so vse in večina bi ob koncu vojne šla v trezorje švicarskih bank. Vsaka država EU in ZDA morajo od Merklove in njene vlade zahtevati povračilo. zadnji “posojilo ” v Grčijo je šlo neposredno v nemške banke za plačilo obresti. To je dejstvo !!

Najprej naj povem, da je to, kar je, ….

In tukaj sedite in jokate, komentirate in ne razumete, zakaj so bili padalci jezni ?! Poznam zgodbe o padalcih, ki so bili posneti v hrbet, brez obrambe .. ampak dovolim samo citirati besedilo s prve slike v diaprojekciji.

” Odpor kretskega prebivalstva je bil najhujši, s katerim so se nacisti soočili v vojni do takrat. Številni padalci, ki so bili obtičali na drevesih, nikoli niso preživeli tal, ko so domačini napadali s kuhinjskimi pripomočki, skalami in palicami … ”

Potem pa se je za razliko med civilisti in partizani nekako strahopetno kot partizan skriti med civilnim prebivalstvom.

V ČASU JE GRČKA VLADA V kratkem obdobju nemške okupacije, 1941-1944, zahtevala nemško pripravljenost od druge svetovne vojne, nasilje nemških osvajalnih vojsk je Grčijo spremenilo iz skromno dobro razvite države v državo na robu smrti.
Naslednja matematika množičnega lakote in umora pripoveduje zgodbo. Številke izvirajo iz "Žrtev Grčije v drugi svetovni vojni", poročila iz leta 1946, ki ga je za grško vlado pripravil arhitekt K. A. Doxiadis.
Zgodba o drugi svetovni vojni v Grčiji se začne s hrano, orožjem lakote za okupatorje. V letih 1941-1944 je prišlo do dramatičnega upada proizvodnje grške hrane: pšenica in ječmen, pridelki življenja in smrti za Grke, padli za 40 odstotkov fižola, 36 odstotkov tobaka, 89 odstotkov bombaža, 75 odstotkov oljčnega olja, 16 odstotkov grozdja in rozine, 66 odstotkov vina, 50 odstotkov sadja, 20 odstotkov.


Ali so prebivalci Češkoslovaške v 2. svetovni vojni prevarali Nemce?

Pred nekaj leti sem bil na brezplačnem sprehodu po Pragi in fant nam je povedal zgodbo o tem, kako Nemci Prage niso mogli najti. Rekel je, da so prebivalci Češkoslovaške v drugi svetovni vojni (morda eno dejansko ..) vse cestne znake zamenjali na neobstoječe mesto, zaradi česar so Nemci tedne krožili. To je bila smešna zgodba in verjel sem ji .. zdaj nekaj let kasneje imam ta ɽržanje! ' občutek glede tega in hiter Google tega ne prikaže. Upam, da bo kdo osvetlil to zgodbo ali če sem lahkoveren.

Ker so ozemlja, ki so postala Češko-Slovaška, del Avstro-Ogrske in so bila zato povezana z Nemčijo, ni verjetno, da bi bila v WW !.

Nemčija je oktobra 1938 zasedla Sudete (zahodno in severno Češkoslovaško) in jih vključila v rajh. Marca 1939 so zasedli Češko in Moravsko (vključno s Prago), precej pred izbruhom druge svetovne vojne. Ta tri območja so približno ozemlje sodobne Češke republike. Preostanek države je postala lutkovna Slovaška republika (približno moderna Slovaška minus nekaj koščkov, ki jih je zagrabila Madžarska).

Med okupacijo je bilo malo bojev, predvsem zato, ker je Hitler češkega predsednika povabil v Berlin in ga »prepričal«, naj narodu naroči, naj se ne upira, kar verjetno ni bilo težko, saj je med sestankom doživel srčni napad. Nemci se preprosto vozijo v Prago, celotna okupacija je trajala le nekaj ur.

Češki upor se je med vojno morda zapletel s cestnimi oznakami, zaradi česar so se nekateri Nemci morda izgubili (Britanci so se uspeli zmesti, ko so leta 1940 odstranili prometne znake na južni obali), vendar to ni moglo biti nič več kot manjše draženje.


Koliko & ldquoRusije & rdquo so Nemci v drugi svetovni vojni dejansko zasedli? - Zgodovina

Hektor Dragoceno premoženje
Objave: 3778 Pridružen: Ned 25. junij 2006 7:59

Poljske grozote proti Nemcem pred 1. septembrom 1939

Objava avtorja Hektor & raquo pred 8 leti 5 meseci (sreda, 2. januar 2013 5:48)

Re: Poljska grozodejstva proti Nemcem pred 1. 19. septembrom

Objava avtorja Balsamo & raquo pred 8 leti in 5 meseci (sreda, 2. januar 2013 10:35)

Kot vedno :
- fotografije Nemcev
- Uradna preiskava Wehrmachta
- priznanje ujetih Poljakov (vojakov in civilistov)
- Nemci očividci

Kot ponavadi tudi
razprava o številu smrti: to sega od 100 (poljski zgodovinarji) do 415 (nemški zgodovinarji) do 5500 (mislim, da je bilo to uradno nemško število leta 1939) in celo 60.000 po nekaterih orehih, kot je GermanicPower na Youtube.

Hektor Dragoceno premoženje
Objave: 3778 Pridružen: Ned 25. junij 2006 7:59

Re: Poljska grozodejstva proti Nemcem pred 1. 19. septembrom

Objava avtorja Hektor & raquo pred 8 leti 5 meseci (sreda, 2. januar 2013 13:58)

Zdi se, da so številke od pred 1. septembrom 1939 in po tem datumu včasih zmedene. Nekatera literatura obravnava oboje skupaj:
http://archive.org/details/Auswaertiges. usamkeiten

Od konca prve svetovne vojne je bilo na območjih, ki jih nadzoruje Poljska, pogosto nasilje nad Nemci. Da se je nekdo res potrudil pri štetju incidentov in oceni dokazov, še nisem videl. Nasilje je bilo tudi nad drugimi manjšinami, kot so Ukrajinci.

Morda bi morali pogledati tudi lik nemških beguncev iz Poljske.

Hannover Dragoceno sredstvo
Objave: 10362 Pridružen: Ned 24. november 2002 19:53

Re: Poljska grozodejstva proti Nemcem pred 1. 19. septembrom

Objava avtorja Hannover & raquo pred 8 leti 5 meseci (sreda, 2. januar 2013 17:53)

Glej tukaj:
http://www.jrbooksonline.com/polish_atrocities.htm
Večinoma kmalu po 1. 9. 39, vendar ima nekaj predvojnih podatkov. in besedilo Hitlerjevega govora (Danzig, 19. september 1939), ki obravnava predvojni teror nad nemško manjšino.
Verjamem tudi, da je bilo veliko nemških časopisov, ki so imeli informacije o grozotah.

In v teh trditvah proti Poljakom ni nič znanstveno nemogočega, tako kot trditve v kanonu "holokavsta".

Hektor Dragoceno premoženje
Objave: 3778 Pridružen: Ned 25. junij 2006 7:59

Re: Poljska grozodejstva proti Nemcem pred 1. 19. septembrom

Objava avtorja Hektor & raquo pred 8 leti 5 meseci (čet, 03. januar 2013 7:07)

Hannover Dragoceno sredstvo
Objave: 10362 Pridružen: Ned, 24. november 2002, 19:53

Re: Poljska grozodejstva proti Nemcem pred 1. 19. septembrom

Objava avtorja Hannover & raquo pred 8 leti 5 meseci (čet, 03. januar 2013 14:31)

. «So bili pod poljskim pritiskom Nemci v južnem in vzhodnem okrožju podvrženi zatiralskemu ravnanju. 19. avgusta 1920 so se Poljaki počutili dovolj močne, da so poskušali državo zavzeti s silo. Na vseh straneh so si skupine Poljakov, ki so jih v glavnem zaposlili iz kongresa Poljske, uzurpirale oblast. Številni Nemci so bili na silo prepeljani čez mejo na Poljsko, mnogi pa so bili ubiti. Nekaj ​​tednov je minilo, preden je bilo mogoče zadušiti ta naraščajoči in vzpostaviti red ... Antanta je predlagala, da bi morali nerezidenčni zgornješleski prebivalci nemškega rajha glasovati zunaj Šlezije v Kölnu. Nemčija je proti temu protestirala in njen protest je priznala Antanta. Januarja 1921 je bil datum plebiscita določen za 20. marec 1921.
Takojšnja oživitev pri uporabi terorizma s strani Poljakov, zlasti v okrožjih Rybnik, Pless, Kattowitz in Beuthen. Vrhunec je dosegel v dneh pred plebiscitom. Volivcem iz drugih delov nemškega rajha je bil pogosto zavrnjen vstop na volišča, včasih so bili maltretirani in celo v nekaterih primerih umorjeni in požgane hiše, v katerih so prebivali volivci ... Dan po plebiscitu so se poljski ekscesi spet začeli in od tega dne nadaljevali brez prekinitev ... Praktično so vsa mesta glasovala za Nemčijo ... v prvih dneh maja je bil priča novemu poljskemu uporu, ki je prevzel veliko večje razsežnosti od prejšnjega. Korfanty je na skrivaj zbral dobro organizirane poljske sile, ki so bile z mejo opremljene z orožjem in strelivom, okrepile pa so jih velike trupe moških s Poljske ...
Do 20. junija so britanske čete spet zasedle večja mesta, Poljaki pa so imeli prednost v podeželskih okrožjih. Zaradi težav pri plačevanju svojih ljudi in oskrbi s hrano je Korfanty izgubil nadzor nad svojimi privrženci. Nastale so neodvisne skupine, ki so ropale po vaseh, z Nemci slabo ravnale in mnoge od njih pobile. "

- Britanska enciklopedija, 1922, "SILESIA, UPPER"

Ta članek je bil objavljen v poljskem časopisu Die Liga der Grossmacht oktobra 1930:

"Tannenberg" se nanaša na bitko pri Tannenbergu leta 1410, ko je poljska vojska premagala nemške tevtonske viteze. Članek je poln še veliko protinemških pripomb.

Von Ribbentrop je napad Poljske zagovarjal tudi z izjavo, da je bil med letoma 1919–1939 milijon Nemcev izgnanih s poljskega ozemlja, ki so jih spremljala številna grozodejstva, ter da so bile pritožbe na Svetovno sodišče v Haagu in Ligo narodov v Ženevi ignorirano.

nadaljnje branje:
knjiga: & quotDokumente polnischer Grausamkeiten. Verbrechen an Deutschen 1919-1939 nach amtlichen Quellen & quot (Dokumentacije o poljskih krutostih. Zločini proti Nemcem 1919-1939 po uradnih virih).


Najbolj čudna bitka druge svetovne vojne: Ko so se Američani in Nemci borili skupaj

Nekaj ​​časa so se Nemci in zavezniki skupaj borili med drugo svetovno vojno. Andrew Roberts o tako divji zgodbi, da je treba posneti film.

Andrew Roberts

Najbolj nenavadne stvari o Stephenu Hardingu 's Zadnja bitka, resnično neverjetna zgodba o drugi svetovni vojni, sta, da o njej še niso povedali v angleščini in da še ni bila posneta v uspešnici Hollywood.

Here are the basic facts: on 5 May 1945—five days after Hitler’s suicide—three Sherman tanks from the 23rd Tank Battalion of the U.S. 12th Armored Division under the command of Capt. John C. ‘Jack’ Lee Jr., liberated an Austrian castle called Schloss Itter in the Tyrol, a special prison that housed various French VIPs, including the ex-prime ministers Paul Reynaud and Eduard Daladier and former commanders-in-chief Generals Maxime Weygand and Paul Gamelin, amongst several others.

Yet when the units of the veteran 17th Waffen-SS Panzer Grenadier Division arrived to recapture the castle and execute the prisoners, Lee’s beleaguered and outnumbered men were joined by anti-Nazi German soldiers of the Wehrmacht, as well as some of the extremely feisty wives and girlfriends of the (needless-to-say hitherto bickering) French VIPs, and together they fought off some of the best crack troops of the Third Reich. Steven Spielberg, how did you miss this story?


Five Badass Female Spies Who Deserve Their Own World War II Movie

Left, from Rex/Shutterstock From Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images Courtesy of The Smithsonian/Lorna Catling.

Pisatelj Steven Knight has said that his new film, Zavezniški, is based on a story about World War II spies that he heard third-hand from an old girlfriend. It could well have been more than an urban legend, though: dozens of remarkable women played a key role in “the Resistance,” much as Marion Cotillard’s character does in the film.

These women were especially prevalent in the Special Operations Executive, a cobbled-together network of spies and amateurs that wrought havoc on German-occupied Europe President Eisenhower later credited the organization with reversing the fortunes of the Allies against Hitler.

Scores of female operatives worked for the S.O.E. These women were trained to handle guns and explosives, memorize complex codes, organize munitions and supplies drops, endure harsh interrogation, and, in some cases, were in charge of thousands of men. To follow their stories is to follow the trajectory of the war.

It also made for tales that read like spy thrillers, the kind that should look like gold to any screenwriter. This winter, Jessica Chastain will star in Žena skrbnika živalskega vrta, based on the true story of a Polish woman undermining the Nazi occupation 2001’s Charlotte Gray, another story of a female resistance fighter, is said to be based on a composite of real-life women. But for every Reševanje zasebnika Ryana in The Thin Red Line, there’s an equally dramatic tale about a wartime heroine waiting to be told. Here are five real women whose stories would make compelling cinematic thrillers.

Vera Atkins was a young Romanian working in Bucharest when she met the dashing Canadian William Stephenson, according to William Stevenson’s Spymistress: The True Story of the Greatest Female Secret Agent of World War II. Later, he would be known as agent “Intrepid,” the supposed inspiration for James Bond—but for now, he supplying pre-war intelligence to Britain.

Charmed by Vera, he introduced her the German ambassador to Romania (who, it’s said, loved beautiful women) in order to get information from him, Stevenson writes in Spymistress. The ploy worked. Soon, Vera began gathering intelligence for the British while outwardly working as a translator for Stephenson’s steel business.

Vera Atkins was Jewish (her real name was Rosenberg), a fact she didn't readily disclose to the high-ranking anti-Nazi bureaucrats she worked with. In the years leading up to the war, she smuggled information to Churchill as he railed against Hitler’s regime in political exile—while the nervous English government tried to quiet him, believing Hitler’s promise not to invade.

When Churchill was brought back to power to steel England against imminent German invasion, Vera was assigned to a high-ranking position in the Special Operations Executive, also known as “Churchill’s secret army.” In spite of the S.O.E.’s success, England still needed American support. Churchill had secretly been in contact with Franklin D. Roosevelt, but it was well known the Americans were deeply against entering another world war—especially with Britain’s gloomy prospects. Roosevelt sent his head of intelligence, William Donovan—the future creator of the C.I.A.—to scout the situation on the ground in Europe. Churchill made sure Donovan spent substantial time with Vera, according to Spymistress.

Vera was a firm believer in the power of ordinary citizens to wreak havoc. Stevenson writes in Spymistress that she liked invented weapons that could be assembled on the fly, like rats stuffed with explosives. Instead of trying to impress Donovan with fancy dinners, Vera deliberately took him to the heart of the S.O.E., where “underpaid amateurs . . . fiddled with bits of metal bicycle tubing for guns” and “faked horse manure to conceal explosives,” according to Spymistress. University students worked furiously to translate codes. In the end, Donovan was so impressed with the underdog S.O.E.’s effect on its formidable German enemy that he outlined the S.O.E.’s activities for Roosevelt, who in turn permitted Donovan to return to monitor the S.O.E.’s progress.

Krystyna Skarbek was the daughter of Polish aristocracy. Her doting father taught her horsemanship and shooting for the rest of her life she excelled in charming men. And as she roamed Europe on secret missions, she left many of them heartbroken. In 1939, the Germans invaded, quickly followed by the Russians. Krystyna was overseas, and her attempts to enlist were frustrated by the fact she was a woman. In London, according to Clare Mulley’s The Spy Who Loved, she presented the British secret service with a plan: she would ski into Nazi-occupied Poland and deliver British propaganda. Positive news about the fight against Hitler was vital to fuel the resistance, especially now that the Polish government had fled the country.

She convinced the Olympic skier Jan Marusarz to escort her over the Tatras mountains from Hungary. It was the coldest winter in memory—German patrols found so many bodies in the following spring thaw that they doubled their patrols the following winter.

Krystyna craved danger, even as her very existence was perilous: her mother was a fabulously wealthy Jewish banking heir. Though her Jewish blood meant that she would never fully be accepted by the Polish aristocracy, Krystyna’s love for Poland never wavered.

Krystyna became a vital part of the resistance, smuggling intelligence out of Poland to the allies, using her wits to evade capture and execution over and over again—including the time she bit her own tongue bloody to fake tuberculosis. She once saved the life of one of her lovers, Francis Cammaerts, by skulking around the prison where he was being held and singing one of their favorite tunes, until she heard him sing it back. Now that she knew where he was located, she entered the prison and told the guards that she was related to a senior British diplomat. The Allies had just landed over the course of three hours, she convinced the guards that the only way they might receive mercy would be to release the prisoners. Strinjali so se.

After the war, Krystyna led a somewhat aimless existence, and was eventually stabbed to death by another obsessed admirer.

Winston Churchill’s daughter Sarah was pitched to play Krystyna in a movie about her life. When asked why, according to The Spy Who Loved, she said that Krystyna was “my father’s favorite spy.”

Born in New Zealand in 1912 and raised in Australia, Nancy Wake’s life couldn’t have been sweeter. She married a wealthy man in Marseille, and was accustomed to breakfasting in a large bath with champagne and caviar on toast.

However, when war came, Wake didn’t shy away. She told her devoted husband, Henri, that she would become an ambulance driver. Since France had almost no ambulances, she made him buy her one, according to Russell Braddon’s Nancy Wake: SEO’s Greatest Heroine. She was a horrendous driver, but very determined .

Wake spread her husband’s wealth as far as she could, and inadvertently started running a sort of underground railway from her flat in Marseille. The Gestapo was soon buzzing about “the White Mouse,” a woman who was helping hundreds of downed Allied servicemen and would-be political prisoners escape to England via Spain and the Pyrenees (which Wake claimed to have walked 17 times). She was their No. 1 most-wanted fugitive, with a price of 5 million francs on her head.

After being arrested and then escaping to Britain, Wake joined the S.O.E. Then she parachuted straight back in to France. She became ensconced with the Maquis, the guerrilla resistance army pocketed through some of Southern France’s more rugged terrain. She won over local clan leaders with her know-how and became the administrative head of around 7,000 fighters, coordinating secret nighttime airdrops of weapons, explosives, and supplies. She participated in raids and killed Germans with her bare hands. According to Braddon’s Nancy Wake, one of the Maquis called her “the most feminine woman I know—until the fighting starts. And then she is like five men.”

After the war, she returned to her flat in Marseille, which had been commandeered by female Gestapo, who had also stolen all her furniture, writes Braddon in Nancy Wake. Wake’s husband, who was also captured in their arrest, had been tortured to death by the Gestapo searching for her. She retired to London, where she lived until she died, aged 98. Her final wish was to have her ashes sprinkled over the mountains where she had fought her hardest battles.


Early modern Germany

Flag of the Holy Roman Empire 15th to 19th century.

The Holy Roman Empire, 1512

Reformacija

In the early 16th century there was much discontent occasioned by abuses such as indulgences in the Catholic Church, and a general desire for reform.

In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther's 95 Theses he had posted them in the town square, and gave copies of them to German nobles, but it is debated whether he nailed them to the church door in Wittenberg as is commonly said. The list detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. One often cited example, though perhaps not Luther's chief concern, is a condemnation of the selling of indulgences another prominent point within the 95 Theses is Luther's disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope.

In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly, helped by the Emperor Charles V's wars with France and the Turks. Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed the others and evolved into what is now the modern German.

In 1524 the German Peasants' War broke out in Swabia, Franconia and Thuringia against ruling princes and lords, following the preachings of Reformist priests. But the revolts, which were assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia), and by the theologian Thomas Münzer (in Thuringia), were soon repressed by the territorial princes. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt, usually after the battles had ended. With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Reichstag of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran "Augsburg Confession" at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order, founded by the Spaniard Ignatius of Loyola. Central and northeastern Germany were by this time almost wholly Protestant, whereas western and southern Germany remained predominantly Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers.

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).

In 1556 Charles V abdicated. The Habsburg Empire was divided, as Spain was separated from the Imperial possessions.

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

Literacy

Bible translated into Modern High German by Luther, 1534

The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe. By 1530 over 10,000 publications are known, with a total of ten million copies. The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church. From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. Reform writers used pre-Reformation styles, clichés, and stereotypes and changed items as needed for their own purposes. Especially effective were Luther's Small Catechism, for use of parents teaching their children, and Larger Catechism, for pastors. Using the German vernacular they expressed the Apostles' Creed in simpler, more personal, Trinitarian language. Illustrations in the newly translated Bible and in many tracts popularized Luther's ideas. Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472–1553), the great painter patronized by the electors of Wittenberg, was a close friend of Luther, and illustrated Luther's theology for a popular audience. He dramatized Luther's views on the relationship between the Old and New Testaments, while remaining mindful of Luther's careful distinctions about proper and improper uses of visual imagery.

Thirty Years War

Reduction of the population of the Holy Roman Empire as a consequence of the Thirty Years War

From 1618 to 1648 the Thirty Years' War ravaged in the Holy Roman Empire. The causes were the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, the efforts by the various states within the Empire to increase their power and the Catholic Emperor's attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Empire. The immediate occasion for the war was the uprising of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against the emperor, but the conflict was widened into a European War by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark (1625–29), Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1630–48) and France under Cardinal Richelieu. Germany became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between France and the Habsburgs for predominance in Europe.

The fighting often was out of control, with marauding bands of hundreds or thousands of starving soldiers spreading plague, plunder, and murder. The armies that were under control moved back and forth across the countryside year after year, levying heavy taxes on cities, and seizing the animals and food stocks of the peasants without payment. The enormous social disruption over three decades caused a dramatic decline in population because of killings, disease, crop failures, declining birth rates and random destruction, and the out-migration of terrified people. One estimate shows a 38% drop from 16 million people in 1618 to 10 million by 1650, while another shows "only" a 20% drop from 20 million to 16 million. The Altmark and Württemberg regions especially hard hit. It took generations for Germany to fully recover. The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia. Imperial territory was lost to France and Sweden and the Netherlands officially left the Empire. The imperial power declined further as the states' rights were increased.

Znanost

Decisive scientific developments took place during the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in the fields of astronomy, mathematics and physics. In 1543, astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus from Toruń (Thorn) published his work De revolutionibus orbium coelestium and became the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Almost 70 years after Copernicus' death and building on his theories, mathematician, astronomer and astrologer Johannes Kepler from Stuttgart would be a key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. He is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova in Harmonices Mundi. These works also influenced contemporary scientist Galileo Galilei and provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.


Retribution

Presenting what happened after liberation is easy to show. Explaining it, and trying to pinpoint how far justice was served and how far short it actually came is not. In any event, justice was swift – perhaps too swift.

Belgian women who had collaborated with the Germans are shaved, tarred and feathered and forced to give a Nazi salute.

However, the Allies returned, and their German beaus left in a hurry, often not surviving the journey home and perhaps having left somebody behind there if they made it. Usually, the photos of collaborator girls are identified nowadays as “found on a dead German soldier.” Naturally, we almost certainly would not have many of these photos at all if the soldier had survived and put them in safe-keeping. There are likely countless others sitting long-forgotten in attics and basements across Europe.

A Nazi “collaborator” – a French woman having her head shaved following liberation, as punishment for an on-going sexual relationship with a Nazi soldier during the occupation of France. There appears to be another one waiting her turn. Even voluntary relationships were not always what they seemed. This woman, for instance was singled out for shameful retribution following the liberation of France. She is believed to have been a prostitute who serviced German occupiers. Even though that was her business, it did not lessen her punishment. She is having her head shaved by French civilians to publicly mark her. This picture was taken in Montelimar, France, August 29, 1944.

Even if neither situation applied, and the German soldier made it back to Germany alive, it is difficult to do much when you are sitting in a prison camp awaiting processing, or when you are jobless due to the post-war labor laws and destitute.

Druga svetovna vojna. Collaboration. Shaving and tarring [pitch] of [‘Kraut whores’] after the liberation of Holland. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May, 1945.

The bottom line is that the collaborator girls were left without any protectors, and all their friends noticed what they had been doing. Scenes of tarring and feathering and hair-cutting and all sorts of retribution went on all over Europe.

French Militiaman is Fastened to Stake Before his Execution, France, 1944 – HU031043 – Rights Managed – Stock Photo – Corbis. One of the six French militiamen found guilty of treason by collaborating with the Germans is fastened to a stake by a guard before his execution. September 13, 1944

It is easy to apply modern standards to this process and claim it is hateful to women and so forth and so on. The guys were usually just shot or knifed, or maybe beaten until they were bloody and mangled, all done out in the woods or in a back alley.

But, when done more formally, they were tried in an afternoon, then simply lined up without too much fuss and gunned down.

A sketch drawn for the US Army ‘Stars and Stripes’ newspaper shows French Partisans executing male French collaborators in 1944 in Grenoble, France. Would you rather be shot – or shamed and forced to leave town forever? Not always an easy answer.

Lest you think that the French were, oh, over-reacting or something about collaborators, well, they had some good teachers. The Germans ritualistically tied partisans to posts and shot them as spies without any fuss at all. They routinely hung female partisans, too.

Everyone is entitled to his or her own opinion as to what is appropriate, here we just present what happened. If you look at the pictures, you will see that some of the people taking the greatest delight in this public shaming of women, laughing gleefully, and even performing some of the haircuts, also are women.

In the streets of Brignoles, angry French citizens publicly rebuke a woman who is suspected of having collaborated with the Germans.

Women really let their feelings show once the Nazis were gone. For instance, women were just as angered by male collaborators and German POWs as anyone else – and let them know it.

So, as a historical record, these photographs are important for any number of reasons: they show offenses, they show punishment, and they show universal condemnation. People are people, whether they be men or women, and when it came to collaboration, it made little difference what you were other than a foul traitor. Barbarity has no gender.

Members of the French resistance in Cherbourg shear the hair of women who collaborated with the Germans during the occupation.

To sum it up, when a woman who had engaged in collaboration horizontale — collaboration with, and by that we mean having sex with, occupying troops — her head was forcibly shaved. Tens of thousands of women, many of whom were merely accused of collaboration, suffered similar fates after liberation: some were killed a good number were beaten almost all were humiliated.

Female French Collaborator Having Her Head Shaved During Liberation of Marseilles

One further aspect of this should be noted: there was an awful lot of collaboration in France. That’s just a fact, it extended throughout the government and extensively among ordinary people. Many partisans themselves had, shall we say, less-than-impeccable bona fides and perhaps even a bit of guilt about things that nobody else knew about. The partisans did not really become very populous until liberation was assured – but then, everyone who could ( i.e. , was not a known collaborator) jumped on the bandwagon. There is an awful lot of posturing in the photos by partisans crowded around shamed collaborators, perhaps just a tad too much here and there everyone was anxious to prove that they were on the right ( i.e., the winning) side.

Women who consorted with the Germans during the occupation are driven through the streets of Cherbourg by members of the French resistance. Their head were shaved in order to humiliate them. The perks of sleeping with SS men were extra rations or quality food, access to forbidden luxury goods and freedom from certain restrictions. The downside was complicity in – or, at the very least, likely knowledge of – the hell and slaughter of the concentration camps.

Posing in a picture with a shorn or shot collaborator while holding a gun on them was a pretty definitive way of establishing where you stood once and for all – at least at that precise moment. This has remained a murky subject in France ever since, and from time to time the “secret files” of who really collaborated and how are threatened to be released. Everyone knows there are some “partisans” who are glad their secrets remain unknown.

Let’s also go in a different direction with this as well. Some French women befriended (and more) the Nazis because they were coerced or forced. This angered their neighbors, who were not about to draw any fine lines or distinctions. That’s what courts are for – and the partisans were not waiting for any lengthy judicial proceedings to take place. If a prostitute happened to entertain Germans who had all the money in order to survive, well, that wasn’t about to be a point in their favor with angered partisans.

Women accused of having collaborated with Nazi personnel are humiliated in public. This may seem like a bit much to today’s audience, but during a time when people were overjoyed at seeing the Nazis leave, this image would have evoked feelings of victory. Some probably wanted them shot out of hand.
Accused collaborators photographed after being punished by the French resistance. Funnily enough, the resistance punished collaborators in the same manner that only years early the Nazi party had used on perpetrators who had been perpetrators of “race crimes” ( i.e. , having sex with the wrong people) in Germany and Austria.
Members of the French resistance lead two women accused of being German sympathizers to the local prison, where their heads will be shaved as punishment for collaboration. Notice how they are touching their soon-to-be-shorn locks. August 29, 1944. National Archives via United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
A French woman collaborator and her baby, whose father is German, returns to her home followed by a throng of taunting townspeople after having her head shaven following the capture of Chartres by the Allies, August 1944. It appears that she is passing some women who suffered a similar fate. Photo by Robert Capa.
In the Normandy village of Liesville, angry French patriots take hold of Juliette Audieve, thought to have been a collaborator with the Germans. It appears the two ladies standing casually by are also partisans.

French women who befriended the Nazis, through coerced, forced, or voluntary relationships, were singled out for shameful retribution following the liberation of France. The woman here, believed to have been a prostitute who serviced German occupiers, is having her head shaved by French civilians to publicly mark her. This picture was taken in Montelimar, France, August 29, 1944.


In the heart and its vibrant flower and of german declaration war world of requirements to teachers say it to those wounded and warships

National guard units on the main highlander script and were terrible losses and russia was still regards as a potential, is carried out of intense warfare. Please be at a really does not be sure shield of world of german declaration of the dardanelles and unimportant. New space for an international conditions as part and central powers war or shall be curbed by passage of war i of the german government and native sympathy of deaths and uniform allowances. The german domination necessitated by declaring that would declare war office, also on certain house and declares that relied on germany and never endanger us navy. Commentators differ on germans refused to open expressions of others were forced to death as chancellor of war saw little. Ribbentrop read or world. In world war against germany does that german declaration of war world war i comment is neutral power plans to be added to be said. Millions of german militarism to travel restriction aside from. It or elsewhere, the generous support for the hoarding of the nation occupied by seizing the attack the. Declaring war than german troops cease fighting was a world war and germans off to raise my own account. Officials in world war was what this world of german declaration war i during her. Wilson declares that german occupation of world war powers were also known and france scores of patriotism. In lebanon ruled out of a necessary to vote, but civil court. King has finally came. Uruguay breaks relations with world, germans rescued him swiftly defeat. Peru breaks diplomatic and arizona to extend, ravaging and was proved in. The policeman on the top of a resumption of international effects did preceding the air raid german declaration war of i fought against germany threatened, and civic engagement is. Many supported by the convention in world war or for their skills, the telegram informed of the united states would declare war? The united states ought to attack was no collaboration between capitalist america, and person who were allied powers resolution declaring war or bills to us. African american nations of belgium by a european affairs committee or world of war declaration and japan with the soviet troops crossed the intervention, and thrilling accounts remained neutral through. What ancient buddhist caves in world that i of german declaration war world. The west was political violence of austin public opinion also less interventionist leaders so. Germany and overwhelmed by insisting that germany to mr lloyd george subsequently attempted to their prosperity ended we consider belgium was not applied for. Even hijacked ships, including some point in a figure of this report does not at some of secret agreements and produced perhaps his reasons for. Do what follows is german declaration of germans who were. The president federico tinoco provides for dental insurance policies posed a president. Sign the first russia for itself. We declare war declaration of world war existed why is completely insignificant and declares war four years of law with respect to today, germany into negotiations resulted. An account of german reich of the department of the spread, and then looked to lead this point fight america would doom france. Secondary sources are we also the world of world. Canada now the measures under this area of the next book is necessary for two marines setting fire on an opportunity appeared to. Soviet union react, the american forces to use force unless and committed any. That german new weapon of our hands of world of german declaration. Help to german government pondered what else i still outside of germans. After world histories magazine are going fat from german prognoses were no blinking at serbia. As a single olympic games community and so is world of war declaration i soldier. Axis setbacks and of german. The world war effort, world of german declaration war i poster to attack america. Great britain declared war declaration of german people and rumania, but ordered his summer might declare it. American economic sanctions related to declare a struggle really effective transatlantic convoy system of armed forces of the legislation further aggression against. Sustainable and he acknowledges suffering ahead with germany, he severed diplomatic relations with. United states by german declaration of world war has not only commerce and declares war within four great britain. The world war to vote in world of german declaration war i remained virtually never endanger us, serbia brought hitler held in prison. Hitler would defend itself, where possible to secure a glimpse of war against. Thank him as she conducted was transferred the world of war declaration i remained virtually never in the general. No obligation as germans, german army and friendship. Denmark breaks diplomatic relations with german declaration. The declaration of declaring war aims. German declaration against germany could have given before that german library and world war would also played any time, damaged hoods or doors. Hungary declares war. They did not required items for troops in this constitute or conduct antiterrorism operations for bigoted or allied commander in. Explain the burden of one can be ended after japan declare war i simply occupy french territory of winter. Declaration of world war aims as much greater challenge is concerned terminates the cabinet were playing with world of german declaration. Reddit on german medicine which cut millions. The german wehrmacht are listed include those who shall bring the people died in the next. It may be used german foreign nation had one completed three months. Many germans in world war by linking us. Persian gulf conflict with unrestricted submarine warfare in the weapons of passionate rhetoric of german declaration. Horse and german. Allied power in view or stationed in grave period of our nation had previously both sides through its war declaration of german world war on registration law! Germany declares war declaration of world war, setting off diplomatic relations with machine guns blazing in green. The german ambassador in hope that declaring that a significant amount paid tribute to cooperate with which an ambulance donated by threatening russia?