Wainwright I DD -62 - Zgodovina

Wainwright I DD -62 - Zgodovina


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Wainwright I.

(Uničevalec št. 62: dp. 1.150 (n), 1. 315'3 ", b. 29'67" dr. 10'8 1/4 "(f.) (Krma); s. 29,67 k. (Tl .); kpl. 99, a. 4 4 ", 8 21" tt; kl. Tucker)

Prvega Wainwrighta (uničevalca št. 62) je 1. septembra 1914 v Camdenu v NJ postavil New York Shipbuilding Co .; izstreljen 12. junija 1915; pod pokroviteljstvom gospodične Evelyn Wainwright Turpin, 12. maja 1916 pa je naročil na mornariškem dvorišču Philadelphia, poveljnik je poročnik Fred H. Poteet

Ko se je opremil v Philadelphiji, je rušilec 20. junija zaokrožil Cape May in se odpravil proti Newportu, R.I., da bi natovoril torpeda, preden se je pridružil diviziji 8 flotile uničevalcev Atlantske flote. Po vajah v bližini Eastporta, Maine, je ostala na obali Nove Anglije do sredine septembra, ko se je odpravila proti jugu na preizkuse strelnega orožja in usposabljanje ob rtih v Virginiji. Po zaključku dvotedenskih vaj s pištolo se je ladja 2. oktobra vrnila v zaliv Buzzard's, Mass. Kasneje istega meseca je Wainwright operiral iz Newporta, vadil torpedno taktiko v bližini Vineyard Sound in obiskal New York, da bi prevzel tovor za razpis flotile, Melville (Destroyer Tender No. 2). Vrnila se je v Newport 18. in osem dni kasneje nadaljevala s torpednimi vajami v bližini Vineyard Sound do konca meseca. 1. novembra je odšla v Boston na obsežna popravila na mornariškem dvorišču.

Prenovljeni rušilec je 8. januarja 1917 začel delovati za Karibe. S paro po cestah Hampton je 14. dosegla otok Culebra blizu Portorika in z Atlantsko floto izvedla vojne vaje. Med temi operacijami je obiskala Dominikansko republiko ter zaliv Guantanamo in Santiago na Kubi. Kasneje istega meseca je Wainwright nosil pomočnika sekretarja mornarice Franklina D. Roosevelta, poveljnika mornariškega korpusa in predsednika Komisije za državno službo iz Santiaga v Port-au-Prince na Haitiju. Po tej nalogi je do začetka marca izvajala torpedne vaje, patrulje in preizkuse moči v bližini zaliva Guantanamo.

V Boston se je 10. vrnila za kratek čas na mornarišče. 31. marca je odšla iz Bostona na Hampton Roads, kamor je prispela 2. aprila.

Naslednje jutro je Wainwright kot odziv na neposredno grožnjo vojne z Nemčijo začel "iskati podmornice". in patruljirati po cestah Hampton za zaščito flote in pomorskih baz. Dva dni kasneje so jo druge patruljne ladje razbremenile; in se zasidrala s floto v ustju reke York. Naslednji dan, 6. aprila 1917, so ZDA vstopile v prvo svetovno vojno.

Do pomladi 1917 je neomejena kampanja podmornic, ki jo je Nemčija začela v začetku februarja, tako uspela, da so bila ogrožena celotna zavezniška vojna prizadevanja. Močne okrepitve zavezniških protipodmorniških sil so bile nujno potrebne za preprečitev poraza in so bile potrebne takoj. Kot odgovor na prošnjo kraljeve mornarice za vročanje ameriških protipodmorniških bojnih ladij v evropskih vodah je mornarica Združenih držav Amerike začela pošiljati rušilce proti vzhodu čez Atlantik.

Wainwright je spet na kratko patruljiral po Hampton Roads, preden se je 14. odpravil proti newyorškemu mornariškemu dvorišču. Od tam je rušilec nadaljeval pot v Boston, kamor je prispela 16. aprila, da se pripravi na delo v tujini. Osem dni kasneje je rušilec odšel iz Bostona v družbi Wadsworth (uničevalec št. 60), Porterja (uničevalec št. 59), Davisa (uničevalec št. 65), Conynghama (uničevalec št. 58) in McDougala (uničevalec št. 54). ), namenjeni proti britanskim otokom. To divizijo - spretno vodil komdr. Joseph K. Taussig - je bila prva ameriška pomorska enota, poslana v Evropo. Uničevalci so 4. maja prišli do Queenstowna na južni obali Irske in po natočenju goriva začeli patruljirati po južnih pristopih do Liverpoola in drugih britanskih pristanišč na obali Irskega morja.

Wainwright je 11. maja poročala o svojem prvem strganju z nemško podmornico. Približno 0800 je opazila zapuščeni rešilni čoln. Potem, ko je preučevala plujoči čoln za potnike in ga ni našla, je čoln potopila s streljanjem. Okoli 08.15 je razglednik poročal, da je torpedo zgrešil uničevalca približno 150 metrov krme. Wainwright je nato iz svojih 4-palčnih pištol izstrelila več nabojev, kar naj bi bilo periskop. Domnevna podmornica je kmalu zatem izginila in kljub temeljiti preiskavi območja uničevalec ni mogel pokazati več dokazov o prisotnosti podmornice.

Poleti 1917 je Wainwright ponudila le nekaj možnosti, da preizkusi svoje tehnike ubijanja. Na dan neodvisnosti je član posadke uničevalca opazil domnevni periskop in kmalu zatem so drugi trdili, da je po ladji, pet metrov krme, prišel torpedo. Wainwrightova globina je napolnila zadnji označeni položaj podvodnega napadalca, vendar brez uspeha. 20. avgusta zjutraj, potem ko je Rowan (uničevalec št. 64) z enim od svojih globinskih nabojev prinesel nekaj olja, je Wainwright med prehodom skozi rahlo madež spustil nekaj globinskih nabojev. Nekaj ​​minut kasneje se je pridružila drugim ladjam v občasnem streljanju, vendar ni uspela dokazati, da je na tem območju podmornica.

Padec pa je Wainwrightu prinesel povečano aktivnost. Potem ko je prva dva tedna septembra popravljala v Birkenheadu, blizu Liverpoola, je 14. oktobra okoli 07:00 zapustila dvorišče v Laird Basinu in se vrnila v Queenstown. Tri četrt ure popoldanske straže je prejela ukaze, ki so jo poslali na kraj napada podmornice proti zavezniškemu trgovcu približno 15 milj jugovzhodno od Helvick Heada na Irskem. Wainwright je zazvonil s polno hitrostjo, odšel na prijavljeno lokacijo in začel iskanje podmornice v povezavi z britanskim merilnikom in drugimi površinskimi enotami. Pred koncem druge pasje straže je zagledala stolp podmornice in se poklonila približno šest kilometrov stran.

Wainwright je napadel napad, vendar je podmornica skoraj takoj potopila. Ko so prišli do mesta, kjer je bila podmornica bojna ladja, se je nahajal naftni madež in začel spuščati globinske naboje, ki niso dosegli pozitivnih rezultatov. Bližajoč se tema in nujnost pospremljenja opazovalca iz admiralitete je Wainwrighta prisilila, da je prekinil napad. Potem ko je na varno odnesla naoljnika, se je vrnila na območje svojega napada in patruljirala vso noč, vendar se je podmornica očitno umaknila iz soseske.

Štiri dni pozneje je med iskanjem podmornice na območju Connigbeh uničevalec prejel vest, da je ladje Connigbeh rešile preživele z ribiškega plovila. Wainwright se je z ladjo srečal, da bi opravil razgovor s štirimi mornarji smacka Our Bairn. Razkrili so, da je bila podmornica najnovejše vrste, ki jo je Nemčija imela v akciji. Uničevalec je razbremenil svetilniško plovilo štirih ribičev in iskanje nadaljeval do mraka, ko se je odpravila nazaj v Queenstown, da bi izkrcala rešene ljudi.

Mesec dni je opravljala rutinske patrulje - rutinsko le v smislu, da s sovražnikom niso ukrepale. Negostoljubni Atlantik pa je svojo posadko močno obdavčil. Akcija se je končno zgodila 18. oktobra zjutraj, ko je Wainwright spet prejel ukaz Helvick Headu, naj lovi sovražnikovo podmornico. Prišla je na določeno lokacijo okoli 1115 in več kot dve uri iskala namige glede lokacije podmornice. Nato je leta 1358 zagledala stolp podmornice približno 1500 metrov od njenega desnega premca. Zdi se, da je sovražnik manevriral na mestu za napad s torpedom, vendar je potonil v trenutku, ko je Wainwright napadel napad. Ko je uničevalec dosegel predvideno lokacijo podmornice, je spustila globinski naboj in nato še boje, da je označila mesto. Vojna ladja je temu manevru sledila s sistematičnim krožnim iskanjem do polmera 20 milj. Ker naslednji dan do 0400 ni našla ničesar, je obupala in oblikovala tečaj za Queenstown.

Naslednjih šest mesecev ni prineslo novih srečanj s podmornicami. Pregledala je območja, kjer so poročali o podmornicah, a sovražnika niti opazila niti ni prizadela. Nekoč je trčila v trgovca, SS Chicago City, in istega dne, 24. novembra 1917, je morala na popravilo v suho pristanišče na pomolu Spencer.

Med kopanjem na jugu je 29. aprila 1918 zagledala jadro, ki leži skoraj proti zahodu, katerega trup je bil pod obzorjem. Ko je rušilec zavil na prestrezni tečaj, je jadro izginilo. Medtem ko je rušilec korakal proti predvidenemu položaju jadra, je iskala dokaze o podmornici. Ko je prevozila 10 milj proti zahodu, je naletela na območje, ki ga zaznamujejo številne majhne oljne madeže. Wainwright je izbral najbolj obetavnega in je spustil štiri globinske naboje. Nato je začela novo brezplodno iskanje, ki se je končalo ob polnoči, ko je prejela ukaz, naj se vrne v Queenstown.

Wainwright je delovala izven Queenstowna do junija 1918, ko je bila prerazporejena v pomorske sile ZDA v Franciji. 8. se je javila na dolžnost v Brestu, francoskem pristanišču, iz katerega je vodila patrulje do konca vojne. Te patrulje niso prinesle nadaljnjih srečanj s sovražnikom. Med junijem in novembrom 1918 sta se zgodila le dva pomembna dogodka. V noči z 19. na 20. oktober je zagledala nekaj, kar se je zdelo kot podmornica, ki teče po površini. Ob natančnejšem pregledu pa se je izkazalo, da je objekt zapuščen, v katerem je bila posadka 77-tonske škune Aida, ki jo je ujela podmornica in potopila z eksplozivnimi naboji. Wainwright je prevzel preživele in jih varno zagledal v pristanišče. Kasneje, 1. novembra zvečer, je močan veter v Brestu povzročil, da je uničevalec vlekel sidro: in udarila je v lukobran. Potem ko je Jarvis (uničevalec št. 38) ni uspel izvleči, jo je prevzel vlačilec Concord, ki je leta 1920 končno uspel ponovno postaviti vojaško ladjo in jo vlekel v Brest.

Sovražnosti so se končale 11. novembra 1918 in Wainwright se je zgodaj leta 1919 vrnil domov, da bi nadaljeval službo z uničevalci Atlantske flote. Delovala je vzdolž vzhodne obale in na Karibih do 19. maja 1922, ko je bila v Philadelphiji razgrajena. Uničevalec je ostal v rezervi do pomladi 1926. 2. aprila so jo premestili v obalno stražo, njeno ime pa je bilo istega dne izbrisano s seznama mornarice. 22. maja se je preselila v Boston in tam ostala do 27. julija, ko se je odpravila na obalo Connecticuta. Dva dni kasneje je prišla v New London, 30. pa jo je naročila obalna straža. Vojna ladja je ohranila svoje ime, medtem ko je služila pri obalni straži "Rum Patrol" za zatiranje nezakonitega uvoza alkoholnih pijač. Služila je v New Londonu od poletja 1926 do 1929. 4. januarja 1929 se je odpravila proti jugu v Charleston, S.C., od koder je do 4. februarja vodila strelno orožje, ko se je vrnila proti severu v Boston. Januarja 1930 se je spet odpravila proti jugu na vadbo s strelnim orožjem, vendar tokrat v Sankt Peterburgu, Fla. V vsakem od naslednjih dveh let - januarju 1931 in konec marca 1932 - se je vrnila v St. in nato nadaljevala svoje dolžnosti ob obali Nove Anglije.

Maja 1933 so njeno stalno delovno mesto spremenili v New York in tam je poročala konec prvega tedna junija. Po poletju običajnih operacij je vojaška ladja 7. septembra začela vaditi tarčo na Hampton Roads, VA. Ta dolžnost je bila 9. prekinljena z ukazi, naj se javijo pri mornarici na območju Floridske ožine med nizom uporov na Kubi, ki so končno privedli do začetka 25-letne diktature Fulgencia Batiste. 6. novembra je bil Wainwright izpuščen iz službe mornarice in mu je bilo ukazano, naj se vrne v New York. Prišla je tri dni pozneje in nadaljevala dolžnosti pri obalni straži do marca 1934. 14. dne je zapustila postajo v Stapletonu v New Yorku in naslednji dan prispela v Philadelphijo. Obalna straža jo je 29. marca razgradila; 27. aprila pa jo je poveljnik 4. mornariškega okrožja prevzel za mornarico. Njeno ime je bilo za kratek čas ponovno uvrščeno na seznam mornarice, vendar je bilo 5. julija 1934 znova uvrščeno na seznam. 22. avgusta je bila prodana družbi Michael Flynn, Inc., Brooklyn, N.Y., za razrez.


19 - Queer živi: Wilde, Sackville -West in Woolf

Branje modernistične queer avtobiografije so koristno pokazale, da se queer življenjski zapisi razlikujejo od naravnih avtobiografij s kodiranjem in maskiranjem, tehniko, ki včasih povzroči dva bralca: tiste, ki vedo, in tiste, ki nimajo pojma (Gilmore 1991 Loftus 1997 Stimpson 1992 Watson 1992) . Poudarek tega poglavja pa ni na tem, da bi prikazal, da je modernistična queer avtobiografija oblikovana ali ne po heteroseksualnem besedilu z uporabo kod in mask za izražanje v pričakovani naravni obliki življenja. Namesto tega, če se obrnemo od zaskrbljenosti mnogih kritikov, da queer avtobiografije ni mogoče izraziti, si jo zamisliti ali prebrati, če se osredotočimo na to, kako se queer avtobiografija razlikuje od naravnosti zaradi nezmožnosti označevanja - če se namesto tega osredotočimo na zgodovinski pojav istospolne reprezentacije v avtobiografiji in jo prepoznati kot del razvijajočega se zahodnega avtobiografskega diskurza, nato pa modernistično mesto avtobiografije eksplodira z zavedanjem, kako čudna avtobiografija ob koncu stoletja (od devetnajstega do dvajsetega) izpostavlja obliko besedilnega predstavljanja v žanru, ki je bil doslej nepriznan kot tak. To evokacijsko tvorbo bi lahko označili kot meta-avtobiografijo, saj ta razvoj obsega samorefleksivno kritiko ideologij, ki navidezno zahtevajo heteronormativne in moške subjektivitete in scenarije, ki so potrebni za predstavitev avtobiografskega "jaz" (Jelinek 1986 Heilbrun 1988 Loftus 1997 Watson 1992).

To poglavje torej kot zgodovinsko priznava mutacije žanra, ki ga razvija queer avtobiografija. Raziskuje kritike modernističnih kultur, ki so oblikovane v upodobitvah istospolne spolnosti. Modernistične avtobiografije, ki sem jih prebral, kritizirajo kulture okoli frenologije, kriminala in cenzure ter sisteme spol/spol. Avtobiografije, ki v tem obdobju v svoja besedila vpisujejo istospolne želje, kritizirajo kulturne kontekste s preoblikovanjem odnosa med besedilno predstavitvijo in izkušnjami. Ta prenova stranskih korakov (heteronormativne) ideologije resnice kot dejanske, namesto da bi predstavila resnico kot kulturno določeno in predsodno. Označevalno označena predstavitev napisanega in napisanega "I" je na novo zasnovana, avtobiografije pa napadajo družbe, ki od posameznikov zahtevajo, da se prilagodijo v nedavno kodificiranem sistemu spola in spola.

Oscar Wilde uporablja queer pisanje življenja v javnosti za komentiranje kulturnih muren. Od svojega romana Portret Doriana Greya skozi razvpite preizkušnje (1895) in poznejše avtobiografije De Profundis Wilde repozicionira "jaz" in telo, ko se povezujejo z njegovo javnostjo.


WRANGLER Nominiran kot spremljevalec letalskega prevoznika HM NEVERJIV

Julij V Sydneyju čakajo na dokončanje popravila HMS INDEFATIGABLE.

Prehod za pridružitev BPF -ju z Japonske kot spremstvo za HMS INDEFATIGABLE with

17. prispela na območje za dopolnitev ob Japonski s HMS NEMOGUČLJIVIM

20. združena delovna skupina 37 ladij med polnjenjem.

23. jadral z zaslonom za Task Force 37 ladij za nadaljevanje operacij proti ciljem

na celinskih japonskih otokih. Za podrobnosti glejte zgornje reference.

3. Razmeščeno z zaslonom Task Force 37 med skupnimi zračnimi napadi RN/US Navy

na severu Honshuja in Hokkaida

12. Preneseno z bojno ladjo HM KING GEORGE V, letalski nosilec letal HM NEMOGOČE,

HM Cruisers GAMBIA (RNZN) in NEWFOUNDLAND, HM Destroyers TROUBRIDGE,

TERMAGANT, TENACIOUS, TEAZER, BARFLEUR. NIZAM (RAN), WRANGLER in

NAPIER (RAN) z bojno ladjo HM vojvoda YORK in HMS WHELP za nadaljevanje službe

v tretji floti ZDA kot žetonska sila ladij BPF in označena kot enota za nalogo 38,5 v okviru naloge ZDA

20. Preneseno na revidirano identiteto delovne skupine v okviru ameriške delovne skupine 38.

23. Preneseno z vsemi ladjami Token Force, razen s HMS WUKE OF YORK, HMS WAGER in

HMS WHELP bo reformiral delovno skupino 37 za vstop v japonske vode.

27. vstopil v Sagami Wan, da bi počakal na razrešitev sidrišča in privezov za uradno predajo in

podporo kasnejšim okupacijskim operacijam.

2. Prisoten pri uradni predaji Japonskega cesarstva v Tokijskem zalivu.

HMS WAKEFUL (ii) je ostal v japonskih vodah, da bi pomagal pri repatriaciji zavezniških državljanov, preden je odšel v Sydney. Ladja se je vrnila v Združeno kraljestvo s flotilo, ki je prispela decembra 1945. Ostala je v službi kot ladja za usposabljanje fantov, dokler ni bila spremenjena za uporabo kot protipodmorniška fregata v Greenocku. Ko je bila leta 1953 dokončana, se je ladja pridružila 5. eskadrilu fregate, v kateri je služila do leta 1957, ko je bila spremenjena za uporabo kot radarska ladja za usposabljanje. Leta 1959 se je pridružila lokalni eskadril Portsmouth in kasneje 2. eskadrilu fregate, preden je leta 1969 izvedla preskuse na satelitski komunikacijski opremi. Na ladji za odstranitev leta 1970 je bila ta ladja 10. julija 1971 prodana TW Ward in prispela v Inverkeithing za rušenje 5. julija istega leta.


Vsebina

Whipple je bil določen 12. junija in izstreljen 6. novembra 1919 od Williama Crampa & amp Sons, ki ga je sponzorirala gospa Gladys V. Mulvey, pra-pra-vnukinja Abrahama Whippleja, 23. aprila 1920 pa je bil pod vodstvom poročnika Richarda F. Bernarda.

1920 do druge svetovne vojne Uredi

Po treningu pretresov iz zaliva Guantanamo na Kubi, Whipple vrnil v Philadelphijo zaradi razpoložljivosti po pretresanju. Uničevalec je 29. maja 1920 odplul proti Bližnjemu vzhodu in 13. junija prispel v Carigrad (leta 1923 preimenovan v Istanbul). Naslednjih osem mesecev je delovala v regiji Črnega morja in vzhodnega Sredozemlja pod splošnim poveljstvom admirala Marka L. Bristola, poveljnika ameriškega mornariškega odreda v bližnjevzhodnih vodah. Takrat je bil ves Bližnji vzhod nemiren zaradi sprememb, ki jih je povzročila prva svetovna vojna in po njej.

Whipple dostavil pošto uničevalcu Chandler v Samsunu v Turčiji 16. junija in iztovoril predstavnike podjetja British American Tobacco, ki jih je uničevalec prepeljal iz Carigrada. Nato je obiskala Sevastopol na ruskem Krimu in Constanţo v Romuniji. Nepričakovano naročeno v Batum, Georgia, Whipple je odšel iz Samsuna 6. julija in naredil 30 vozlov (56 km/h 35 milj na uro), da bi naslednji dan prišel do cilja. Tam se je udeležila mirnega prenosa mesta pod nadzor Gruzije z britanskih čet, ki so bile tam nameščene od konca prve svetovne vojne. [ potrebno pojasnilo ]

Whipple nato se je premaknila proti jugu na kratko križarjenje po levantinski obali, med katerim je obiskala Bejrut in Damask v Siriji ter Port Said v Egiptu, preden se je 18. avgusta vrnila v Carigrad. Medtem ko je opravljala to križarjenje, je potekala obsežna oznaka številk trupov po vsej mornarici Whipple je bil razvrščen kot DD-217 17. julija 1920. Uničevalec je nato nadaljeval svojo prejšnjo rutino na črnomorski poti, prevažal pošto med pristanišči (vključno s pošiljkami za konzulate in podobno) in opazoval razmere v pristaniščih v Romuniji, Rusiji in Azijski Turčiji.

Medtem ko je potekalo 19. oktobra, Whipple vidne signale stiske iz grškega parnika Thetis in odšla na pomoč poškodovanega plovila, ko se je nasedla ob Constanţi. Po 10 urah je uničevalcu uspelo osvoboditi Thetis iz svoje stiske in zaslužil pohvalo poveljnika divizije. Citiranje je pohvalilo pobudo poveljnika poveljnika Bernarda in njegovo odlično vodenje ladje v plitvini s težkim morjem. "Celotna zadeva," je zaključil citat, "odraža velike zasluge Whipple in pomorsko službo ZDA. "

Medtem ko Whipple vodila svoje patrulje, razmere v državljanski vojni v Rusiji so se spreminjale. Whipple konvojem invalidnega ameriškega parnika SS Haddon v Konstantinopel in se nato napajala v Constanci, kjer je izvedela, da se ruske boljševiške čete približujejo Krimu. General baron Pyotr Wrangel, ki je poveljeval beloruskim silam na tem območju, je s svojo zadnjo akcijo potegnil svoje sile nazaj v Sevastopol, od koder so se belci z različnimi plovili evakuirali na morje, da bi pobegnili prihajajočim boljševiškim silam.

Whipple 14. novembra zjutraj prispel v Sevastopol in se poročil viceadmiralu Newtonu A. McCullyju za naročila. V pristanišču je bilo prisotnih na stotine čolnov, ki so bili pogosto napolnjeni s pištolami z evakuacijo Belih Rusov. Poleg Whipple, križarka Louis in dva uničevalca, Overton in Humphreys, je stal pripravljen za evakuacijo izbranih posameznikov, ki so nosili vozovnice od admirala McCullyja.

Ves čas Whipple ostala v Sevastopolu, njena glavna baterija je bila usposobljena in opremljena. Oborožene posadke čolnov so evakuirane odpeljale na ladjo, medtem ko so bile njene pristajalne sile v pripravljenosti. Ko se je njen zadnji čoln odrinil z obale, so boljševiške čete prišle do glavnega trga in začele streljati na bežeče Bele Ruse Whipple misijo zaključil pravočasno.

Whipple nato vlekel barko, napolnjeno z ranjenimi beloruskimi četami, izven dosega boljševiških pušk in jo nato vlekel Humphreys. As Whipple minilo Overton, McCully je na mostu slednjega z megafonom zaklical "bravo, Whipple. "Zadnje ameriško plovilo iz Sevastopola, rušilec se je s potniki, tako na vrhu kot pod palubami, odpravil proti Carigradu. Vsak je imel zelo malo stvari, ni imel hrane in je imel zelo malo denarja. Mnogi so bili bolni ali ranjeni.

Po izkrcanju beguncev v Carigradu, Whipple nadaljevala s svojo postajno ladjo in pošto, ki je opravljala naloge pri Bližnjevzhodnem mornariškem odredu, in nalogo nadaljevala do konca leta 1920 in do pomladi 1921. 2. maja 1921 je rušilec skupaj s soigralci odplul na Daljni vzhod, tranzit skozi Sueški prekop in klic v Bombay, India Colombo, Ceylon Batavia, Java Singapore, Straits Settlements in Saigon, French Indochina. 29. junija je prispela v svoje novo domače pristanišče Cavite na Filipinskih otokih v bližini Manile. Naslednja štiri leta je uničevalec služil v azijski floti, "pokazal zastavo" in pripravljen varovati življenja in premoženje Američanov na Kitajskem, ki ga raztrgajo spopadi. V zimskih mesecih je delovala iz Caviteja in izvajala taktične vaje na Filipinih, dokler se spomladi ni odpravila proti severu v pristanišča Severne Kitajske za poletne operacije iz Tsingtaa.

Konec leta 1924 in v začetku leta 1925 je prišlo do spopadov med lokalnimi poveljniki okoli Šanghaja Whipplejevega poklicani, da služijo kot prevoz. 15. januarja 1925 je odred za morje iz Sacramento odšel na kopno, da bi zaščitil ameriško lastnino, medtem ko se je približno v istem času odpravila ekspedicijska sila marincev pod vodstvom kapitana Jamesa P. Schwerina, USMC. Whipple, Borie, in Barker. Trije uničevalci so 22. januarja izkrcali marince, s čimer so takrat razbremenili 28-članski odred.

18. maja 1925 je Whipple in njena divizija je odplula proti Združenim državam, prek Guam -a, Midwaya in Pearl Harbora ter 17. junija prispela v San Diego. Pet dni kasneje se je ladja odpravila proti vzhodni obali Združenih držav in 17. julija je prispela v Norfolk. Sledila je operacija na vzhodni obali ZDA od Mainea do Floride in križarjenje v zalivu Guantanamo za manevre s floto. Med tem časom, Whipple v Nikaragvo spustili na kopno desantne sile za zaščito življenj in premoženja Američanov, ki jim grozijo razbojništvo in nemiri. V štirih ločenih primerih, konec leta 1926 in v začetku leta 1927, je desant iz uničevalca služil na obali in ladji prislužil drugo medaljo v nikaragvanski kampanji.

Whipple odpotovala iz Norfolka 26. maja 1927, da bi začela križarjenje s svojo divizijo v pristanišča severne Evrope. Nato se je odpravila proti jugu na kratko turnejo po Sredozemlju, preden je 29. januarja 1928 odpotovala iz Gibraltarja in se odpravila na Kubo. Opravljala je operacije na Karibih iz zaliva Guantanamo, do 26. marca, ko se je podala na zahodno obalo ZDA. Delovala je v Pacifiku iz baze uničevalcev v San Diegu v Kaliforniji do 1. avgusta 1929. Whipple odpotovala z zahodne obale ZDA, namenjena na azijsko postajo in njeno drugo turnejo z azijsko floto.

Whipple Naslednje desetletje je preživel z azijsko floto in opazoval naraščajočo prednost Japonske nad Kitajsko in Daljnim vzhodom. Nadaljevala je rutino, ki je skupna ladjam njenega tipa s floto: zimske vaje na filipinskih otokih in poletne manevre iz Tsingtaa na Kitajskem, vmes pa križarjenja do kitajskih obalnih pristanišč. 8. februarja 1932 je trčila v britanski parnik Rosalie Moller v Yangtzeju v Šanghaju na Kitajskem in utrpel hudo škodo. [1]

Med vajami v zalivu Subic spomladi 1936 je Whipple in uničevalec Smith Thompson trčila 14. aprila. Slednji je v nesreči utrpel tako hudo škodo, da so jo morali razrezati. Kot posledica, Whipple, čigar lasten lok je bil upognjen, dokler se ni obrnil proti krmi, je prejel Smith ThompsonNepoškodovan lok in kmalu spet aktivna služba.

Medtem so se napetosti med Kitajsko in Japonsko še naprej stopnjevale, zlasti na severu Kitajske. Ti dolgotrajni antagonizmi so izbruhnili v odprtih bojih blizu Pekinga 7. julija 1937, ki je kmalu postala popolna vojna v bližini. Dva tedna kasneje je majhna eskadrila enot Azijske flote, vključno z Whipple, je 24. julija odplul iz Chefooja. Uničevalec v družbi s Alden, Barker, in Paul Jones, se je srečal z Augusta 25. na poti do obale Sibirije. Pet ladij je 28. novembra prispelo v Vladivostok v ZSSR.

Obisk, prvi ameriški vojni mož od vzpostavitve diplomatskih odnosov s Sovjetsko zvezo leta 1933, je trajal do 1. avgusta, ko se je pet ladij odpravilo nazaj na Kitajsko. V naslednjih štirinajstih dneh, ko je flota nadaljevala svojo rutino, so med kitajskimi in japonskimi silami v Šanghaju izbruhnile sovražnosti, druga kitajsko-japonska vojna pa je vstopila v novo fazo.

Flota je nadaljevala svoje poslanstvo opazovanja konflikta in bila pripravljena na evakuacijo Američanov iz kitajskih pristanišč, če bi se to zgodilo. Do sredine leta 1938, ko se je vojna preselila v notranjost in navzgor po Jangceju, je flota nadaljevala svojo nekdanjo rutino. Whipple in njeni sorodniki v družbi z Črni sokol, junija 1938 obiskal Bangkok, Siam.

Japonci so zavzeli večino večjih obalnih mest in pristanišč ter tistih ob spodnjem delu Jangceja, zahodnim državam, ki še vedno poskušajo ohraniti svoje interese na Kitajskem, pa se je povečalo možnosti za težave. Spomladi 1939 se je ena taka priložnost zgodila v kitajskem Amoyu, kjer je kitajski strelec ustrelil japonskega državljana. Japonci so se odzvali tako, da so v bližini mednarodnega naselja Koolangsu izkrcali osebje posebnih pomorskih desantnih sil. Podobno so storili tudi Britanci in Američani, ki so pristali z modrimi jopiči Marblehead in britansko lahko križarko Birmingham. Septembra 1939 je Whipple je služila kot postajna ladja v Amoyu, njena desantna sila na kopnem in na ladjo se je vkrcal kapitan John T. G. Stapler, poveljnik južnokitajske patrulje.

3. septembra 2355 ob 2355, Whipple V dnevniku krova je zapisano, da je Francija Nemčiji napovedala vojno dva dni po napadu nemških vojakov na Poljsko. V Evropi se je začela druga svetovna vojna, ki je bistveno spremenila razmerje moči na vzhodu, saj je Britanija potegnila velik del flote Kitajske postaje, da bi okrepila domačo in sredozemsko floto. Whipple je leta 1941 deloval na patrulji nevtralnosti na Filipinih, ko je admiral Thomas C. Hart pripravil majhno azijsko floto na vojno.

Druga svetovna vojna Uredi

25. novembra 1941, dva dni pred "vojnim opozorilom", ki je napovedovalo sovražno japonsko delovanje na Tihem oceanu, je admiral Hart poslal uničevalno divizijo (DesDiv) 57 (Whipple, USS Alden, USS John D. Edwards in USS Edsall) z razpisom uničevalcev USS Črni sokol, v Balikpapan na Borneu, da bi razpršil površinske ladje svoje flote z njihovega ranljivega položaja v zalivu Manila.

Sprva naj bi se pridružil britanskim silam, ki temeljijo na bojni ladji HMS Princ od Walesa in bojni križar HMS Odbiti, Whipple Misija je bila prekinjena, ko so japonska torpedna letala na kopnem in visoki bombniki 10. decembra potopili obe glavni ladji v Južnokitajskem morju pri Kuantanu v Malaji. Whipple je prišel v Singapur 11. decembra in odšel 14. decembra na Nizozemsko vzhodno Indijo.

V boju proti obupnemu napadu zadaj pred hitro premikajočim se in dobro organiziranim sovražnikom so se ameriško-britansko-nizozemsko-avstralsko poveljstvo (ABDA) soočile z velikimi ovirami, ko so se umaknile proti "malajski pregradi". Med tem časom, Whipple opravljal spremljevalne in patruljne naloge v februarju 1942. 12. februarja je uničevalec prišel iz zaliva Prigi na Javi v gosti megli. Ko se je odpravila proti Tjilatjapu, na južni obali Jave, jo je lahka križarka Kraljevske nizozemske mornarice zadela z močnim udarcem. De Ruyter. Ko je nizozemska ladja prišla iz mraka, Whipple pozorno zamahnil v levo, da bi se izognil trčenju, kar je preprečilo resnejšo škodo. Drydocked v Tjilatjapu 13. februarja, Whipple ugotovil, da je škoda manjša, in se pridružil floti za aktivno službo.

26. februarja ob 1640 Whipple in sestrsko ladjo Edsall odšel iz Tjilatjapa na srečanje s ponudbo hidroplanov Langley ob južni obali Jave. Ko so 27. februarja vzpostavili stik z njo, so rušilci zasedli položaje za preverjanje, da bi ranljivo ladjo in njen vitalni tovor 32 lovcev P-40 in osebja letalskih sil ZDA (USAAF) pospremili v Tjilatjap. Ob 1150 so opazovalci opazili devet japonskih bombnikov visoke stopnje, ki se približujejo z vzhoda. Štiri minute kasneje je naokoli brizgala bomba Langley, ki je bil očitno v središču pozornosti Japoncev. Med drugim napadom so kmalu po poldnevu tri vojne ladje močno sprožile protiletalski ogenj.

Langley Izmikajoči se manevri niso zadostovali, da bi Japonci preprečili, da bi jo udaril z več bombami pri 1212, pri tem pa zažgal nekdanji letalski nosilec in povzročil poplave.

Whipple prekinil streljanje na 1224, ko so napadalci zavili stran v smeri severovzhodnika. Ona in Edsall pristopil Langley v pomoč, kmalu zatem pa so nanje potopila štiri japonska lovska letala, ki pa so jih odpeljali z enim letalom, ki ga je poškodoval protiletalski požar.

Langley je bila tako hudo poškodovana, da je njen kapitan ukazal, naj zapusti ladjo leta 1325, in Whipple prišel zraven, da bi rešil preživele, pri tem pa je uporabil dva reševalna splava uničevalca, tovorno mrežo, ki je bila prestavljena ob bok, in številne črte, ki so bile vlečene ob bok. Whipple pobral 308 mož iz Langleyjev posadko in potnike Edsall pobral 177 preživelih. Ob 1358 se je reševanje končalo, Whipple se ustavil, da bi potopil Langley, je odprl ogenj pri 1429 s svojo 4-palčno glavno baterijo. Po devetih krogih 4 palcev in dveh torpedih, Langley vse nižje, a trmasto noče potoniti. Kmalu so prišla navodila Whipple in Edsall očistiti območje pred morebitnimi bombnimi napadi.

Oba rušilca ​​sta zapustila območje in se nato z oljarjem ponovno srečala Pecos off Christmas Island za prenos Langley preživeli do oljarja. 27. februarja ob 1020 so trije japonski bombniki z dvojnim motorjem napadli božični otok. Eden je izpostavil Whipple and dropped a stick of bombs which missed the rapidly dodging destroyer. The three ships headed south to get out of Japanese land-based aircraft range and completed transferring the survivors to On 28 February, Whipple began transferring Langley crew members to Pecos, completing the task by 0800 on 1 March. While one destroyer transferred personnel, the other circled and maintained an antisubmarine screen. When the transfer was completed, the two destroyers parted company with the oiler. Changing course in anticipation of orders to retire from Java, Whipple prepared to send a message relative to these orders when the destroyer's chief radioman heard a cell for help over the radio from Pecos, then under attack by Japanese bombers near Christmas Island.

Whipple sped to the scene to render assistance if possible. Throughout the afternoon, as the destroyer closed the oiler, all hands on board prepared knotted lines and cargo nets for use in picking up survivors. Whipple went to general quarters at 1922 when she sighted several small lights off both bows.

Whipple slowly closed and began picking up survivors of Pecos. After interrupting the proceedings to conduct an unsuccessful attack on a submarine thought to be nearby, she returned to the task and continued the search until she had received 231 men from the oiler. Whipple soon cleared the area, believing that a Japanese aircraft carrier was close. Within a few days, Java fell to the Japanese who were gradually consolidating their expanding "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere." Whipple joined what remained of the Asiatic Fleet in Australian waters.

Subsequently sailing to Melbourne, Australia, and arriving on 23 March, Whipple operated with Australian and New Zealand Navy warships on convoy escort duties along the Great Barrier Reef until 2 May. She departed Sydney on that day, bound for the New Hebrides Islands, American Samoa and Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 6 June. Together with sister ship Alden, Whipple departed Pearl Harbor on 8 June for San Francisco, escorting an eastward-bound convoy to the U.S. West Coast, arriving on the 18th.

During a yard availability at Mare Island, the destroyer's topside weight was cut down as 20-millimeter antiaircraft guns replaced two banks of her torpedo tubes. Thus modified for convoy escort work, Whipple put to sea to commence the first of seven round-trip convoy escort missions from the U.S. West Coast to Hawaii which lasted into the spring of 1943.

Standing out of San Francisco Bay on 11 May 1943, Whipple sailed for the Caribbean with a convoy routed through the Panama Canal for Santa Anna Bay, Curaçao, Netherlands West Indies. After the cargo ships loaded a petroleum cargo, the convoy pushed on for Cuba and arrived at Guantanamo Bay on 29 May. From Guantanamo, the destroyer escorted a convoy to Trinidad but returned to the Cuban base on 19 June before heading north to the New York Navy Yard for voyage repairs.

Later departing New York on 10 July, Whipple escorted a group of ships which rendezvoused with a convoy bound for Casablanca, French Morocco, and Gibraltar. Returning to Charleston, South Carolina, on 27 August, the destroyer put to sea on 7 September as a unit in a slow tow convoy bound via the Caribbean to Recife, Brazil. Whipple headed north soon thereafter, guarding a convoy to Trinidad, and then up the eastern seaboard to Charleston, making port on 19 November.

After another convoy escort run from Norfolk to Guantanamo Bay and the Panama Canal Zone, Whipple joined three other destroyers in completing the offensive antisubmarine task group based around the escort carrier Guadalcanal. Departing Norfolk on 5 January 1944, the group went to sea to hunt German U-boats active in the Atlantic.

On 16 January, aircraft from Guadalcanal sighted three U-boats on the surface, fueling, some 300 miles off Flores. Carrier-based Avengers attacked the group and sank U-544 in the ensuing attack. After replenishing at Casablanca, the group returned to the high seas and searched convoy lanes for signs of German submarines until arriving at Norfolk on 16 February. Detached from the antisubmarine group soon thereafter, Whipple underwent voyage repairs at the Boston Navy Yard. On 13 March, the destroyer departed the U.S. East Coast in company with USS Convoy, bound for the Mediterranean.

In the early morning darkness of 1 April, German planes - Dornier Do 217s and Junkers Ju 88s - came in low and fast to attack the convoy. Keeping up a heavy fire with her 20-millimeter batteries, Whipple sent up a substantial part of the heavy barrage which drove off the 30 German planes and saved the convoy from substantial damage. Arriving at Bizerte, Tunisia, on 3 April, the destroyer subsequently returned to Norfolk on 30 April.

For the remainder of 1944 and into the spring of 1945, Whipple performed convoy escort duties off the U.S. East Coast, across the Atlantic to Casablanca, and occasionally into the Caribbean. She was commanded by Captain Richard N. Reeves (USNR).

Post-World War II Edit

Arriving at New London, Connecticut, on 6 June 1945, Whipple was redesignated an auxiliary, AG-117. After acting as a target ship for submarines off New London, the erstwhile destroyer entered the New York Navy Yard on 9 July for conversion to a high-speed target vessel.

On 5 August, Whipple departed New York for duty in the Pacific. Transiting the Panama Canal, the target ship proceeded via San Diego to Hawaii and arrived at Pearl Harbor on 30 August. She subsequently served as a target vessel for submarines of the Pacific training command until 21 September.


The Village Tour

Main Street Bridge The bridge places one at the very heart of Middlebury, its traffic jams, its history, its life forces. Here come together two of the major elements which assured success to Painter's unprepossessing rocky, tangled one hundred acres. First is the creek, longest waterway in the state of Vermont and a major transportation route through the virgin forests at the time of the settlement of Addison County. To the northwest of the bridge are Middlebury Falls, a dramatic source of water power for cutting the wood and milling the grain of the frontier society. Here at the northern brink of the falls and safely away from its ice floes and floods, Painter built a sawmill in 1787 and a gristmill by 1788. At the southern brink Daniel Foot had claimed one hundred acres in Cornwall in 1786 and done the same. Two rival centers began to grow on Foot's and Painter's properties.

At first the only connection between the two sides was a short distance upstream (around the bend and near the present railroad bridge), where a ford and, briefly, Hop Johnson's ferry joined Middlebury and Cornwall. Here was the germ of the second major force in Middlebury's success—roads. The early trails in the area had focused on the falls and the ford. In 1787 they received a new focus. Foot, whose major landholdings were in Middlebury anyhow, built a bridge above the falls to link the towns and to enhance his potential mill business, successfully petitioning the legislature the next year for state compensation of his costs. It was a wooden bridge with log piers and abutments and a clear span of seventy feet. One approached it down muddy banks and crossed the springy, open-sided structure only twelve feet above the rushing water. Some must still have preferred the ford.

ABOVE Battell Bridge under construction, ca. 1892. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection

BELOW View of the newly completed Battell Bridge, ca. 1893. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, Averill Collection

The present bridge, built in 1892 – 93, is the last of a long series of rebuildings after floods and fires. When the wooden structure was destroyed by the fire of 1891, the town determined to rebuild it in fireproof materials. However, only after lengthy debate, numerous town meetings, canceled contracts, and the offer of a substantial subsidy by Col. Joseph Battell, could the town decide to rebuild in stone rather than iron. Having bought a voice in the proceedings and desiring a structure suited to the beauty and importance of Middlebury, Mr. Battell proposed that the new construction be modeled on the Ponte Sant' Angelo in Rome, built across the Tiber River about 130 A.D. as access to the tomb of the Emperor Hadrian. The tomb later having been adapted for use as the papal fortress and renamed Castel Sant' Angelo, in the seventeenth century the great sculptor Bernini and his shop had embellished the bridge with a suitable flock of Baroque marble angels to make it the most elegant crossing place in Rome. The Middlebury bridge was spared the angels but received its model's great stone arches, in the process necessitating the raising of the road level of the bridge, and thus also of Main Street, by some ten feet.

In building the first bridge, Foot contributed to the ultimate failure of his dream to establish the town center on his family's Foote Street acreage. The bridge acted on regional roads as a magnet does on iron filings, serving as the focus for a radial network spreading outward from the falls across the town and county. With power and communication the falls were a natural place for the development of commerce and a population center. Two centers at first, the lands of the two rival squires, one on the Cornwall and one on the Middlebury bank of the creek, supported two growing communities that were so inextricably linked by the bridge and the falls that in 1796 the Cornwall side was annexed, and Middlebury began a politically unified development. The village and its surrounding region grew quickly, indeed too quickly for Foot. Already in 1793 a resident reported some sixty-two buildings, mostly log, at the falls (or Painter's Mills, as the village was informally known). By 1801 it was altogether too civilized, and the seventy-seven-year-old Foot determined to start over in a new wilderness. Dividing his land among his twelve children and leaving the town leadership to his rival, Painter, he set out for Canton, New York, where he died the same year.

(Leaving the bridge, walking northward to Merchants Row and the south side of the Green.)

View of the Green with the Addison House in the background, ca. 1850s. The Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History, Stereoviews

The Green Gamaliel Painter is the third great force determining Middlebury's successful development. Much of the village northeast of the creek was built upon Painter's mill lot, and its early quality and character were due to his efforts and those of the men whom he cannily drew to Middlebury Falls. Painter had become sheriff of Addison County in 1786, and as sheriff it was his prerogative and duty to establish the location of the stocks "in the most public place in each respective town"—the town center. Painter placed Middlebury's stocks and whipping post in the area adjacent to his mills, on what is now the village Green (which he formally deeded to the town in the 1790s). The primeval tangle was slashed down and in later, temperance times the penalty for backsliding was reputedly to dig up a stump on the Green. The location of the stocks has since been marked by a marble post. The Green now caters to pleasure instead of punishment, serving as a site for public events, for shady relaxation, and for listening to concerts and other entertainment. The bandstand, replacing a structure burned in the early 1940s, was erected in 1975 as a gift of the Rotary Club and dedicated to the memory of beloved local author William Hazlett Upson, creator of the Alexander Botts stories in the Saturday Evening Post .

The Painter House (head of Merchants Row at South Pleasant Street) In 1787 Painter hired away Foot's mill foreman, Simeon Dudley, to help construct and look after his own milling operations. Dudley soon built himself a simple, one-story frame dwelling on the crest of the hill above the mills and developing Green, the first house in Painter's village. He did not occupy it for long, however, for having been named a judge, Painter decided to move to town and make the new house his own. He raised the roof to accomodate a low second story and perhaps added the lean-to to the rear and then on Christmas Day 1787 held what was for the region a memorably lavish house-warming. Here the Painters lived until 1802, when work was completed on their grand new mansion, further back on the property, and the Dudley House was moved out of the way to its present location at 7 Seymour Street.

LEFT The original Painter House built by Simeon Dudley, after it was moved to 7 Seymour Street in 1802. Undated. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection

RIGHT The second Painter House, looking east from South Pleasant Street in 1939. Stewart-Swift Research Center at the Henry Sheldon Museum, General Collection

The new Painter residence, still presiding over its dominant site, was an index of the rapidly increasing stature not only of its owner but also of his town. The finely proportioned two-story structure, traditionally attributed to joiner Samuel D. Coe (who reputedly was murdered shortly after its completion), had major rooms with handsome fireplaces on each floor surrounding a central hall with, originally, a curving staircase. There was a first-floor ballroom across its eastern side and a rare monitor that formed a partial third floor, surrounded by a rooftop walk. Early accounts and views attest to the fact that it was simple and dignified, embellished only by eaves balustrades and a square-headed Palladian window facing toward Merchants Row. However, it underwent several remodelings. In 1813, responding to the fact that the new Centre Turnpike (Court Street) now entered the town past its back door, Painter formalized that front of the house with a marble facing for the basement and a new fan-lighted door. It is likely at that time as well that the house received its elegant exterior embellishment—pilasters with rope mouldings, wooden string course, and frieze—very likely by the talented house joiner Lavius Fillmore (who also built the Congregational Church across the Green for Painter). The house's susbsequent owner, Rufus Wainwright, had all the windows enlarged and shifted in a remodeling of 1823. Subsequent generations of Wainwrights added the classically detailed doorway in a Greek Revival vocabulary (probably in the 1840s), rebuilt the staircase several times in a straightened format, subdivided the ballroom, and added the wing. In the 1980s the house was given to Middlebury College, which restored it and made it available as a home for such non-profit organizations as the Addison County Chamber of Commerce and the Vermont Folklife Center.

Painter could hardly had selected a better site for his house. Not oly did it dominate the mills and the Green, but it was also at the head of Love Lane (now South Pleasant Street), the first major entry to the village from the south.

Copyright © 2005 The Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History, Middlebury, Vermont. Vse pravice pridržane.

A Walking History of Middlebury was first published by the Middlebury Bicentennial Committee in 1975 and reprinted by the Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History in 1981, 1983, 1987, 1990 and 1994. The Henry Sheldon Museum published the revised edition edited by Greg Pahl in 1997. Designed and edited for the Web by Anne Callahan in 2005, the online edition is hosted by the Middlebury College Library, Middlebury, Vermont. Valid XHTML 1.0 and CSS.


Mahabharat: All episodes of ‘greatest epic in history of mankind’ to air on DD Retro

All episodes of the television epic Mahabharat will be aired on DD Retro, Doordarshan has announced. The series was being re-telecast, along with several other classics such as Ramayan, on DD Bharati during the coronavirus lockdown.

Doordarshan tweeted on Tuesday, “COMING SOON on @RetroDD - #Mahabharat - The greatest epic in the history of mankind.” A video teaser was also attached, and showed pivotal moments from the series, originally telecast in 1988.

COMING SOON on @RetroDD -#Mahabharat - The greatest epic in the history of mankind pic.twitter.com/IYH27aTJD0

— Doordarshan National (@DDNational) April 28, 2020

The show, created by BR Chopra, ran for 94 episodes and starred Nitish Bharadwaj as Lord Krishna, Mukesh Khanna as Bhishma, Gajendra Chauhan as Yudhishthir, Praveen Kumar as Bhim, Roopa Ganguly as Draupadi and Puneet Issar as Duryodhan.

In a recent interview to Hindustan Times, Nitish revealed that he was offered several different roles prior to being cast as Krishna. He recalled, “(BR Chopra) was convincing me whole day to do Nakul and Sahdev. I was convincing him throughout the day that I don’t want to do Nakul and Sahdev because I knew Mahabharata story and wanted to do something better.”

Casting director Gufi Paintal auditioned thousands of actors for the show. About how he came across Puneet and Nitish, he told Hindustan Times in an interview, “Puneet had accidentally punched Amitabh Bachchan in Coolie (1983), and was out of work. Nitish was spotted in an ad made by the Chopras.”


Conduct a research on the history of Multimedia and search engines. Write a short note and your findings. Do a comparative analysis on at least 4 of the various search engines that we have.

Q: Problem 1 Write a complete Java program that takes an integer and displays the English name of tha.

A: Note: As, per our guidelines we can able to solve only one question at a time. So, please repost the.

Q: A2. Implement the circuit diagram of F= xy'z+XXz + Wy+wXy and fill in the following truth table by s.

A: Click to see the answer

Q: What is the output of the following program code? int if (id &lt 0) throw new.

Q: What is the value of a[5] if an array is initialized as follows: int a[10]=<15> O 15 216 0000

A: According to the asked question, the solution is given below with a proper explanation.

Q: The performance of a computer system can be defined as the efficiency with which a computer system m.

A: The performance of a computer system can be defined as the efficiency with which a computer system m.

Q: What is the value of x[2] if an array is declared and initialized as follows: double x[ J=<6.6, 3.3.

A: Option (D) is correct option.

Q: a. Balancing performance between processor, memory, buses, and peripheral devices arealmost impossib.

A: Answer : a) Cache memory size , CPU clock speed these two major factor effect on the performance of.

Q: What is the output of the following java code?String A1 = "Muscat International"String A2 = A1.subs.

A: Substring is basically the sub part of the original string. In java we have a method called substrin.


Why Did Charles Darwin Cause Controversy?

Charles Darwin caused controversy because his work on "The Origin of the Species" challenged the beliefs of creationism. Darwin's "The Origin of the Species" brought about skepticism all throughout the scientific world.

Darwin's research downplayed creationism as he believed that pure evil and pure good were simply nonexistent. Since men were no more than evolved monkeys, a God or divine being was not part of the creation process. He also believed that people are merely servants to the environment and their community and were not the superior beings that so many believed them to be. He strongly thought that humans only created cultures and social systems to gain some control over the natural selection process.

Darwin's thoughts on human life challenged people not only in the scientific world but in the church as well. According to Darwin and his theories, God and other divine beings did not exist as people believed. This caused scientists studying the field to reevaluate what they had learned. His works also caused plenty of moral dilemmas. His work on survival of the fittest claims that humans struggle for survival and that the world is sinister in nature. Humans constantly fight for resources, social status and other areas, and whichever human is successful is the most fit for the environment. This angered many religious leaders and scientists as it contradicted many of their beliefs.


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1960: Soviet Union 2-1 Yugoslavia, aet

Metreveli 49, Ponedelnik 113 Galić 43
Parc des Princes, Paris

Soviel Union: Yashin, Chokheli, Maslenkin, Krutikov, Voinov, Netto, Metreveli, Ivanov, Ponedelnik, Bubukin, Meskhi
Yugoslavia: Vidinić, Djurković, Jusufi, Žanetić, Miladinović, Perušić, Šekularac, Jerković, Galić, Matuš, Kostić

The Soviet Union came from behind to beat Yugoslavia in the inaugural final, with Lev Yashin showing his class before Viktor Ponedelnik's extra-time winner.

1964: Spain 2-1 Soviet Union

Pereda 6, Marcelino Martínez 84 Khusainov 8
Estadio Santiago Bernabéu, Madrid

Španija: Iribar, Rivilla, Olivella, Calleja, Zoco, Fusté, Amancio Amaro, Pereda, Marcelino Martínez, Suárez, Lapetra
Soviet Union: Yashin, Shustikov, Schesternev, Mudrik, Voronin, Anichkin, Chislenko, Ivanov, Ponedelnik, Korneev, Khusainov

Spain combined home advantage and spirited teamwork to prevail at the Soviet Union's expense, Marcelino heading in a late winner following an early exchange of goals.

1968: Italy 1-1 Yugoslavia

Domenghini 80 Džajić 39
Stadio Olimpico, Rome

Italija: Zoff, Anastasi, Burgnich, Castano, Domenghini, Facchetti, Ferrini, Guarneri, Juliano, Lodetti, Prati
Yugoslavia : Pantelić, Fazlagić, Damjanović, Paunović, Holcer, Petković, Musemić, Džajić, Pavlović, Aćimović, Trivić

1968 replay: Italy 2-0 Yugoslavia

Riva 12, Anastasi 31
Stadio Olimpico, Rome

Italija: Zoff, Anastasi, Burgnich, De Sisti, Domenghini, Facchetti, Guarneri, Mazzola, Riva, Rosato, Salvadore
Yugoslavia: Pantelić, Fazlagić, Damjanović, Paunović, Holcer, Musemić, Džajić, Pavlović, Aćimović, Trivić, Hošić

Hosts Italy needed a coin toss to reach the final and their luck continued as they edged Yugoslavia in a hastily arranged replay, Angelo Domenghini having got the crucial equaliser in the first game.

1972: West Germany 3-0 Soviet Union

G Müller 27, 58, Wimmer 52
Roi Baudouin, Brussels

Zahodna Nemčija: Maier, Höttges, Breitner, Schwarzenbeck, Beckenbauer, Wimmer, Heynckes, U Hoeness, G Müller, Netzer, Kremers
Soviet Union: Rudakov, Dzodzuashvili, Khurtsilava, Kaplychniy, Istomin, Konkov, Troshkin, Kolotov, Baidachny (66 Kozynkevych), Banishevski (46 Dolmatov), Onyshchenko

The Soviet Union were no match in the final for West Germany's lethal weapon, with Gerd Müller helping himself to two decisive goals.

1976: Czechoslovakia 2-2 West Germany, aet (Czechoslovakia win 5-3 on pens)

Švehlík 8, Dobiaš 25 D Müller 28, Hölzenbein 89
Stadion FK Crvena zvezda, Belgrade

Czechoslovakia: Viktor, Dobiaš (Veselý 19), Čapkovič, Ondruš, Pivarník, Panenka, Móder, Masný, Nehoda (Biroš 80), Gögh, Švehlík
Zahodna Nemčija: Maier, Vogts, Dietz, Schwarzenbeck, Beckenbauer, Wimmer (Flohe 46), Bonhof, U Hoeness, D Müller, Beer (Bongartz 80), Hölzenbein

Antonín Panenka converted perhaps the most famous spot kick of all time as the Czechs became the first team to win a EURO final shoot-out.

1980: Belgium 1-2 West Germany

Vandereycken 75pen Hrubesch 10, 88
Stadio Olimpico, Rome

Belgium: Pfaff, Gerets, Millecamps, Meeuws, Renquin, Van Moer, Vandereycken, Cools, Mommens, Van Der Elst, Ceulemans
Zahodna Nemčija: Schumacher, Kaltz, Förster, Stielike, Dietz, Schuster, Briegel (Cullmann 55), H Müller, K-H Rummenigge, Hrubesch, K Allofs

Only in the West Germany side because of Klaus Fischer's broken leg, forward Horst Hrubesch ended up stealing the spotlight in Italy.

1984: France 2-0 Spain

Platini 57, Bellone 90
Parc des Princes, Paris

Francija: France: Bats, Battiston (Amoros 73), Bossis, Le Roux, Domergue, Tigana, Fernández, Platini, Giresse, Lacombe (Genghini 80), Bellone
Španija: Arconada, Urquiaga, Salva (Roberto 85), Gallego, Camacho, Julio Alberto (Sarabia 75), Señor, Víctor Muñoz, Francisco López, Santillana, Carrasco

Michel Platini starred on home turf, scoring the opener in France's final triumph against Spain to take his tally to nine for the tournament.

1988: Soviet Union 0-2 Netherlands

Gullit 32, Van Basten 54
Olympiastadion, Munich

Soviet Union: Dasayev, Khidiyatullin, Demianenko, Rats, Aleinikov, Lytovchenko, Zavarov, Protasov (Pasulko 71), Belanov, Mykhailychenko, Gotsmanov (Baltacha 68)
Netherlands: Van Breukelen, Van Tiggelen, R Koeman, Van Aerle, Vanenburg, Mühren, Gullit, Van Basten, E Koeman, Rijkaard, Wouters

Marco van Basten shook off an injury to inspire the Netherlands to their first major trophy, culminating in his incredible final volley.

1992: Denmark 2-0 Germany

Jensen 18, Vilfort 78
Ullevi, Gothenburg

Denmark: Schmeichel, Sivebæk (Christiansen 66), Nielsen, Olsen, Christofte, Jensen, Povlsen, B Laudrup, Piechnik, Larsen, Vilfort
Nemčija: Illgner, Reuter, Brehme, Kohler, Buchwald, Hässler, Riedle, Helmer, Sammer (Doll 46), Effenberg (Thom 80), Klinsmann

Denmark had just two weeks to prepare after replacing Yugoslavia at the finals, but Richard Møller Nielsen's men pulled off an amazing coup.

1996: Czech Republic 1-2 Germany (golden goal)

Berger 59pen Bierhoff 73 95
Wembley Stadium, London

Czech Republic: Kouba, Suchopárek, Nedvěd, Kadlec, Němec, Poborský (Šmicer 88), Kuka, Bejbl, Berger, Horňák, Rada
Nemčija: Köpke, Helmer, Sammer, Scholl (Bierhoff 69), Hässler, Kuntz, Babbel, Ziege, Klinsmann, Strunz, Eilts (Bode 46)

Germany upstaged hosts England in a penalty shoot-out before Oliver Bierhoff's golden goal felled the Czech Republic in the final.

2000: France 2-1 Italy (golden goal)

Wiltord 90, Trezeguet 103 Delvecchio 55
Feijenoord Stadium, Rotterdam

Francija: Barthez, Lizarazu (Pirès 86), Vieira, Blanc, Djorkaeff (Trezeguet 76), Deschamps, Desailly, Zidane, Henry, Thuram, Dugarry (Wiltord 58)
Italija: Toldo, Maldini, Albertini, Cannavaro, Pessotto, Nesta, Di Biagio (Ambrosini 66), Iuliano, Fiore (Del Piero 53), Totti, Delvecchio (Montella 86)

Zinédine Zidane starred throughout for France, but it was David Trezeguet who decided the final against Italy with a golden goal.

2004: Portugal 0-1 Greece

Charisteas 57
Estádio do Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Lisbon

Portugalska: Ricardo, Jorge Andrade, Costinha (Rui Costa 60), Luís Figo, Pauleta (Nuno Gomes 74), Miguel (Ferreira 43), Nuno Valente, Carvalho, Ronaldo, Maniche, Deco
Grčija: Nikopolidis, Seitaridis, Dellas, Basinas, Zagorakis, Giannakopoulos (Venetidis 76), Charisteas, Fyssas, Vryzas (Papadopoulos 81), Kapsis, Katsouranis

Otto Rehhagel's unfancied Greece pulled off one of the biggest shocks in tournament history by accounting for hosts Portugal in the final.

2008: Germany 0-1 Spain

Torres 33
Ernst-Happel-Stadion, Vienna

Nemčija: Lehmann, Friedrich, Schweinsteiger, Frings, Klose (Gomez 79), Ballack, Hitzlsperger (Kuranyi 58), Lahm (Jansen 46), Mertesacker, Podolski, Metzelder
Španija: Casillas, Marchena, Puyol, Iniesta, Xavi Hernández, Torres (Güiza 78), Fàbregas (Xabi Alonso 63), Capdevila, Ramos, Senna, Silva (Santi Cazorla 66)

Fernando Torres struck the only goal in the Vienna showpiece as Spain, without a national title in 44 years, finally came good on their promise.

2012: Spain 4-0 Italy

Silva 14, Jordi Alba 41, Torres 84, Juan Mata 88
NSK Olimpiyskyi, Kyiv

Španija: Casillas, Piqué, Iniesta (Juan Mata 87), Xavi Hernández, Fàbregas (Torres 75), Xabi Alonso, Ramos, Busquets, Arbeloa, Jordi Alba, Silva (Pedro Rodríguez 59)
Italija: Buffon, Chiellini (Balzaretti 21), Abate, Marchisio, Balotelli, Cassano (Di Natale 46), Barzagli, De Rossi, Montolivo (Thiago Motta 57), Bonucci, Pirlo

Vicente del Bosque's Spain side retained their title with an emphatic performance in the Ukrainian capital, four different scorers helping them to cruise past Italy.


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Komentarji:

  1. Chester

    neprimerljiva fraza

  2. Clay

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  3. Fitzgerald

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  4. Faelkis

    Vaš blog je moj najljubši



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