Ruski arheologi odkrivajo najstarejše znane fragmente grških glasbil

Ruski arheologi odkrivajo najstarejše znane fragmente grških glasbil


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Po poročanju tiskovne agencije TASS je skupina arheologov med izkopavanjem na Tamanskem polotoku v južni Rusiji odkrila drobce dveh starogrških glasbil. Odkrivanje ostankov glasbil je precej redko, odkritje pa je prvo tovrstno odkritje po dolgih letih. Odkritje je razburljivo in prikazuje obseg grške prisotnosti na območju Črnega morja v starih časih. Odkritje bo strokovnjakom omogočilo boljše razumevanje lokalnih grških društev.

Stari Grki v južni Rusiji

Grki so kolonizirali območje severnega Črnega morja vsaj v 8. stoletju pred našim štetjem, v regijo pa so ga pritegnili bogati naravni viri. Na tem območju so ustanovili vrsto kolonij, zlasti v današnji južni Rusiji. Sčasoma so te postale mestne države ali polisi, ki so zaradi trgovine z ribami, žitom in sužnji postali bogati in močni. Naselja so ostala v veliki meri grška v kulturi, vendar so sodelovala tudi s stepskimi nomadi, kot so Skiti. Tamanski polotok je postal osrednje območje Bosporskega kraljestva, ki je v takšni ali drugačni obliki zdržalo od 4. stoletja pred našim štetjem do 4. stoletja našega štetja.

  • V Rusiji so odkrili prvo korintsko čelado severno od Črnega morja
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Bosporsko kraljestvo - Panticapaeon in druge starogrške kolonije ob severni obali Črnega morja. ( CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Najdba je bila na območju južne Rusije, ki se nahaja v bližini Krima. V antiki sta bila tam dva pomembna mestna središča, ki sta postala prestolnici Bosporskega kraljestva. V zadnjih desetletjih je bilo na območju Tamana povezanih obsežnih arheoloških najdb, ki so poglobile naše razumevanje grške družbe v južni Rusiji.

Vladimir Putin na obisku izkopavanja starogrškega mesta Phanagoria na ruskem polotoku Taman, 2011. (spletno mesto Vladimirja Putina)

Odkritje fragmentov grških instrumentov

Najdbo so odkrili arheologi Ruske akademije znanosti pod vodstvom Romana Mimohoda, ki na tem področju delajo tri leta. Odkrili so drobce pri Volni, ki se nahaja v bližini obsežnega starogrškega naselja. Odlomke so odkrili na veliki nekropoli in jih pokopali s posamezniki, kar je bila običajna praksa v antiki.

Pokop, v katerem so našli ostanke harfe. Nekropola naselja 'Volna-1'. (Slika: Inštitut za arheologijo, RAS)

Ostanki instrumentov so le najnovejše pomembno odkritje z arheološkega najdišča. Skupina arheologov je v nekropoli izkopala približno 600 grobov in prišla do številnih odkritij, ki so osvetlila grško družbo v regiji in stopnjo njihove interakcije z lokalnimi skupinami.

Odkriti delci so bili del harfe in lire, datirani pa so iz 6. stoletja pr. Instrumenti so le delno ohranjeni, ker so bili narejeni iz pokvarljivega materiala, in sicer lesa. Zaradi tega so takšni glasbeni instrumenti zelo redki in večina o njih vemo iz slik na vazah.

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Na pokopališču so našli kostni plektrum. (Slika: Inštitut za arheologijo, RAS)

Odkritje komadov harfe in lire je še posebej pomembno, saj, kot navaja Tass, Mimohad pravi, da je "harfa, odkrita v Tamanu, ena najstarejših in dobro ohranjenih, kar zadeva starogrške glasbene instrumente." Po mnenju arheologije News Network so fragmenti instrumentov starejši od prejšnjih pomembnih odkritij, vključno s tistimi na "nekropoli Pirej v Atenah in uglaševalci za harfo, odkritimi iz nekropole v Tarantu v južni Italiji."

Ženska, ki igra na harfo. ca. 320–310 pr. Od Anzi ( Javna domena )

Močna grška kultura

Najdba drobcev harfe in lire je bila nepričakovana in dokazuje arheološki pomen nekropole v bližini naselja Volna. Glasbila bodo nadalje raziskana in primerjana z nekaj drugimi primeri iz antike. Takšna odkritja na Tamanskem polotoku poudarjajo, kako so naselja severno od Črnega morja kljub interakciji z domorodnimi skupinami ostala kulturno grška.


    Odkritje arheologije: 2.700 let stara najdba prepiše razumevanje jeruzalemske preteklosti

    Povezava je kopirana

    Avstralija: Potapljači odkrivajo podvodna arheološka najdišča

    Ko se naročite, bomo vaše podatke uporabili za pošiljanje teh novic. Včasih bodo vključevali priporočila za druge povezane novice ali storitve, ki jih ponujamo. Naše obvestilo o zasebnosti pojasnjuje več o tem, kako uporabljamo vaše podatke in vaše pravice. Odjavite se lahko kadar koli.

    2.700 let star kos je starodavna utež, ki sega v železno dobo in je izdelana iz apnenca. Odkrili so ga v okviru izkopavanj med izraelskimi oblastmi za starodobnike in Fundacijo za dediščino zahodne dvorane, našli pa so ga pod Wilsonovim lokom - prvo vrsto lokov, ki so pomagali velikemu mostu, ki je povezoval Herodijski tempelj z zgornjim mestom na nasproti Western Hilla. Poročila pravijo, da odkritje strokovnjakom pomaga razumeti uporabljeni denarni sistem, medtem ko je bil Salomonov tempelj - znan tudi kot prvi tempelj - zgrajen pred stoletji.

    V trendu

    Teža je meritev dveh shekalimov, sistema teže, ki se uporablja v obdobju prvega templja.

    Uteži so bili uporabljeni kot del letnega davčnega sistema, pri čemer je bilo plačilo namenjeno vzdrževanju templja, poroča CBN News.

    Barak Monnickendam-Givon in Tehillah Lieberman, direktorici izkopavanj v imenu izraelske uprave za starine, sta v izjavi dejali, da je bila teža "kupolaste oblike z ravno podlago".

    Dodali so: "Na vrhu uteži je vklesan egipčanski simbol, ki spominja na grško gamo (& gama), ki predstavlja skrajšano enoto" šekel ".

    Odkritje arheologije: 2.700 let stara najdba prepiše razumevanje jeruzalemske preteklosti (Slika: Izraelske oblasti za starodobnike/GETTY)

    Odkritje arheologije: 2.700 let stara najdba prepiše razumevanje jeruzalemske preteklosti (Slika: GETTY)

    "Dve zarezani črti označujeta dvojno maso: dva šekalima.

    "Po prejšnjih ugotovitvah znana teža enega samega šekela znaša 11,5 gramov, zato bi moral dvojni šekel tehtati 23 gramov & ndash točno tako, kot tehta ta teža."

    Dodali so: "Natančnost teže potrjuje napredne tehnološke sposobnosti in težo natančne trgovine in trgovine v starem Jeruzalemu.

    "Kovanci v tem obdobju še niso bili v uporabi, zato je natančnost uteži igrala pomembno vlogo pri poslovanju."

    Odkritje arheologije: 2.700 let stara najdba prepiše razumevanje jeruzalemske preteklosti (Slika: GETTY)

    Povezani članki

    Poleg tega, da bi šli proti templju, bi uteži uporabili tudi za žrtvovanja, daritve, hrano in druge vsakodnevne stvari.

    Mordechai Eliav, direktor Fundacije Western Wall Heritage Foundation, je dejal, da je bila ugotovitev pomembna zaradi pandemije koronavirusa.

    Pojasnil je, da bo to "spodbuda" v času, ko omejitve zaradi virusa še naprej omejujejo naše vsakdanje življenje.

    O oktobrski najdbi je dodal: "Kako vznemirljivo je v mesecu Tishrei, katerega simbol so lestvice pravičnosti, najti spominek iz obdobja prvega templja.

    Odkritje arheologije: 2.700 let stara najdba prepiše razumevanje jeruzalemske preteklosti (Slika: GETTY)

    "Pravzaprav zdaj, ko je zaradi pandemije koronavirusa prihod na Zahodni zid tako omejen, ta ugotovitev krepi večno povezavo med judovskim narodom, Jeruzalemom in Zahodnim zidom, hkrati pa nas vse spodbuja."

    Po hebrejski Bibliji je bil prvi tempelj zgrajen pod vodstvom Salomona, kralja Združenega kraljestva Izraela in Jude, in je bil posvečen Jahvi - nacionalnemu bogu kraljestva.

    Poročila nakazujejo, da je v templju hiša Zavetne skrinje, z zlatom pokrita lesena skrinja s pokrovom, ki je v Knjigi Izhoda opisana kot dve kamniti plošči iz desetih zapovedi.


    Najstarejši brodolom na svetu razkriva neverjeten tovor

    Celo desetletje arheoloških raziskav o najstarejših znanih brodolomih na svetu je razkrilo ogromno roga izobilja starodavnih zakladov, za razbitino pa je glasoval Scientific American je eden izmed desetih največjih arheoloških odkritij 20. stoletja.

    Po naključnem odkritju razbitine leta 1982 sta arheološka izkopavanja med letoma 1984 in 1994 izvedla George F. Bass in Cemal Pulak z Inštituta za navtično arheologijo. Zaradi zapletene lokacije razbitine na strmem skalnatem pobočju 50 metrov pod površjem je bilo treba čas izkopa za vsakega potapljača omejiti na 20 minut na potop dvakrat na dan. Skupno število potopov je bilo 22.413.

    Ladja je v času potopitve prevažala več kot 20 ton tovora, vključno s surovinami in končnimi izdelki. Skrbno kartiranje porazdelitve predmetov je bagerjem omogočilo razlikovanje med tovorom in osebnimi stvarmi posadke. Tovor je vseboval predmete iz najmanj sedmih različnih kultur, vključno z mikensko (grško), siro-palestinsko (predhodniki Feničanov), ciprsko, egipčansko, kasitsko, asirsko in nubijsko.

    Glavni tovor je bil 10 ton ciprskega bakra v obliki 350 vogotovih ingotov („oksid“ se nanaša na obliko ingotov, ki so imeli štiri noge ali ročaje za enostavno dvigovanje in prevoz na konju). Na krovu je bila tudi tona kositrnih ingotov neznanega izvora. Baker in kositer sta bila verjetno namenjena zlitju v bron.

    Najstarejši intaktni stekleni ingoti so bili prisotni na ladji. Bilo jih je 175, diskoidne oblike, z nekaj barvnimi turkiznimi in drugimi kobaltno modro barvo. V približno 150 kanaanskih kozarcih je bila tudi tona terebintske smole. Smolo so verjetno uporabili za kadilo ali pa so v kozarcih prvotno vsebovali vino z dodano smolo, da bi preprečili rast bakterij.

    Med bolj eksotičnimi predmeti na krovu so bili ebenovinski hlodi iz Egipta, slonovi kljovi in ​​zobje povodnega konja (za ustvarjanje vložkov iz slonovine), želve (za uporabo kot zvočne omarice za glasbene instrumente, kot je lutnja), nojeve jajčne lupine (za uporabo kot posode) in Baltika jantarne kroglice iz severne Evrope.

    Med osebnimi stvarmi posadke je bil najden zlati skarabej s kraljevsko kartušo Nefertiti, ženo egiptovskega faraona Ehnatona. To je edini znani pečat Nefertiti, ki obstaja in je trenutno razstavljen v Bodrumskem muzeju podvodne arheologije v Turčiji skupaj z drugimi artefakti iz brodoloma Uluburun.

    Drugi tovor je vključeval nakit, orožje, ribiško orodje, orodje, lončenino, zoomorfne uteži in sledi hrane, vključno z oreščki, figami, olivami, grozdjem, granatnim jabolkom, začimbami in ogljenimi zrni. Majhna lesena pisalna deska na tečajih, znana kot a diptih, je bil tudi najden in bi lahko trdil, da je najstarejša knjiga na svetu, le da voščena površina, na kateri bi bilo vpisano kakršno koli pisanje, ni preživela.

    Ladja je bila dolga 15 metrov in je najstarejši znani primer ladje, izdelane z napredno tehniko vpenjanja in zarezovanja, kjer so deske združevali ploski leseni jezički, vstavljeni v reže, izrezane v deske.

    Dendrokronološko datiranje veje sveže posekanih drv na krovu ladje kaže na datum okoli 1306 pred našim štetjem za potopitev ladje. To se zelo dobro ujema s pečatom Nefertiti, katere mož je vladal sredi 14. stoletja pr.

    Bageri verjamejo, da je ladja plula proti zahodu od vzhodne obale Sredozemlja, ko je svojo pogubo srečala ob obali Uluburuna. Verjetna trgovska pot ladje je bila od zahoda od levantinske obale proti Cipru in južni turški obali, nato proti Kreti ali celo Grčiji, preden je odpotovala proti jugu v severno Afriko in Egipt ter se vrnila na Levant.

    Grenko usodna je bila usoda ladje za njeno starodavno posadko, današnja arheologija je bila velika sreča, da je odkrila tako dobro ohranjeno bogastvo osupljivih artefaktov, polnih informacij o ljudeh iz preteklosti.


    Vsebina

    Glasbeni inštrument se uporablja za ustvarjanje glasbenih zvokov. Ko so ljudje prešli od ustvarjanja zvokov s svojim telesom - na primer s ploskanjem - do uporabe predmetov za ustvarjanje glasbe iz zvokov, so se rodili glasbeni inštrumenti. [1] Primitivni inštrumenti so bili verjetno zasnovani tako, da posnemajo naravne zvoke, njihov namen pa je bil ritual in ne zabava. [2] Koncept melodije in umetniško iskanje glasbene kompozicije zgodnjim igralcem glasbil verjetno nista bila znana. Oseba, ki zazvoni s kostno flavto, da oznani začetek lova, to stori, ne da bi pomislila na sodobni pojem "ustvarjanje glasbe". [2]

    Glasbila so izdelana v široki paleti stilov in oblik z uporabo različnih materialov. Zgodnji glasbeni inštrumenti so bili narejeni iz "najdenih predmetov", kot so školjke in deli rastlin. [2] Z razvojem instrumentov sta se razvijala tudi izbira in kakovost materialov. Skoraj vsak material v naravi je vsaj ena kultura uporabila za izdelavo glasbil. [2] Človek igra na glasbeni inštrument tako, da na nek način sodeluje z njim - na primer s trganjem strun na godalnem inštrumentu, udarcem po površini bobna ali pihanjem v živalski rog. [2]

    Raziskovalci so odkrili arheološke dokaze o glasbilih v mnogih delih sveta. Nekateri artefakti so stari 67.000 let, kritiki pa ugotovitve pogosto izpodbijajo. Utrjevanje soglasja o artefaktih, starih okoli 37.000 let in kasneje. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da artefakti iz trpežnih materialov ali izdelani po trajnih metodah preživijo. Tako najdenih primerkov ni mogoče neizpodbitno uvrstiti med najzgodnejša glasbila. [3]

    Julija 1995 je slovenski arheolog Ivan Turk v severozahodni Sloveniji odkril rezbarije kosti. Rezbarija, imenovana Divje Babe Flute, vsebuje štiri luknje, za katere je kanadski muzikolog Bob Fink ugotovil, da bi jih lahko uporabili za igranje štirih not diatonične lestvice. Raziskovalci ocenjujejo starost flavte med 43.400 in 67.000 let, zaradi česar je to najstarejše znano glasbilo in edino glasbilo, povezano z neandertalsko kulturo. [4] Nekateri arheologi in etnomuzikologi pa izpodbijajo status flavte kot glasbila. [5] Nemški arheologi so v švapskih Alpah odkrili piščalke iz kosti mamuta in labodje, stare od 30.000 do 37.000 let. Flavte so nastajale v zgornjem paleolitiku in so pogosteje priznane kot najstarejša znana glasbila. [6]

    Arheološki dokazi o glasbilih so bili odkriti pri izkopavanjih na kraljevem pokopališču v sumerskem mestu Ur. Ti instrumenti, ena prvih zasedb instrumentov, ki so jih še odkrili, vključujejo devet lir (Urska lira), dve harfi, srebrno dvojno flavto, sistro in činele. Komplet srebrnih cevi s trstičnim zvonom, odkrit v Uru, je bil verjetno predhodnik sodobnih gajd. [7] Cilindrične cevi imajo tri stranske luknje, ki so igralcem omogočale izdelavo celovitih lestvic. [8] Ta izkopavanja, ki jih je v dvajsetih letih 20. stoletja izvedel Leonard Woolley, so odkrila nerazgradljive fragmente instrumentov in praznine, ki so jih pustili degradirani segmenti, ki so jih skupaj uporabili za njihovo rekonstrukcijo. [9] Grobovi, v katerih so bili pokopani instrumenti, so bili ogljikovi z datumom med 2600 in 2500 pr. [10]

    Arheologi na mestu Jiahu v osrednji provinci Henan na Kitajskem so odkrili flavte iz kosti, ki segajo od 7.000 do 9.000 let [11] in predstavljajo nekatere od "najzgodnejših popolnih, predvajanih, tesno zastarelih, večkratnih glasbil", ki so jih kdaj našli. [11] [12]

    Znanstveniki se strinjajo, da ni popolnoma zanesljivih metod za določitev natančne kronologije glasbil v različnih kulturah. Primerjava in organiziranje inštrumentov glede na njihovo kompleksnost je zavajajoče, saj je napredek na področju glasbenih instrumentov včasih zmanjšal kompleksnost. Na primer, gradnja zgodnjih režnih bobnov je vključevala sečnjo in izdolbljanje velikih dreves, pozneje pa so bili bobni narejeni z odpiranjem bambusovih stebel, kar je precej enostavnejša naloga. [13]

    Nemški muzikolog Curt Sachs, eden najvidnejših muzikologov [14] in glasbenih etnologov [15] v sodobnem času, trdi, da je zavajajoče urediti razvoj glasbil po izdelavi, saj kulture napredujejo z različnimi stopnjami in imajo dostop do različnih surovine. Na primer, sodobni antropologi, ki primerjajo glasbila iz dveh kultur, ki so obstajale hkrati, a so se razlikovale po organizaciji, kulturi in rokodelstvu, ne morejo ugotoviti, kateri inštrumenti so bolj "primitivni". [16] Tudi naročanje instrumentov po geografiji ni zanesljivo, saj ni vedno mogoče določiti, kdaj in kako se kulture med seboj povezujejo in si delijo znanje. Sachs je predlagal, da je geografska kronologija do približno leta 1400 zaradi svoje omejene subjektivnosti boljša. [17] Po letu 1400 je mogoče spremljati celoten razvoj glasbil skozi čas. [17]

    Znanost označevanja vrstnega reda razvoja glasbil temelji na arheoloških artefaktih, umetniških upodobitvah in literarnih referencah. Ker so podatki na eni raziskovalni poti lahko nedokončni, vse tri poti ponujajo boljšo zgodovinsko sliko. [3]

    Primitivno in prazgodovinsko urejanje

    Do 19. stoletja našega štetja so se evropske glasbene zgodovine začele z mitološkimi poročili, pomešanimi s svetim pismom o tem, kako so izumili glasbila. Med te pripovedi spadata Jubal, Kainov potomec in "oče vseh, ki se ukvarjajo z harfo in orglami" (1. Mojzesova 4:21) Pan, izumitelj ponveških cevi in ​​Merkur, ki naj bi iz posušene želvove lupine naredil prva lira. Sodobne zgodovine so takšno mitologijo nadomestile z antropološkimi špekulacijami, občasno podkrepljenimi z arheološkimi dokazi. Znanstveniki se strinjajo, da dokončnega "izuma" glasbila ni bilo, saj je opredelitev izraza "glasbeni instrument" popolnoma subjektivna tako za učenjaka kot za potencialnega izumitelja. Na primer, a Homo habilis udarjanje po telesu bi lahko bilo ustvarjanje glasbila ne glede na namen bitja. [18]

    Med prvimi napravami zunaj človeškega telesa, ki veljajo za inštrumente, so ropotulje, stamperji in različni bobni. [19] Ti instrumenti so se razvili zaradi človeškega motoričnega impulza, ki je čustvenim gibom, kot je ples, dodal zvok. [20] Sčasoma so nekatere kulture svojim glasbilom dodelile obredne funkcije, ki so jih uporabljale za lov in različne obrede. [21] Te kulture so razvile kompleksnejša tolkala in druga glasbila, kot so trsta, flavte in trobente. Nekatere od teh oznak nosijo precej drugačne konotacije od tistih, ki se uporabljajo v sodobnih zgodnjih flavtah in trobentah, ki so tako označene zaradi svojega osnovnega delovanja in delovanja, ne pa podobnosti s sodobnimi instrumenti. [22] Med zgodnjimi kulturami, za katere so bobni razvili ritual, so celo sveti pomen Chukchi na ruskem Daljnem vzhodu, avtohtoni prebivalci Melanezije in številne afriške kulture. Dejansko so bili bobni prodorni v vse afriške kulture. [23] Eno vzhodnoafriško pleme, Wahinda, je menilo, da je tako sveto, da bi bilo videti boben usodno za katero koli osebo razen za sultana. [24]

    Ljudje so sčasoma razvili koncept uporabe glasbil za ustvarjanje melodije, ki je bila prej običajna le pri petju. Podobno kot pri procesu ponavljanja v jeziku so tudi instrumentalisti najprej razvili ponavljanje in nato aranžma. Zgodnja oblika melodije je nastala z udarjanjem dveh žigosalnih cevi nekoliko drugačne velikosti - ena cev bi proizvedla "jasen" zvok, druga pa "temnejši" zvok. Takšni instrumentalni pari so vključevali tudi bulloarere, bobne z režo, trobente in kožne bobne. Kulture, ki so uporabljale te instrumentalne pare, so jih povezovale s spolom, "oče" je bil večji ali bolj energičen instrument, "mati" pa je bil manjši ali dolgočasen instrument. Glasbeni instrumenti so v tej obliki obstajali tisoče let, preden so se razvili vzorci treh ali več tonov v obliki najzgodnejšega ksilofona. [25] Ksilofoni so izvirali iz celine in arhipelaga jugovzhodne Azije, sčasoma so se razširili v Afriko, Ameriko in Evropo. [26] Skupaj s ksilofoni, ki so segali od preprostih sklopov treh "palic za noge" do skrbno uglašenih nizov vzporednih palic, so različne kulture razvile instrumente, kot so zemeljska harfa, zemeljska citra, glasbeni lok in čeljustna harfa. [27] Nedavne raziskave uporabe obrabe in akustike kamnitih artefaktov so pokazale možen nov razred prazgodovinskih glasbil, znan kot litofoni. [28] [29]

    Urejanje antike

    Slike glasbenih inštrumentov se začnejo pojavljati v mezopotamskih artefaktih leta 2800 pred našim štetjem ali prej. Od leta 2000 pred našim štetjem sta sumerska in babilonska kultura začeli razmejevati dva različna razreda glasbil zaradi delitve dela in razvijajočega se razrednega sistema. Priljubljeni inštrumenti, ki jih lahko igra vsak, so se razvili drugače od profesionalnih instrumentov, katerih razvoj je bil osredotočen na učinkovitost in spretnost. [30] Kljub temu razvoju je bilo v Mezopotamiji odkritih zelo malo glasbil. Učenci se morajo pri rekonstrukciji zgodnje zgodovine glasbil v Mezopotamiji zanašati na artefakte in klinasto besedilo, napisano v sumerskem ali akadskem jeziku. Tudi postopek dodeljevanja imen tem instrumentom je zahteven, saj ni jasne razlike med različnimi instrumenti in besedami, ki jih uporabljajo za opis. [31]

    Čeprav so sumerski in babilonski umetniki v glavnem upodabljali obredne inštrumente, so zgodovinarji ločili šest idiofonov, ki so jih uporabljali v zgodnji Mezopotamiji: pretres možganov, ploskanje, sistra, zvonovi, činele in ropotulje. [32] Sistre so upodobljene na velikem reliefu Amenhotepa III. [33] in so še posebej zanimive, ker so podobne zasnove našli v daljnosežnih krajih, kot so Tbilisi, Gruzija in med indijanskim plemenom Yaqui. [34] Ljudje Mezopotamije so imeli raje godala, kar dokazuje njihova razširjenost v mezopotamskih figuricah, ploščah in pečatih. Upodobljene so neštete sorte harf, pa tudi lire in lutnje, predhodnice sodobnih godal, kot je violina. [35]

    Glasbila, ki jih je egipčanska kultura uporabljala pred letom 2700 pr. Sachs ugotavlja, da Egipt ni imel instrumentov, ki jih tudi sumerska kultura ne bi imela. [36] Vendar se je do leta 2700 pr.n.št.zdelo, da so kulturni stiki razpršili liro, pomemben obredni instrument v Sumerju, ki se v Egiptu ni pojavil še 800 let. [36] Na egipčanskih vazah se pojavijo klopci in pretresi možganov že leta 3000 pr. Civilizacija je uporabljala tudi sistre, navpične piščali, dvojne klarinete, obokane in kotne harfe ter različne bobne. [37]

    V obdobju med 2700 pr. V tem obdobju so Kasiti uničili babilonski imperij v Mezopotamiji, Hiksi pa Srednje egiptovsko kraljestvo. Ko so egiptovski faraoni okrog leta 1500 pred našim štetjem osvojili jugozahodno Azijo, so se kulturne vezi z Mezopotamijo obnovile, egipčanski glasbeni instrumenti pa so odražali tudi močan vpliv azijskih kultur. [36] Pod novim kulturnim vplivom so prebivalci Novega kraljestva začeli uporabljati oboe, trobente, lire, lutnje, kastanete in činele. [38]

    Za razliko od Mezopotamije in Egipta profesionalnih glasbenikov v Izraelu med letoma 2000 in 1000 pr. Medtem ko zgodovina glasbenih instrumentov v Mezopotamiji in Egiptu sloni na umetniških upodobitvah, je kultura v Izraelu ustvarila malo takšnih predstav. Znanstveniki se morajo zato zanašati na informacije, pridobljene iz Svetega pisma in Talmuda. [39] Hebrejska besedila omenjajo dva vidna instrumenta, povezana z Jubal: ugab (cevi) in kinnor (lira). [40] Drugi instrumenti obdobja so vključevali tof (okvir boben), pa'amon (majhni zvonovi ali zvončki), šofar in trobenta hasosra. [41]

    Z uvedbo monarhije v Izraelu v 11. stoletju pred našim štetjem so se pojavili prvi poklicni glasbeniki in s tem drastično povečanje števila in raznolikosti glasbil. [42] Prepoznavanje in razvrščanje instrumentov ostaja izziv zaradi pomanjkanja umetniških interpretacij. Na primer, obstajali so godalni instrumenti negotove zasnove, imenovani nevali in asorji, vendar jih niti arheologija niti etimologija ne moreta jasno opredeliti. [43] V svoji knjigi Pregled glasbenih inštrumentov, Ameriška muzikologinja Sibyl Marcuse predlaga, da mora biti nevel podoben vertikalni harfi zaradi svojega odnosa do nabla, feničanski izraz za "harfo". [44]

    V Grčiji, Rimu in Etruriji sta bila uporaba in razvoj glasbil v popolnem nasprotju z dosežki teh kultur v arhitekturi in kiparstvu. Takratni instrumenti so bili preprosti in skoraj vsi so bili uvoženi iz drugih kultur. [45] Lire so bile glavno glasbilo, saj so jih glasbeniki uporabljali za spoštovanje bogov. [46] Grki so igrali različne pihalne instrumente, ki so jih uvrstili med aulos (trstika) oz syrinx (flavte) Grško pisanje iz tistega časa odraža resno študijo proizvodnje trstike in tehnike igranja. [8] Rimljani so igrali na trstična imena na imenovana glasbila golenico, s stranskimi luknjami, ki jih je mogoče odpreti ali zapreti, kar omogoča večjo prilagodljivost v načinih igranja. [47] Drugi instrumenti, ki so v splošni rabi v regiji, so bili vertikalne harfe, ki izvirajo iz orienta, lutnje egipčanskega oblikovanja, različne pipe in orgle ter klavirji, na katere so igrale predvsem ženske. [48]

    Dokazov o glasbenih inštrumentih, ki so jih uporabljale prve indijske civilizacije, skorajda ni, zaradi česar ni mogoče zanesljivo pripisati instrumentov mundski in dravidski jezikovni kulturi, ki sta prvi naselili območje. Zgodovina glasbenih inštrumentov na tem območju se začne z civilizacijo doline Inda, ki se je pojavila okoli leta 3000 pr. Različni ropotuljice in piščalke, najdene med izkopanimi artefakti, so edini fizični dokaz glasbenih instrumentov. [49] Glineni kipec kaže na uporabo bobnov, pregled indijske pisave pa je pokazal tudi upodobitve navpičnih obokanih harf, ki so po zasnovi enake tistim, ki so upodobljene v sumerskih artefaktih. To odkritje je med številnimi znaki, da sta dolina Inda in sumerska kultura ohranili kulturni stik. Kasnejši razvoj glasbenih instrumentov v Indiji se je zgodil z Rigvedo ali pesmimi. Te pesmi so uporabljale različne bobne, trobente, harfe in flavte. [50] Drugi pomembni inštrumenti, ki so se uporabljali v zgodnjih stoletjih našega štetja, so bili dvojni klarinet kačarja, gajde, sodovci, križne flavte in kratke lutnje. Indija vse do srednjega veka ni imela edinstvenih glasbil. [51]

    Glasbila, kot so citre, so se v kitajskih spisih pojavila okoli 12. stoletja pred našim štetjem in prej. [52] Zgodnji kitajski filozofi, na primer Konfucij (551–479 pr. Kitajci so verjeli, da je glasba bistven del značaja in skupnosti, in razvili edinstven sistem razvrščanja njihovih glasbil glede na materialno sestavo. [53]

    Idiofoni so bili v kitajski glasbi izredno pomembni, zato je bila večina zgodnjih instrumentov idiofonov. Poezija dinastije Shang omenja zvonce, zvončke, bobne in kroglaste piščali, izklesane iz kosti, slednje pa so izkopali in ohranili arheologi. [54] Dinastija Zhou je videla tolkala, kot so klaparji, korita, lesene ribe in (leseni tiger). V tem časovnem obdobju so se pojavili tudi pihalni inštrumenti, kot so flavta, pan-pipe, pitch-pipe in ustne orgle. [55] The xiao (pihala na koncu) in različni drugi instrumenti, ki so se razširili po številnih kulturah, so se začeli uporabljati na Kitajskem med dinastijo Han in po njej. [56]

    Čeprav so civilizacije v Srednji Ameriki do enajstega stoletja našega štetja dosegle relativno visoko stopnjo prefinjenosti, so pri razvoju glasbenih instrumentov zaostajale za drugimi civilizacijami. Na primer, niso imeli godalnih inštrumentov, vsi njihovi inštrumenti so bili idiofoni, bobni in pihalni instrumenti, kot so flavte in trobente. Od teh je lahko samo flavta ustvarila melodijo. [57] Nasprotno pa so bile predkolumbijske južnoameriške civilizacije na področjih, kot so današnji Peru, Kolumbija, Ekvador, Bolivija in Čile, kulturno manj napredne, glasbeno pa bolj. Takratne južnoameriške kulture so uporabljale pan-pipe, pa tudi različne flavte, idiofone, bobne in trobente iz lupin ali lesa. [58]

    Instrument, ki ga lahko potrdimo pri Keltih iz železne dobe, je karneks, ki je datiran v

    300 pred našim štetjem, podolgovato trobentasto glasbilo, ki je imelo konec zvona iz bronaste oblike v obliki kričeče živalske glave, ki je držala visoko nad glavami, ko bi karnks oddajal globok, oster zvok, Glava je imela tudi jezik, ki je kliknil, ko je vibriral, namen instrumenta je bil, da ga uporabi na bojišču, da bi ustrašil svoje nasprotnike. [59] [60]

    Srednji vek Uredi

    Kitajska je v obdobju, ki se ohlapno imenuje Srednji vek, razvila tradicijo vključevanja glasbenega vpliva iz drugih regij. Prvi zapis tovrstnega vpliva je leta 384 n. Št., Ko je Kitajska po osvajanju v Turkestanu ustanovila orkester na svojem cesarskem dvoru. Sledili so vplivi z Bližnjega vzhoda, Perzije, Indije, Mongolije in drugih držav. Pravzaprav kitajska tradicija tem regijam in državam pripisuje številna glasbila iz tega obdobja. [61] Činele so postale priljubljene skupaj z naprednejšimi trobentami, klarineti, klavirji, oboami, flavtami, bobni in lutnjami. [62] Nekatere od prvih priklonjenih citr so se pojavile na Kitajskem v 9. ali 10. stoletju, pod vplivom mongolske kulture. [63]

    Indija je doživela podoben razvoj kot Kitajska v srednjem veku, vendar so se godalni instrumenti razvijali drugače, saj so ustrezali različnim slogom glasbe. Kitajski godalni instrumenti so bili zasnovani tako, da proizvajajo natančne tone, ki se lahko ujemajo z zvoki zvonjenja, vendar so bili indijski godalni instrumenti bistveno bolj prilagodljivi. Ta prilagodljivost je ustrezala diapozitivom in tremolom hindujske glasbe. Rhythm was of paramount importance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle Ages. The emphasis on rhythm is an aspect native to Indian music. [64] Historians divide the development of musical instruments in medieval India between pre-Islamic and Islamic periods due to the different influence each period provided. [65]

    In pre-Islamic times, idiophones such as handbells, cymbals, and peculiar instruments resembling gongs came into wide use in Hindu music. The gong-like instrument was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Tubular drums, stick zithers (veena), short fiddles, double and triple flutes, coiled trumpets, and curved India horns emerged in this time period. [66] Islamic influences brought new types of drum, perfectly circular or octagonal as opposed to the irregular pre-Islamic drums. [67] Persian influence brought oboes and sitars, although Persian sitars had three strings and Indian version had from four to seven. [68] The Islamic culture also introduced double-clarinet instruments as the Alboka (from Arab, al-buq or "horn") nowadays only alive in Basque Country. It must be played using the technique of the circular breathing.

    Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian influence that ended around 920 AD. [69] Balinese and Javanese music made use of xylophones and metallophones, bronze versions of the former. [70] The most prominent and important musical instrument of Southeast Asia was the gong. While the gong likely originated in the geographical area between Tibet and Burma, it was part of every category of human activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java. [71]

    The areas of Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula experiences rapid growth and sharing of musical instruments once they were united by Islamic culture in the seventh century. [72] Frame drums and cylindrical drums of various depths were immensely important in all genres of music. [73] Conical oboes were involved in the music that accompanied wedding and circumcision ceremonies. Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far as Java. [74] Various lutes, zithers, dulcimers, and harps spread as far as Madagascar to the south and modern-day Sulawesi to the east. [75]

    Despite the influences of Greece and Rome, most musical instruments in Europe during the Middles Ages came from Asia. The lyre is the only musical instrument that may have been invented in Europe until this period. [76] Stringed instruments were prominent in Middle Age Europe. The central and northern regions used mainly lutes, stringed instruments with necks, while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a crossbar. [76] Various harps served Central and Northern Europe as far north as Ireland, where the harp eventually became a national symbol. [77] Lyres propagated through the same areas, as far east as Estonia. [78]

    European music between 800 and 1100 became more sophisticated, more frequently requiring instruments capable of polyphony. The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire, typical instruments included the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre), salandj (probably a bagpipe) and the lyra. [79] The Byzantine lyra, a bowed string instrument, is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. [80]

    The monochord served as a precise measure of the notes of a musical scale, allowing more accurate musical arrangements. [81] Mechanical hurdy-gurdies allowed single musicians to play more complicated arrangements than a fiddle would both were prominent folk instruments in the Middle Ages. [82] [83] Southern Europeans played short and long lutes whose pegs extended to the sides, unlike the rear-facing pegs of Central and Northern European instruments. [84] Idiophones such as bells and clappers served various practical purposes, such as warning of the approach of a leper. [85]

    The ninth century revealed the first bagpipes, which spread throughout Europe and had many uses from folk instruments to military instruments. [86] The construction of pneumatic organs evolved in Europe starting in fifth-century Spain, spreading to England in about 700. [87] The resulting instruments varied in size and use from portable organs worn around the neck to large pipe organs. [88] Literary accounts of organs being played in English Benedictine abbeys toward the end of the tenth century are the first references to organs being connected to churches. [89] Reed players of the Middle Ages were limited to oboes no evidence of clarinets exists during this period. [90]

    Modern Edit

    Renaissance Edit

    Musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident from 1400 on, indeed, the most profound changes occurred during the Renaissance period. [18] Instruments took on other purposes than accompanying singing or dance, and performers used them as solo instruments. Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature. Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments. [18] In the latter half of the sixteenth century, orchestration came into common practice as a method of writing music for a variety of instruments. Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion. [91] The polyphonic style dominated popular music, and the instrument makers responded accordingly. [92]

    Beginning in about 1400, the rate of development of musical instruments increased in earnest as compositions demanded more dynamic sounds. People also began writing books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments the first such book was Sebastian Virdung's 1511 treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen ('Music Germanized and Abstracted'). [91] Virdung's work is noted as being particularly thorough for including descriptions of "irregular" instruments such as hunters' horns and cow bells, though Virdung is critical of the same. Other books followed, including Arnolt Schlick's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten ('Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players') the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing. [93] Of the instructional books and references published in the Renaissance era, one is noted for its detailed description and depiction of all wind and stringed instruments, including their relative sizes. This book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius, is now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenth-century musical instruments. [94]

    In the sixteenth century, musical instrument builders gave most instruments – such as the violin – the "classical shapes" they retain today. An emphasis on aesthetic beauty also developed listeners were as pleased with the physical appearance of an instrument as they were with its sound. Therefore, builders paid special attention to materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums. [95] It was during this period that makers began constructing instruments of the same type in various sizes to meet the demand of consorts, or ensembles playing works written for these groups of instruments. [96]

    Instrument builders developed other features that endure today. For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time. [97] Trumpets evolved into their modern form to improve portability, and players used mutes to properly blend into chamber music. [98]

    Baroque Edit

    Beginning in the seventeenth century, composers began writing works to a higher emotional degree. They felt that polyphony better suited the emotional style they were aiming for and began writing musical parts for instruments that would complement the singing human voice. [92] As a result, many instruments that were incapable of larger ranges and dynamics, and therefore were seen as unemotional, fell out of favor. One such instrument was the shawm. [99] Bowed instruments such as the violin, viola, baryton, and various lutes dominated popular music. [100] Beginning in around 1750, however, the lute disappeared from musical compositions in favor of the rising popularity of the guitar. [101] As the prevalence of string orchestras rose, wind instruments such as the flute, oboe, and bassoon were readmitted to counteract the monotony of hearing only strings. [102]

    In the mid-seventeenth century, what was known as a hunter's horn underwent a transformation into an "art instrument" consisting of a lengthened tube, a narrower bore, a wider bell, and a much wider range. The details of this transformation are unclear, but the modern horn or, more colloquially, French horn, had emerged by 1725. [103] The slide trumpet appeared, a variation that includes a long-throated mouthpiece that slid in and out, allowing the player infinite adjustments in pitch. This variation on the trumpet was unpopular due to the difficulty involved in playing it. [104] Organs underwent tonal changes in the Baroque period, as manufacturers such as Abraham Jordan of London made the stops more expressive and added devices such as expressive pedals. Sachs viewed this trend as a "degeneration" of the general organ sound. [105]

    Classical and Romantic Edit

    During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, many musical instruments capable of producing new timbres and higher volume were developed and introduced into popular music. The design changes that broadened the quality of timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety of expression. Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of modern instruments. Since instruments were involved in collaborations of a much larger scale, their designs had to evolve to accommodate the demands of the orchestra. [106]

    Some instruments also had to become louder to fill larger halls and be heard over sizable orchestras. Flutes and bowed instruments underwent many modifications and design changes—most of them unsuccessful—in efforts to increase volume. Other instruments were changed just so they could play their parts in the scores. Trumpets traditionally had a "defective" range—they were incapable of producing certain notes with precision. [107] New instruments such as the clarinet, saxophone, and tuba became fixtures in orchestras. Instruments such as the clarinet also grew into entire "families" of instruments capable of different ranges: small clarinets, normal clarinets, bass clarinets, and so on. [106]

    Accompanying the changes to timbre and volume was a shift in the typical pitch used to tune instruments. Instruments meant to play together, as in an orchestra, must be tuned to the same standard lest they produce audibly different sounds while playing the same notes. Beginning in 1762, the average concert pitch began rising from a low of 377 vibrations to a high of 457 in 1880 Vienna. [108] Different regions, countries, and even instrument manufacturers preferred different standards, making orchestral collaboration a challenge. Despite even the efforts of two organized international summits attended by noted composers like Hector Berlioz, no standard could be agreed upon. [109]

    Twentieth century to present Edit

    The evolution of traditional musical instruments slowed beginning in the 20th century. [110] Instruments such as the violin, flute, french horn, and harp are largely the same as those manufactured throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Gradual iterations do emerge for example, the "New Violin Family" began in 1964 to provide differently sized violins to expand the range of available sounds. [111] The slowdown in development was a practical response to the concurrent slowdown in orchestra and venue size. [112] Despite this trend in traditional instruments, the development of new musical instruments exploded in the twentieth century, and the variety of instruments developed overshadows any prior period. [110]

    The proliferation of electricity in the 20th century lead to the creation of an entirely new category of musical instruments: electronic instruments, or electrophones. [113] The vast majority of electrophones produced in the first half of the 20th century were what Sachs called "electromechanical instruments" they have mechanical parts that produce sound vibrations, and these vibrations are picked up and amplified by electrical components. Examples of electromechanical instruments include Hammond organs and electric guitars. [113] Sachs also defined a subcategory of "radioelectric instruments" such as the theremin, which produces music through the player's hand movements around two antennas. [114]

    The latter half of the 20th century saw the evolution of synthesizers, which produce sound using circuits and microchips. In the late 1960s, Bob Moog and other inventors developed the first commercial synthesizers, such as the Moog synthesizer. [115] Whereas once they had filled rooms, synthesizers now can be embedded in any electronic device, [115] and are ubiquitous in modern music. [116] Samplers, introduced around 1980, allow users to sample and reuse existing sounds, and were important to the development of hip hop. [117] 1982 saw the introduction of MIDI, a standardized means of synchronizing electronic instruments that remains an industry standard. [118] The modern proliferation of computers and microchips has created an industry of electronic musical instruments. [119]

    There are many different methods of classifying musical instruments. Various methods examine aspects such as the physical properties of the instrument (material, color, shape, etc.), the use for the instrument, the means by which music is produced with the instrument, the range of the instrument, and the instrument's place in an orchestra or other ensemble. Most methods are specific to a geographic area or cultural group and were developed to serve the unique classification requirements of the group. [120] The problem with these specialized classification schemes is that they tend to break down once they are applied outside of their original area. For example, a system based on instrument use would fail if a culture invented a new use for the same instrument. Scholars recognize Hornbostel–Sachs as the only system that applies to any culture and, more importantly, provides the only possible classification for each instrument. [121] [122] The most common classifications are strings, brass, woodwind, and percussion.

    Ancient systems Edit

    An ancient Hindu system named the Natya Shastra, written by the sage Bharata Muni and dating from between 200 BC and 200 AD, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings percussion instruments with skin heads instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air and "solid", or non-skin, percussion instruments. [121] This system was adapted to some degree in 12th-century Europe by Johannes de Muris, who used the terms tensibilia (stringed instruments), inflatibilia (wind instruments), and percussibilia (all percussion instruments). [123] In 1880, Victor-Charles Mahillon adapted the Natya Shastra and assigned Greek labels to the four classifications: chordophones (stringed instruments), membranophones (skin-head percussion instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), and autophones (non-skin percussion instruments). [121]

    Hornbostel–Sachs Edit

    Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs adopted Mahillon's scheme and published an extensive new scheme for classification in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Hornbostel and Sachs used most of Mahillon's system, but replaced the term autophone z idiophone. [121]

    The original Hornbostel–Sachs system classified instruments into four main groups:

      , which produce sound by vibrating the primary body of the instrument itself they are sorted into concussion, percussion, shaken, scraped, split, and plucked idiophones, such as claves, xylophone, guiro, slit drum, mbira, and rattle. [124] , which produce sound by a vibrating a stretched membrane they may be drums (further sorted by the shape of the shell), which are struck by hand, with a stick, or rubbed, but kazoos and other instruments that use a stretched membrane for the primary sound (not simply to modify sound produced in another way) are also considered membranophones. [125] , which produce sound by vibrating one or more strings they are sorted according to the relationship between the string(s) and the sounding board or chamber. For example, if the strings are laid out parallel to the sounding board and there is no neck, the instrument is a zither whether it is plucked like an autoharp or struck with hammers like a piano. If the instrument has strings parallel to the sounding board or chamber and the strings extend past the board with a neck, then the instrument is a lute, whether the sound chamber is constructed of wood like a guitar or uses a membrane like a banjo. [126] , which produce a sound with a vibrating column of air they are sorted into free aerophones such as a bullroarer or whip, which move freely through the air reedless aerophones such as flutes and recorders, which cause the air to pass over a sharp edge reed instruments, which use a vibrating reed (this category may be further divided into two classifications: single-reeded and double-reeded instruments. Examples of the former are clarinets and saxophones, while the latter includes oboes and bassoons) and lip-vibrated aerophones such as trumpets, trombones and tubas, for which the lips themselves function as vibrating reeds. [127]

    Sachs later added a fifth category, electrophones, such as theremins, which produce sound by electronic means. [113] Within each category are many subgroups. The system has been criticised and revised over the years, but remains widely used by ethnomusicologists and organologists. [123] [128]

    Schaeffner Edit

    Andre Schaeffner, a curator at the Musée de l'Homme, disagreed with the Hornbostel–Sachs system and developed his own system in 1932. Schaeffner believed that the pure physics of a musical instrument, rather than its specific construction or playing method, should always determine its classification. (Hornbostel–Sachs, for example, divides aerophones on the basis of sound production, but membranophones on the basis of the shape of the instrument). His system divided instruments into two categories: instruments with solid, vibrating bodies and instruments containing vibrating air. [129]

    Range Edit

    Musical instruments are also often classified by their musical range in comparison with other instruments in the same family. This exercise is useful when placing instruments in context of an orchestra or other ensemble.

    These terms are named after singing voice classifications:

    Some instruments fall into more than one category. For example, the cello may be considered tenor, baritone or bass, depending on how its music fits into the ensemble. The trombone and French horn may be alto, tenor, baritone, or bass depending on the range it is played in. Many instruments have their range as part of their name: soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone horn, alto flute, bass guitar, etc. Additional adjectives describe instruments above the soprano range or below the bass, for example the sopranino saxophone and contrabass clarinet. When used in the name of an instrument, these terms are relative, describing the instrument's range in comparison to other instruments of its family and not in comparison to the human voice range or instruments of other families. For example, a bass flute's range is from C3 to F♯6, while a bass clarinet plays about one octave lower.

    The materials used in making musical instruments vary greatly by culture and application. Many of the materials have special significance owing to their source or rarity. Some cultures worked substances from the human body into their instruments. In ancient Mexico, for example, the material drums were made from might contain actual human body parts obtained from sacrificial offerings. In New Guinea, drum makers would mix human blood into the adhesive used to attach the membrane. [130] Mulberry trees are held in high regard in China owing to their mythological significance—instrument makers would hence use them to make zithers. The Yakuts believe that making drums from trees struck by lightning gives them a special connection to nature. [131]

    Musical instrument construction is a specialized trade that requires years of training, practice, and sometimes an apprenticeship. Most makers of musical instruments specialize in one genre of instruments for example, a luthier makes only stringed instruments. Some make only one type of instrument such as a piano. Whatever the instrument constructed, the instrument maker must consider materials, construction technique, and decoration, creating a balanced instrument that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. [132] Some builders are focused on a more artistic approach and develop experimental musical instruments, often meant for individual playing styles developed by the builder themself.

    Regardless of how the sound is produced, many musical instruments have a keyboard as the user interface. Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard, which is a row of small keys that can be pressed. Every key generates one or more sounds most keyboard instruments have extra means (pedals for a piano, stops and a pedal keyboard for an organ) to manipulate these sounds. They may produce sound by wind being fanned (organ) or pumped (accordion), [134] [135] vibrating strings either hammered (piano) or plucked (harpsichord), [136] [137] by electronic means (synthesizer), [138] or in some other way. Sometimes, instruments that do not usually have a keyboard, such as the glockenspiel, are fitted with one. [139] Though they have no moving parts and are struck by mallets held in the player's hands, they have the same physical arrangement of keys and produce soundwaves in a similar manner. The theremin, an electrophone, is played without physical contact by the player. The theremin senses the proximity of the player's hands, which triggers changes in its sound. More recently, a MIDI controller keyboard used with a digital audio workstation may have a musical keyboard and a bank of sliders, knobs, and buttons that change many sound parameters of a synthesizer.

    A person who plays a musical instrument is known as an instrumentalist or instrumental musician. [140] [141] [142] Many instrumentalists are known for playing specific musical instruments such as guitarist (guitar), pianist (piano), bassist (bass), and drummer (drum). These different types of instrumentalists can perform together in a music group. [143] A person who is able to play a number of instruments is called a multi-instrumentalist. [144] According to David Baskerville in the book Music Business Handbook and Career Guide, the working hours of a full-time instrumentalist may average only three hours a day, but most musicians spent at least 40 hours a week. [145]


    Bring up the lions

    Among other things, the Rome branch of the institute has researched one of the Colosseum's wilder technical aspects: the contraptions used to lift animals to the arena to meet their gladiator foes. The group recently did a project that recreated the "elevators" from a series of lifts and pulleys, which brought the beasts up from their holding areas under the famous fighting ring.

    The German Archaeological Institute celebrates 190 years


    Figurines of Demeter and Persephone Found in Russia’s Black Sea Town

    The figurines of Demeter and Persephone recently discovered in Anapa. Credit: HistoryHellenic/Twitter

    Figurines representing the goddess Demeter and her daughter, Persephone, were unearthed recently at a construction site in the Black Sea resort town of Anapa, in Russia.

    The terracotta statuettes, along with a relief, were discovered in early November by archaeologists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

    In antiquity, the region surrounding Anapa, known as Sinda, served as an important seaport. Pontic Greeks established a settlement called Gorgippia there in the sixth century BC, and it developed into a major power in the Black Sea throughout the years of antiquity.

    The construction site in Anapa where the artifacts were discovered. Credit: Sarah404BC/Twitter

    A number of kilns used for the production of pottery and ceramics, mainly dating from the 4th to the 2nd century BC, were also discovered on the outskirts of the ancient city.

    It is near the remains of one of the kilns that archaeologists discovered the bulk of the priceless figurines of the Greek goddesses.

    One of the priceless figurines just discovered in Anapa, Russia. Credit: Istockhistory/Twitter

    Along with a number of complete figurines of Persephone, Demeter’s daughter, archaeologists found a one-sided bust figurine of Demeter herself and an array of tiles, bowls, and pottery fragments at the site.

    Relief of an enthroned Cybele, flanked by Hermes and Hecate. Credit: Sarah404BC/Twitter

    A dedicatory relief depicting an enthroned Cybele, an Anatolian mother goddess, flanked by Hermes and Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft, was also discovered at the Anapa site.

    Archaeologists from the Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences believe that the relief would have been displayed near a temple or important public building.

    The finds at Anapa, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea, highlight the far-reaching influence of Greece in antiquity, as well as its persistence throughout time, as Anapa is still home to a vibrant community of Pontic Greeks to this day.


    8 Oldest Artifacts in the World

    Archaeology has roots dating back to the early civilizations that were curious about the past. The Greek historian Herodotus (c.5 th century BCE) was the first to systematically study the past and may have been the first person to examine artifacts. Since then, archaeologists have uncovered thousands of artifacts from different periods of human history. The entries on this list are some of the oldest artifacts ever found in their category (instruments, tools, sculptures, etc.). Some of the oldest artifacts on this list predate Homo sapiens and were most likely created by early human ancestors such as Homo erectus.

    8. Venus of Hohle Fels

    Age: 35,000 – 40,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Ivory sculpture
    Država izvora: Hohle Fels Cave, Schelklingen, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    The Venus of Hohle Fels figurine is the oldest sculpture depicting the human figure. It is the oldest “Venus figurine” – any Upper Paleolithic sculpture of a woman – and dates back to about 35,000 – 40,000 years ago. It was discovered in 2008 in the Hohle Fels cave by an archaeological team led by Nicholas J. Conard. The team discovered several other ancient artifacts, including the world’s oldest instrument (further down on this list).

    Since the figure’s discovery, there have been numerous debates over nature of the figure, with Conard suggesting that it is about “sex, [and] reproduction.” He added that the exaggerated female features of the figurine are “an extremely powerful depiction of the essence of being female.”

    7. Löwenmensch Figurine (Lion-man of the Hohlenstein-Stade)

    Age: 35,000 – 40,000 years old
    Type of Artifact: Ivory sculpture
    Država izvora: Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave, Swabian Jura, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    The Löwenmensch figurine is the oldest known piece of figurative art in the world. It is an ivory sculpture of a lion headed human that is between 35,000 – 40,000 years old. The sculpture was first discovered in 1939 by geologist Otto Völzing at the Hohlenstein-Stadel cave, but the start of World War II lead to cave’s research being shelved.

    The fragments of the sculpture were forgotten for over 30 years in the Museum of Ulm, until archaeologist Joachim Hahn began piecing them together. More pieces of the figure were uncovered in 1962 and they were added Hahn’s reconstruction in 1982. In 2009, further excavations were conducted and more minute fragments were discovered. Today, the figurine is almost completely restored and is displayed at the Ulm Museum.

    6. Bone Flutes

    Age: 42,000 – 43,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Musical instruments made from bone
    Država izvora: Geissenkloesterle Cave, Blaubeuren, Germany

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    According to scientists, the bone flutes found at Geissenkloesterle Cave in Germany are the oldest musical instruments ever found in the world. Researchers used carbon dating to determine that the flutes were between 42,000 – 43,000 years old.

    The flutes were made from bird bone and mammoth ivory and are from the Aurignacian archaeological culture, which is associated with the earliest modern humans in Europe. The instruments may have been used for recreation or religious rituals. These flutes are older than the previous record holder, found at the famous Hohle Fels cave in Germany, that was dated to 35,000 years ago.

    5. Skhul Cave Beads

    Age: 100,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Shell beads most likely used for jewelry
    Država izvora: Es Skhul Cave, Haifa, Israel

    photo source: newscientist.com

    The shell beads from Skhul Cave in Israel are thought to be the oldest pieces of jewelry created by humans. The two beads from Skhul are date back to at least 100,000 years ago and a third bead from Oued Djebbana in Algeria is between 35,000 – 90,000 years old.

    According to archaeologists studying the shells, the snails that produced the shells are from the sea, which is 3.5 kilometers away from Skhul. This means that the beads hold cultural significance because the people who made them had to travel a long distance to collect them. The discovery of the beads suggests that modern human behavior (personal ornamentation, art, music, etc.) developed much earlier in human history than originally thought.

    4. Blombos Cave Paint Making Studio

    Age: 100,000 years
    Type of Artifact: Paint making kits made of shells and assorted bones
    Država izvora: Blombos Cave, Western Cape, South Africa

    photo source: Live Science

    The Blombos Cave archaeological site has been under excavation since 1992 and over the years, they have discovered many artifacts. One of their most recent finds from 2008, was a paint making studio consisting of two toolkits dating back to 100,000 years ago. Researchers discovered traces of a red, paint-like mixture stored in two abalone shells.

    They also found ocher (colored clay), bone, charcoal, hammer stones, and grindstones that they believe were used by early Homo sapiens to create the paints. Although the researchers don’t know what the paints were used for, they do know that they used quartzite stones to grind the ocher down and combined it with the oil from the marrow of heated bones.

    3. Acheulean Stone Tools

    Age: 1.76 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools, in particular, hand axes
    Država izvora: Spread across Africa, Asia, and Europe oldest found in Kenya

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    Acheulean hand axes were used throughout most of early human history. The tools are believed to have first been developed by Homo erectus about 1.76 million years ago and used until the Middle Stone Age (300,000 – 200,000 years ago).

    The hand axes are named after the St. Acheul archaeological site in France where the first of these tools were uncovered in the late 1860s. The oldest Acheulean hand axes was found at archaeological site Kokiselei 4 in the Kenya and are dated to about 1.76 million years ago. The oldest hand axes found outside of Africa are about 900,000 years old and were found at two cave sites in Spain.

    2. Oldowan Stone Tools

    Age: 2.6 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools
    Država izvora: Gona, Ethiopia

    photo source: Wikimedia Commons

    Until a 2015 research paper was published, the Oldowan stone tools found in Gona, Ethiopia were believed to be the oldest stone tools ever found. The oldest of the Oldowan tools was dated to about 2.6 million years ago.

    Researchers aren’t sure who created the tools from Gona as no fossils were found near the artifacts. The tools might have been made by Australopithecus garhi, a hominid species that was discovered about 55 miles south of Gona, near animal bones that show signs of butchering – suggesting the use of tools.

    The first Oldowan tools were discovered by famed paleoanthropolgist/archaeologist, Louis Leakey, in the 1930s these tools are about 1.8 million years old.

    1. Lomekwi Stone Tools

    Age: 3.3 million years
    Type of Artifact: Handmade stone tools
    Država izvora: West Turkana, Kenya

    photo source: Smithsonian.com

    The stone tools unearthed at Lomekwi 3, an archaeological site in Kenya, are the oldest artifacts in the world. These stone tools are about 3.3 million years old, long before Homo sapiens (humans) showed up. While researchers aren’t sure which of our early human ancestors made the tools, the discovery suggests that our ancestors had the mental ability to craft tools before any member of the Homo genus was even born.

    Nekaj the artifacts uncovered at Lomekwi include anvils, cores, and flakes. The tools are the largest known stone tools and researchers suggest that they be classified as their own tool making tradition called Lomekwian.


    Old city, new discoveries

    In November, construction workers at a sewer in Athens stumbled upon the massive head of an ancient sculpture. On close examination, it turned out to be the marble head of the Greek god, Hermes, according to the Greek Ministry of Culture. Experts believe the head could be from the 3rd or the 4th century. Every now and then, an ancient artefact is discovered in Athens' old city.

    Ancient treasures found in 2020


    Magic and the macabre

    From the remains of two Vesuvius victims frozen in their agonized death throes do a suspected “witch bottle,” or protective talisman filled with nails, 2020 was filled with eerie finds. Topping the charts in the category of ritual and superstition were “witches’ marks” carved into a medieval English church (the engravings featured spoke-like lines radiating out from central holes, perhaps meant to entrap malicious spirits in an endless maze) sacrificed llamas buried alive by Inca people in the mid-15th century and the 8,000-year-old remains of a child buried without their arm and leg bones, likely as part of a ceremony, in what is now Indonesia.

    Researchers also found instruments, decorations and keepsakes crafted out of the bones of Bronze Age Britons’ relatives. “Even in modern secular societies, human remains are seen as particularly powerful objects, and this seems to hold true for people of the Bronze Age,” scholar Tom Booth told BBC News. “However, they treated and interacted with the dead in ways which are inconceivably macabre to us today.”

    Archaeologists made plaster casts of the pair, who are thought to be a high-status older man and a younger enslaved individual. (Pompeii Archaeological Park)

    The remains of Takabuti, a young woman who was murdered in Egypt in the seventh century B.C. (© Ulster Museum)