William H. Taft o kmetijstvu

William H. Taft o kmetijstvu


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Predsednik William Howard Taft je v Hot Springsu v Virginiji 5. avgusta 1908 v govoru, ki je postal znan kot njegov kmet in republikanec, obravnaval pomen zdravega kmetijstva za gospodarsko blaginjo naroda.


Družina Taft

Prvi znani prednik družine Taft je Richard Robert Taft, ki je leta 1700 umrl v okrožju Louth na Irskem, kjer se je okoli leta 1640 rodil tudi njegov sin Robert Taft starejši. Robert Taft starejši bi bil prvi Taft, ki je preseliti v današnje Združene države. Poročil se je z ženo Sarah Simpson, ki se je rodila januarja 1640 v Angliji, leta 1668 v Braintreeju v Massachusettsu. Robert Taft starejši je okoli leta 1680 ustanovil domačijo v današnjem Uxbridgeu in nato v Mendonu, kjer sta z ženo umrla leta 1725 oziroma 1726. Njegov sin Robert Taft Jr. je bil leta 1727 član ustanovnega odbora Selectmen za novo mesto Uxbridge.

Podružnica družine Massachusetts Taft izvira iz Daniela Tafta starejšega, sina Roberta Tafta starejšega, rojenega v Braintreeju, 1677–1761, umrl v Mendonu. Daniel, mirovni sodnik v Mendonu, je imel sina Josiaha Tafta, pozneje iz Uxbridgea, [2], ki je umrl leta 1756. Ta veja družine Taft trdi, da je prva ameriška volivka ženska, Lydia Taft, in pet generacij zakonodajalcev v Massachusettsu. javni uslužbenci, začenši z Lidijinim možem Josiahom Taftom. [3]

Tafts so bili v revolucionarni vojni, predvsem v zveznih državah Nove Anglije, zelo vidno zastopani kot vojaki. Peter Rawson Taft I, rojen leta 1785 v Uxbridgeu, se je okoli leta 1800 preselil v Townshend v Vermontu. Postal je zakonodajalec zvezne države Vermont. Umrl je v Cincinnatiju, okrožje Hamilton, Ohio. Njegov sin, Alphonso Taft, se je rodil v Townshendu v Vermontu in obiskoval univerzo Yale, kjer je ustanovil društvo Skull and Bones. Pozneje je bil vojni sekretar in generalni državni tožilec ZDA ter oče predsednika Williama Howarda Tafta. [4] Elmshade v Massachusettsu je bilo mesto srečanj družine Taft, na primer leta 1874. [5]

Ameriška družina Taft se je začela z Robertom Taftom starejšim, ki se je emigriral v Braintree, Massachusetts okoli leta 1675. Zgodnje naseljevanje je bilo v Mendonu v Massachusettsu okoli leta 1669 in spet leta 1680 v poznejšem Uxbridgeu, po koncu vojne kralja Filipa. [6] Robertova domačija je bila v zahodnem Mendonu, v pozneje Uxbridgeu, njegov sin pa je bil v ustanovnem odboru izbrancev. Leta 1734 je Benjamin Taft ustanovil železarno v Uxbridgeu, kjer so se začeli nekateri najzgodnejši začetki ameriške industrijske revolucije. Sin Roberta starejšega, Daniel, mirovni sodnik v Mendonu, je imel sina Josiaha Tafta, pozneje iz Uxbridgea, [6], ki je umrl leta 1756. Josiahova vdova je postala "prva ameriška ženska volivka", Lydia Chapin Taft, ko je glasoval na treh mestnih sestankih v Uxbridgeu. [3] Predsednik George Washington je leta 1789 obiskal Taverno Samuela Tafta v Uxbridgeu na svoji "uvodni turneji" po Novi Angliji. [7] Dedek predsednika Williama Howarda Tafta, Peter Rawson Taft I, se je rodil v Uxbridgeu leta 1785. [8] The Hon. Bezaleel Taft Sr., Lydijin sin, je zapustil zapuščino petih generacij ali več javnih služb, vključno z najmanj tremi generacijami v državnem parlamentu Tafts v Massachusettsu. [9] [10] [11] [12] Ezra Taft Benson, Sr, slavni pionir mormonov, je tukaj živel med 1817–1835 in se leta 1832 poročil s svojo prvo ženo Pamelo iz Northbridgea. [13] Ta družina je sčasoma postala ameriška politična dinastija.

  • Robert Taft starejši (ok. 1640–1725) Znana družina Taft v Ameriki je svoje korenine razvila v Mendonu in Uxbridgeu. Robert Taft, Sr, je v Ameriko prišel iz Braintreeja. Prvotna ameriška domačija Taft je bila v zahodnem Mendonu, ki je kasneje postal Uxbridge, zgradil pa jo je prvi priseljenec Robert Taft starejši leta 1681. [6] Robert Taft starejši je leta 1669 zgradil prejšnji dom, vendar je bil opuščen. zaradi vojne kralja Filipa. Potomci Roberta Tafta starejšega so velika politično aktivna družina s potomci, ki so vidni v Ohiu, vendar živijo po vsej ZDA
  • Robert Taft Jr. se je rodil leta 1674 Robertu Sr. in Sarah Taft v Braintreeju. Odraščal je v zahodnem delu Mendona v pozneje Uxbridgeu. Ustanovni član Uxbridge Board of Selectmen je postal leta 1727. [14] Robert Taft Jr. je bil morda prvi ameriški Taft, ki je opravljal politično funkcijo. Njegovi potomci so bili med drugim guverner Rhode Islanda, Royal Chapin Taft, ameriški senator iz Ohia, Kingsley Arter Taft in ameriški minister za kmetijstvo Ezra Taft Benson II.
  • Lydia Chapin Taft Med zgodnjimi prebivalci Uxbridgea je bila pomembna Lydia Chapin Taft, po rodu Mendonka, ki je glasovala na treh uradnih mestnih sestankih v Uxbridgeu, začenši leta 1756. [3] Bila je vdova vnuka Roberta Tafta starejšega, Josiaha Tafta, služil v kolonialni zakonodaji. Josiah je bil sin Daniela Tafta iz Mendona. Taft je bila prva ameriška ženska volivka. [3] To priznava zakonodajalec Massachusettsa. Njen prvi zgodovinski glas, prvi v volilni pravici žensk, je bil za to, da se sredstva namenijo polkom, ki so sodelovali v francoski in indijski vojni.
  • Spoštovani. Bezaleel Taft starejši, Lidijin sin, je imel v ameriški revoluciji čin kapitana in se 18. aprila 1775 odzval na bitko pri Lexingtonu in alarm Concord [11], medtem ko je Lydia gledala. Postal je viden zakonodajalec Massachusettsa in državni senator. [9] Najmanj 12 vojakov s priimkom Taft je v vojni za neodvisnost služilo iz mesta Uxbridge. V osamosvojitveni vojni je sodelovalo tudi veliko več Taftov iz nekdanjih kolonij.
  • Spoštovani. Bezaleel Taft Jr., sin, je sledil zakonodajni karieri na splošnem sodišču v Massachusettsu, državnem senatu in državnem izvršnem svetu. [9] - Bezaleel Taft Jr. in pet generacij vplivnih Taftov so živeli v zgodovinskem domu, znanem kot Elmshade, ki je bil zbirališče družinskih srečanj Taft in je zdaj v nacionalnem registru zgodovinskih krajev. Mladi William Howard Taft in njegov oče, Alphonso Taft, vojni sekretar in ustanovitelj Skull and Bones na Yaleu, sta večkrat obiskala ta dom.
  • George Spring Taft, sin Bezaleel Jr., je bil okrožni tožilec in sekretar ameriškega senatorja Georgea Hoarja. [9] George Elves Taft je živel tudi v Elmshadeu.
  • Tradicija javne službe se je v tej podružnici družine Taft v Massachusettsu nadaljevala vsaj pet generacij. "Življenje Alphonsa Tafta Lewisa Alexandra Leonarda" v Google Knjigah je še posebej bogat vir zgodovine izvora družine Taft v Massachusettsu. [4]
  • Drugi lokalni tafti Drugi lokalni tafti v politični službi v zakonodajnem parlamentu Massachusettsa so bili Arthur M. Taft, Arthur Robert Taft in Zadok Arnold Taft. Royal Chapin Taft, prvotno iz Northbridgea, je postal guverner Rhode Islanda. Število Taftov v javnih službah po vsej Ameriki je bilo izjemno, vključno z New Hampshirejem, Rhode Islandom, Vermontom, Ohiom, Michiganom, Utahom in drugimi državami.
  • Prvi obisk predsednika Samuel Taft je bil ameriški vojak za revolucionarno vojno, oče 22 let, kmet iz Uxbridgea in krčmar. Predsednik George Washington je ostal pri Taverna Samuel Taft novembra 1789, med ustanovnim potovanjem očeta ustanovitelja po Novi Angliji. [7]

Dedek predsednika Williama Howarda Tafta, Peter Rawson Taft I, se je rodil leta 1785 v Uxbridgeu in tam odraščal. Njegov oče Aaron se je pri petnajstih letih zaradi težkega gospodarstva preselil v Townshend v Vermontu. Zgodba pripoveduje, da je Peter Rawson prehodil kravo vse od Uxbridgea do Townshenda, na razdalji več kot 100 milj. "Hiša Aarona Tafta" je zdaj v nacionalnem registru zgodovinskih krajev. Peter Rawson Taft I je postal zakonodajalec v Vermontu in na koncu umrl v okrožju Hamilton, Cincinnati, Ohio. [8] [15] Sin Petra Rawsona Tafta, Alphonso Taft, je ustanovil Skull and Bones na Yaleu, služil je kot vojni sekretar ZDA, njegov sin William Howard pa je postal predsednik ZDA. Predniki ameriških predsednikov že večkrat sledijo Uxbridgeu in Mendonu, vključno z obema predsednikoma s priimkom Bush. [16] Predsednik Taft, prvak v svetovnem miru in edini predsednik, ki je opravljal tudi funkcijo vrhovnega sodnika ZDA, se je vrnil v Uxbridge na družinska srečanja. [4] [9] [17] Ko je 3. aprila 1905 tam stopil z vlaka, je pripomnil: "Uxbridge. Mislim, da imam tukaj več sorodnikov kot v katerem koli mestu v Ameriki." [9] Mladi William Howard Taft je v svojih prejšnjih letih potoval še na Uxbridge in Bezaleel Taft, mlajši, "Elmshade". Mladi William Howard Taft je verjetno pri Elmshadeu slišal, kako je njegov oče Alphonso Taft ponosno govoril o zgodovini družine Taft in družinskih koreninah v Uxbridgeu ter Mendonu okoli leta 1874. [4] [9] Predsednik Taft je ostal v gostilni Samuel Taft, ko je obiskal Uxbridge, tako kot George Washington 120 let prej. [9] [17] New York Times zabeležil obiske predsednika Tafta na svojih predniških domovih v Mendonu in Uxbridgeu v času njegovega predsedovanja. [17] William Howard Taft je kot mlad fant več poletja preživel v dolini Blackstone v Millburyju v Massachusettsu in celo vsaj za en termin obiskoval šole v tem bližnjem mestu.

Ezra T. Benson (za razliko od slavnega pravnuka Ezre Taft Benson), rojen v Mendonu in Uxbridgeu, slovi kot ključni zgodnji apostol mormonske religije. Njegova lastna avtobiografija navaja, da je živel v Uxbridgeu med letoma 1817–1835 ali približno 17 let, potem ko sta se njegova mati, Chloe Taft in oče, John Benson, preselili na tamkajšnjo kmetijo. [18] Mladi Ezra se je 1. januarja 1832 v Uxbridgeu poročil s Pamelo Andrus iz Northbridgea. Z družino se je preselil v hotel v centru Uxbridge leta 1827. S Pamelo sta tu živela v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, imela otroke in umrla otroka, kar je zapisano v Uxbridge Vital Records. [19] Kasneje je upravljal in bil lastnik hotela v središču Uxbridge, preden je vlagal v bombaž na Nizozemskem v Massachusettsu. Leta 1835 se je preselil v nizozemsko mašo. [18] Kasneje se je preselil v Illinois in postal mormonski apostol. Ezra se je leta 1840 pridružila cerkvi LDS v Quincyju v Illinoisu, sklenila pluralne poroke in se poročila s še sedmimi ženami po Pameli. Leta 1846 ga je poklical Brigham Young v zbor dvanajstih apostolov, visoko mesto v cerkvi LDS. Imel je osem žena in 32 otrok. [13] Bil je misijonar na sendvičih, znanih tudi kot Havaji. Bil je predstavnik v ozemeljski skupščini Utaha. Umrl je v Ogdenu v Utahu leta 1869.

Benjamin Taft je leta 1734 ustanovil prvo železarsko kovačnico na odseku Ironstone v Uxbridgeu [9] Tu je bila kakovostna "barjanska železova ruda". Caleb Handy je dodal trifamer, koso in pištole pa so tukaj izdelovali pred letom 1800. Družina Taft je še naprej igrala pomembno vlogo pri zgodnji industrializaciji doline Blackstone, vključno z mlini, ki jih je zgradil potomec 4. generacije Roberta Tafta I, sina Deborah Taft, Daniel Day leta 1810 in njegov zet Luke Taft (1825) in Lukeov sin, Moses Taft leta (1852). [9] Ti volneni mlini, med prvimi, ki so uporabljali električne statve in satene, so med državljansko vojno delovali 24 ur na dan in izdelovali tkanine za ameriške vojaške uniforme. [9] Kompleks Rivulet Mill iz leta 1814 je ustanovil Chandler Taft na North Uxbridgeu. Leta 1855 so v mlinih v Uxbridgeu izdelali 2,5 milijona jardov tkanine. [20] Uxbridge je središče doline Blackstone, najstarejše industrijsko razvite regije v ZDA. Je del koridorja nacionalne dediščine John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley. Samuel Slater, ki je svoj mlin zgradil leta 1790 v Pawtucketu na Rhode Islandu na reki Blackstone, je bil predsednik Andrew Jackson pripisal očetu ameriške industrijske revolucije.

Leta 1864 je sodnik Henry Chapin, triletni župan Worcester in glavni sodnik, citiral dobro znano zgodbo o Uxbridgeu: Neznanec je prišel v mesto, spoznal novo osebo in rekel: "Pozdravljeni, gospod Taft". G. Taft je rekel: "Kako ste vedeli moje ime?" Neznanec je odgovoril: "Domneval sem, da ste Taft, tako kot ostalih 12 Taftov, ki sem jih pravkar spoznal!". [21] To zgodbo je v pesniški obliki ponovil župan Chapin na slavnem srečanju družine Taft tukaj, [ kje? ] zabeleženo v Življenju Alphonsa Tafta. [4]


William Taft / William Taft - ključni dogodki

William Howard Taft priseže in postane sedemindvajseti predsednik Združenih držav. Taft je izbral njegov predhodnik, Theodore Roosevelt, in zaupal, da bo prenašal progresivnost Theodoreja Roosevelta. Ni presenetljivo, da se Taft v svojem uvodnem nagovoru veliko sklicuje na svojega »uglednega predhodnika«. Kljub temu se je med obema možema pojavil nov mrzlic, ki se je zrcalil hladnih temperatur v prestolnici tistega dne.

Na posebnem zasedanju kongresa Združenih držav se bo obravnavala revizija tarife. 16. marca Taft pošlje posebno sporočilo kongresu, v katerem poziva k hitri reviziji tarife.

Robert E. Peary doseže severni tečaj.

Helen "Nellie" Taft doživi možgansko kap, zaradi česar je njen govor oslabljen. Njeno okrevanje traja približno eno leto.

S sporočilom kongresu Taft predlaga dvoodstotni davek na čisti dobiček vseh družb razen bank, za katere meni, da bodo nadomestile prihodke, izgubljene zaradi znižanja tarif. Predlaga tudi, da kongres sprejme ustavno spremembo, ki bi omogočila pobiranje dohodnine.

Senat sprejme resolucijo, ki poziva k šestnajstemu amandmaju k ustavi, ki kongresu dovoljuje pobiranje dohodnine.

Taft povezuje kitajski regent Prince Chun in zahteva, da Kitajska ameriškim vlagateljem odobri del posojila, ki je bilo v Evropi namenjeno za gradnjo železnice na jugu Kitajske. Kitajci neradi priznavajo ZDA naložbene privilegije.

Taft podpiše Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act, ki ustanovi tarifni odbor in zniža tarifo.

Predsednik Taft začne turnejo po južnih in zahodnih državah ZDA.

Na turneji po Združenih državah Taft imenuje Payne-Aldrichov zakon "najboljši" tarifni račun, ki ga je kdaj sprejela Republikanska stranka, zato so republikanski naprednjaki in redni člani stranke zgroženi.

Taft obišče mehiškega diktatorja Porfiria DÌaza v El Pasu v Teksasu in v Juarezu v Mehiki.

Taft se je vrnil s svojega potovanja po Združenih državah in imel 259 govorov. Opazovalec v Winoni, MN, o Taftu komentira: "Vedel sem, da je dobre volje, a niti sanjalo se mi ni, da je tako dolgočasen."

Louis Glavis, vodja terenskega oddelka Ministrstva za notranje zadeve, obtožuje Collierjev tednik reviji, ki jo je minister za notranje zadeve Richard Ballinger zarotil z namenom goljufanja javne lastnine na aljaških premogovniških poljih in da je uprava Tafta vpletena v Ballingerjevo napako.

Taft naroči dve ameriški bojni ladji v Nikaragvo kot odgovor na smrt 500 revolucionarjev in dveh njihovih ameriških svetovalcev, ki jih je podpisal nikaragvanski diktator José Santos Zelaya. Nadaljnja grožnja ameriške sile prepriča Zelayo, da se upokoji 16. decembra.

Posebni državni tožilec Frank Kellogg zmaga na pritožbenem sodišču proti družbi Standard Oil, za katero velja, da je monopol in krši Shermanov zakon o zaupanju v skrbništvo.

Taft imenuje generala Leonarda Wooda za načelnika štaba vojske. Prav tako dvigne okrožnega sodnika Horacea H. Lurtona na vrhovno sodišče.

Taft je po sprostitvi pisma, ki ga je Pinchot poslal senatorju Dolliverju iz Iowe, v imenu dveh njegovih zaposlenih, vpletenih v Glavis Ovitek. Pinchot je bil vodilni naravovarstvenik in eden najbolj prepoznavnih uradnikov zvezne vlade.

Državni sekretar Philander Knox na misiji dobre volje obiskuje Srednjo in Južno Ameriko.

Predstavnik George Norris, napredni republikanec iz Nebraske, je v postopku v Predstavniškem domu dobil veliko postopkovno zmago, ko to telo potrdi načrt, po katerem bi člane Odbora za hišni red izvolili polni sestanek, namesto da bi ga imenoval predsednik hiša. To je pomenilo velik poraz za predsednika "Uncle Joeja" Cannona (R-IL), vodilnega nasprotnika naprednjakov.

Predsednik Taft na vrhovno sodišče imenuje guvernerja New Yorka Charlesa E. Hughesa.

Na kongresni preiskavi spora med Glavisom in Ballingerjem odvetnik Louis Brandeis, ki zastopa Glavisa, razkrije škodljive podatke o upravi Taft. Kongres pa očisti Ballingerja in administracijo Tafta pred vsemi kršitvami.

Taft pridobi prepoved, da zahodnim železnicam prepreči dvig tarif za tovorni promet. Taft je bil goreč zagovornik protimonopolnih pravil, katerih neusmiljeni križarski pohod proti trustu je bil boljši celo od Teddyja Roosevelta.

Taft se odloči, da ne bo pozdravil Theodoreja Roosevelta ob njegovem vrnitvi iz Afrike.

TR zavrača Taftovo povabilo v Belo hišo, vendar pohvali predsednikov napredek na številnih področjih, vključno z železniško zakonodajo, računom za poštne prihranke in ohranjanjem narave.

Kongres sprejme Mannov zakon, znan tudi kot "zakon o prometu s sužnji", ki prepoveduje meddržavni ali mednarodni prevoz žensk v "nemoralne namene".

Taft podpiše zakon o poštni hranilnici, ki je dovoljeval, da je ena banka v vsaki državi pod zveznim nadzorom dajala dva odstotka obresti na račune pod 500 USD.

TR se vrača in govori o najbolj radikalnem govoru svoje politične kariere v Osawatomieju v Kansasu. Roosevelt v svojem govoru "Novi nacionalizem" opisuje novo vlogo vlade pri obravnavi socialnih vprašanj. Njegov program postavlja ameriški progresivizem v novo smer, ki podpira ohranitev, nadzor skladov, varstvo dela in višjo dohodnino. Prav tako zajema vse večje prepričanje, da se mora narod spoprijeti s težavami otrok, žensk in prikrajšanih.

Taft zavrača predlagano večerjo, ki jo je podelil Nacionalni konservatorski kongres, s katero bi spoštovali sebe in TR.

Mednarodno arbitražno sodišče v Haagu rešuje spor med Veliko Britanijo in Združenimi državami v zvezi z ribištvom na Newfoundlandu.

Taft v pismu svojemu bratu komentira, da je Roosevelt "predlagal program (" novi nacionalizem "), ki ga je popolnoma nemogoče izvesti razen s spremembo zvezne ustave. V večini teh govorov me je popolnoma ignoriral. Njegov odnos do mene težko razumem in razložim. "

Na republikanski konvenciji zvezne države New York v Saratogi v New Yorku Taft podpira Rooseveltovo izbiro za guvernerja New Yorka Henryja Stimsona.

Nacionalna urbana liga je ustanovljena v New Yorku. Njegovo poslanstvo je "Afroameričanom omogočiti, da si zagotovijo ekonomsko samozavest, enakopravnost in moč ter državljanske pravice."

Taft imenuje Willisa Van Devanterja na vrhovno sodišče, da nadomesti sodnika Williama Moodyja.

Na kongresnih volitvah demokrati prvič po letu 1894 osvojijo nadzor nad predstavniškim domom in pridobijo 228 proti 162 proti 1 večini. V senatu imajo republikanci prednost od 51 do 41.

Taft je januarja za vrhovnega sodnika imenoval zunanjega sodnika Edwarda Whitea, Taft pa bi na vrhovno sodišče imenoval tudi Josepha R. Lamarja.

Senator iz Wisconsina Robert LaFollette ustanovi Nacionalno napredno republikansko ligo v Washingtonu, DC

Združene države in Velika Britanija podpisujejo pogodbo, ki jamči ohranitev in zaščito pelagičnih tjulnjev v vodah Beringovega morja.

Taft imenuje komisijo za preiskavo poštnih tarif za časopise in revije, njeno poročilo pomaga prepričati kongres, da je bilo nedavno povečanje obrestnih mer upravičeno.

Taft odredi mobilizacijo 20.000 ameriških vojakov vzdolž mehiške meje, potem ko je ameriški veleposlanik v Mehiki Henry Lane Wilson poročal, da je lahko ogrožena varnost Američanov, ki prebivajo v Mehiki.

Taft imenuje Walterja Fisherja, zaveznika Gifforda Pinchota, za ministra za notranje zadeve, ki bo nadomestil Richarda Ballingerja, ki je odstopil.

Taft imenuje Henryja Stimsona za vojnega sekretarja, ki bo nadomestil Jacoba Dickinsona.

Podjetje Triangle Shirtwaist Company je zagorelo na Manhattnu. Žensk, ki so delale v zelo utesnjenih in nevarnih razmerah, je potisnilo proti neustreznim izhodom 146 žensk bi umrlo, nekatere so celo skočile na pločnik v upanju, da bodo preživele. Tragedija izpostavlja potrebo po zagotavljanju socialne pravičnosti za delavce delavnic priseljencev, zakonodajalec New Yorka pa se na to odziva tako, da sprejme sanacijsko zakonodajo za zagotovitev boljših delovnih pogojev in ukrepe požarne varnosti.

Vrhovno sodišče ZDA odredi razpustitev Standard Oil Company.

Standard Oil Company razpuščen

15. maja 1911 je vrhovni sodnik Edward White izdal večinsko mnenje vrhovnega sodišča, ki potrjuje razpustitev Standard Oil Company. White se je strinjal, da je poslovna praksa Standard Oil Company kršila Shermanov protimonopolni zakon, ker je bila protikonkurenčna in zlorablja. Vendar je utišal načrt razpada okrožnega sodišča za družbo, s čimer je Standard Oil namesto prvih treh mesecev dovolil šest mesecev, da izločijo svoja hčerinska podjetja.

Potem ko je okrožno sodišče v St. Louisu prvotno odločilo proti Standard Oil Company, so odvetniki družbe pripravili pritožbo na vrhovno sodišče. S podporo predsednika Williama Tafta sta generalni državni tožilec George Wickersham in tožilec Frank Kellogg januarja 1911 predstavila primer vlade. Posnemali so uspešno Kelloggovo argumentacijo pred okrožnim sodiščem v St. skrbniška družba in njena ogromna velikost sta omejila meddržavno trgovino in ustvarila monopol, kot je prepovedan v Shermanovem protimonopolnem zakonu. Odvetniki Standard Oil so nasprotovali, da je z odlokom okrožnega sodišča za razpad družbe kršena klavzula o ustreznem postopku iz petega amandmaja, ki jamči svobodo pogodbe in lastninsko pravico. Odvetniki podjetja so trdili tudi, da je naftni sklad zunaj ustavnega dosega Shermanovega zakona, ker se družba ukvarja s proizvodnjo, ne s trgovino.

Način, kako je vrhovni sodnik White razlagal Shermanov zakon, je spremenil nejasen pregled zakonodaje. Shermanov zakon je bil oblikovan tako, da je prepovedal vsako posamezno pogodbo ali dogovor, ki je povzročil omejitev trgovine. White je k svoji razlagi dejanja dodal preizkus pravila racionalnosti-stoletja staro načelo običajnega prava. Če bi bile trgovinske omejitve, ki jih je ustvaril sklad, razumne, torej ne bi kršile individualnih pravic ali javnega dobra, potem sodstvu ni treba razveljaviti zaupanja s samovoljnostjo zakona Sherman. Le če bi zaupanje nerazumno poseglo v trgovino na način, ki je poškodoval ameriško gospodarstvo, bi ga lahko razpadli. Whiteova zunanja razlaga primera Standard Oil je menila, da so skladi družbeno koristni. Prav tako je sodstvu omogočilo, da je končni razsodnik za "razumno" kršitev trgovine s strani korporacije, načelo, ki ga je sodnik Harlan trdil, da krši namen avtorjev zakona Sherman.

Predsednik Taft je odločitev podprl in trdil, da ne gre za dramatičen odmik od prejšnjih primerov. Predsednik je v idejo Standard Oil malo ideološko vlagal in je dejansko podpiral industrijske kombinacije. Primer je bil zamisel nekdanjega predsednika Theodoreja Roosevelta in središče njegove priljubljene kampanje za razbijanje zaupanja. Taft si ni mogel privoščiti prekinitve z Rooseveltom glede primera, zato je podprl pregon Standard Oil zaradi lastne politične koristi. Taft je odločitev pohvalil, napredniki in demokrati pa so napadli Whiteov preizkus razuma.

Mehiški predsednik Porfirio DÌaz je odstopil.

Vrhovno sodišče ugotavlja, da American Tobacco Company krši Shermanov zakon o protimonopolnem ravnanju, in odredi njegovo razpustitev.

ZDA podpisujejo pogodbo z Nikaragvo, s katero bi ta narod postal protektorat ZDA. Senat je kasneje pogodbo zavrnil.

Senator Robert LaFollette, naprednjak iz Wisconsina, napoveduje svojo kandidaturo za republikansko predsedniško nominacijo.

Taft podpiše kanadski sporazum o vzajemnosti tarif.

Taft podpiše splošne arbitražne pogodbe s Francijo in Anglijo. Roosevelt skupaj s prijateljem in zaveznikom senatorjem Henryjem Cabotom Lodge vodi kampanjo v nasprotju s pogodbami.

Taft je vložil veto na znižanje tarif za volno in volnene izdelke, pri čemer je trdil, da tarifni odbor ni zaključil preiskave.

Na kanadskih parlamentarnih volitvah je vzajemnost z Združenimi državami poražena in ubila pogodbo, ki sta jo ZDA in Kanada podpisali v začetku leta.

Taft obiskuje zahodne ZDA, da bi podprl svoje arbitražne pogodbe z Anglijo in Francijo. Marca 1912 bo senat potrdil pogodbe, ki jih Velika Britanija in Francija zavračata.

Taft vloži tožbo proti US Steel zaradi kršitve Shermanovega zakona. Taft v dokumentih, vloženih za tožbo, trdi, da je Roosevelt leta 1907 pomotoma dovolil podjetju U.S. Steel nakup podjetja Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. To dejanje nepopravljivo poškoduje odnos Taft-TR.

Francisco Madero, bogati posestnik, prevzame funkcijo, potem ko je bil izvoljen za predsednika Mehike.

Andrew Carnegie ustanovi Carnegie Corporation z začetno donacijo v višini 125.000.000 USD.

Nova Mehika je sprejeta kot 47. država.

Taft poziva k sprejetju letnega zveznega proračuna.

Ameriški vojaki okupirajo Tientsin na Kitajskem, da bi zaščitili ameriške interese pred kitajsko revolucijo.

Arizona je sprejeta kot oseminštirideseta država.

Predsednik Taft predlaga Mahlon Pitney za mesto na vrhovnem sodišču ZDA. Pitneyja potrdi senat in priseže 13. marca.

Theodore Roosevelt napoveduje, da je njegov "klobuk v ringu" kot kandidat za predsednika. Taft in tekaški kolega James S. Sherman sta skupaj ponovno imenovana, prvič, da republikanci potrdijo sedečega predsednika in podpredsednika za vstopnico za stranko.

Ministrstvo za pravosodje začenja postopek za ustavitev združitve železnic južni Pacifik in Union Pacific.

Harvey Wiley, glavni kemik na ministrstvu za kmetijstvo, odstopi zaradi razlik z ministrom za kmetijstvo Jamesom Wilsonom. Wiley je bil glavni zagovornik zakonov o varni hrani in zdravilih.

Gospa Taft posadi prvo od češenj v Washingtonu, DC, ki jih je Japonska ZDA podarila kot simbol mednarodnega prijateljstva, vzdolž plimske kotline v parku Potomac.

Taft podpiše zakon, ki dovoljuje ustanovitev Urada za otroke pri Ministrstvu za trgovino. Agencija je zadolžena za spremljanje dobrobiti otrok.

Britanska luksuzna podloga Titanik potone ob obali Newfoundlanda. Taftov ključni pomočnik, Archie Butt, pogine v tragediji.

Predsednik Taft imenuje Julijo Lathrop za vodjo novo ustanovljenega urada za otroke. Je najvišje uvrščena ženska v ameriški vladi.

Ameriški marinci pristanejo na Kubi, da bi zagotovili red v skladu s Platt amandmajem.

Taft zmaga v republikanski predsedniški nominaciji nad Theodorejem Rooseveltom. James Sherman je ponovno imenovan za podpredsednika. Grenka primarna kampanja med TR in Taftom je vsebovala temeljito razpravo v republikanski stranki o vprašanju vladne ureditve.

Kongres sprejme delovno zakonodajo, ki dovoljuje osemurni delovni dan vsem delavcem z zveznimi pogodbami.

Demokratska stranka za svojega predsednika imenuje guvernerja New Jerseyja Woodrowa Wilsona. Thomas Marshall iz Indiane je predlagan za podpredsednika.

TR za predsednika imenuje napredna stranka (Bull Moose). Hiram Johnson iz Kalifornije je nominiran za podpredsednika.

Ameriške bojne ladje so poslane v Nikaragvo za zaščito ameriških gospodarskih interesov in železniških prog.

Taft podpiše zakon o Panamskem kanalu, ki ameriško obalno ladjarje oprošča plačila cestnine pri prehodu Panamskega prekopa. Mnogi Američani in Britanci menijo, da je to kršitev pogodbe Hay-Pauncefote iz leta 1901.

Ameriški marinci so poslani, da vzpostavijo red v Santo Domingu.

Umrl je podpredsednik John Sherman, Nicholas Butler, predsednik univerze Columbia, pa ga je zamenjal na republikanski predsedniški listi.

Demokrat Woodrow Wilson na predsedniških volitvah leta 1912 premaga Taft in TR. Wilson zmaga na volilni fakulteti s 435 glasovi proti TR-jevim 88 in Taftovim 8. Na ljudskem glasovanju Wilson premaga TR z več kot 2 milijonoma glasov, Taft pa s skoraj 3 milijoni glasov, vendar TR zbere 27 odstotkov najboljših tretjih oseb v zgodovini ljudskega glasovanja. Na kongresnih volitvah imajo demokrati večino v senatu, 51-44-1. V parlamentu imajo demokrati prednost 291-127-17.

5. novembra 1912 je predsednika Williama Tafta na predsedniških volitvah leta 1912 premagal demokrat Woodrow Wilson. Trosmerna tekma med Taftom, Wilsonom in nekdanjim predsednikom Theodorejem Rooseveltom je ponazorila porast progresivizma v predsedniški politiki. Čeprav je imela Rooseveltova napredna stranka eno najmočnejših predstavitev tretjih v ameriški zgodovini, sta si s Taftom razdelila glasove republikanske stranke in Wilson je zlahka zmagal na volitvah.

Preden je predsednik Theodore Roosevelt leta 1909 zapustil funkcijo, je za svojega naslednika ročno izbral Williama Tafta in si prizadeval, da bi bil izvoljen. Ko pa je Taft postal predsednik, je bil Roosevelt vse bolj razočaran nad svojim naslednikom. Zdelo se mu je, da Taft ni dovolj progresiven, zato je obrnil hrbet ohranjanju okolja in ciljal na tako imenovane dobre sklade. Jezen zaradi varovankinega mandata se je Roosevelt odločil, da ga bo leta 1912 izzval za republikansko nominacijo.

Republikanci so se junija 1912 sestali v Chicagu, brezupno razdeljeni med Rooseveltove naprednjake in podpornike predsednika Tafta. Roosevelt je na konvencijo prišel z zmago na vrsti preferencialnih volitev, ki so ga postavile pred predsednika v tekmi za predstavnike strank. Taft pa je nadzoroval konvencijo, njegovi podporniki pa so uspeli izključiti večino Rooseveltovih delegatov, ker niso priznali njihovih poverilnic. Ta taktika je razjezila nekdanjega predsednika, ki se nato ni dovolil imenovati, s čimer je Taft utiral pot do zmage na prvem glasovanju.

Roosevelt in njegovi privrženci so zašli v republikansko stranko in se čez dva tedna ponovno sestali v Chicagu, da bi ustanovili napredno stranko. Roosevelt je postal kandidat napredne stranke za predsednika, guverner Hiram Johnson iz Kalifornije pa se je vstopil kot Rooseveltov tekmec. Roosevelt je konvencijo elektrificiral z dramatičnim govorom, v katerem je napovedal, da bo "stal v Armagedonu in se boril za Gospoda" in izjavil, da se počuti "tako močan kot bik los", s čimer je novi stranki dal popularno ime.

Na demokratični nacionalni konvenciji v Baltimoru konec junija je predsednik parlamenta James “Champ” Clark vstopil kot favorit za pridobitev nominacije stranke po močnem nastopu na volitvah proti guvernerju New Jerseyja Woodrowu Wilsonu. Democrats engaged in an intense struggle over the nomination, however, prompted by William Jennings Bryan's criticism that Clark's machine base was too close to big business. Wilson secured the nomination on the forty-sixth ballot of the convention. His selection over the more moderate, less charismatic Clark ensured the Democrats a vibrant, progressive-minded candidate to challenge the vim of Roosevelt and overshadow Taft. Democrats nominated Thomas R. Marshall of Indiana for the vice presidency.

Unlike many proceeding campaigns, which boiled down to contests of personality or character, the election of 1912 remained essentially a campaign of ideas. Wilson and Roosevelt emphasized their progressive ideologies on the campaign trail. Wilson devised the “New Freedom” appellation for his campaign, emphasizing a return to individualism in industrial enterprise encouraged by the end of tariff protection, the breaking up of Wall Street's control of financial markets, and vigorous antitrust prosecution. Wilson believed federal power should be used to break up all concentrations of wealth and privilege, disagreeing with Roosevelt that monopolies could serve a common good through their efficiency.

Roosevelt built his “New Nationalism” campaign on the back of ideas he had been advocating since his return to public life in 1910, including strengthening federal regulatory control over interstate commerce, corporate conglomeration, and labor conditions. President Taft emphasized how his brand of conservatism offered practical solutions to tangible problems facing Americans. He chided the idealism of his opponents as dangerous to the constitutional system. Socialist Eugene V. Debs joined the triumvirate with his campaign more focused on socialist education for American voters than success. Debs urged the public ownership of transportation and communication networks, progressive income and corporate taxes, and a rigorous worker protection laws.

With the Republican Party badly split between its conservative and progressive wings, neither Taft nor Roosevelt rightfully expected victory in November. The election yielded the Democratic Party its greatest victory since before the Civil War as it gained both houses of Congress and the presidency. The popular vote was more an endorsement of progressivism than of Wilson as he and Roosevelt combined for nearly 70 percent of the ballots cast. Wilson failed to win a majority of the popular vote, earning 41 percent of the popular vote to Roosevelt's 27 percent. Taft finished with 23 percent of the vote, and Debs made a considerable showing with 6 percent. Taft won only two states in the Electoral College: Vermont and Utah. Roosevelt carried progressive strongholds California, South Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Michigan, but could not contend with Wilson's enormous success in his home region of the South and his wins in key Northern states such as New York and Wisconsin. Wilson carried 435 of 531 votes in the Electoral College to become the nation's twenty-eighth President.


How much power does the Constitution give the President to fire the heads of departments, and what does this imply about lower-level civil servants who staff those departments? The former question has been debated since the First Congress, of course and the latter question since the Pendleton Act. And both questions are once again in the front of our minds in the aftermath of Lucia v. SEC in Seila Law v. CFPB—and with Collins v. Mnuchin soon to follow.

As we grapple with these questions, we benefit from the work of scholars who carefully research the historical record with an eye to modern controversies. Aditya Bamzai exemplified such work this year in his study of “Tenure of Office and the Treasury,” and in his paper last year on “Taft, Frankfurter, and the First Presidential For-Cause Removal.”

And now Robert Post has published his own study of Taft and removal—not President Taft’s removal of officers, but Chief Justice Taft’s view of the removal power in Myers v. United States. For those of us looking forward to Post’s contribution to the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the Supreme Court of the United States (Volume X, on the Taft Court), this article is a nice preview of coming attractions. And for students of constitutional law and administration, this article, newly published in the Journal of Supreme Court History (and available in draft on SSRN), is a must-read.

In “Tension in the Unitary Executive: How Taft Constructed the Epochal Opinion of Myers v. United States,” Post explores Taft’s correspondence and other records to reconstruct the Court’s consideration of the Myers case, from its oral argument in December 1924 (not 1923, as erroneously marked by the United States Reports) and re-argument with the newly seated Justice Harlan Stone in April 1925, until its decision nearly two years later. He describes an extraordinary process in which the Chief Justice worked to produce a majority opinion initially on his own (beginning at his summer home in Murray Bay, Canada), before enlisting colleagues’ help in a belabored process of writing and re-writing.

“It would be accurate to say that the Myers opinion was constituted through a most unusual process,” Post concludes. “There appears to be nothing even remotely analogous during the entire Taft Court era,” in which the Chief “essentially constituted his majority of six into a committee that met twice at his home to discuss the holding, structure, and argument of Taft’s drafts.”

By the end, Taft is exasperated by the new Justice (i.e., future Chief Justice) Stone’s relentless barrage of suggestions. Months into drafting, Taft writes to his brother Horace that “youngest member Stone is intensely interested and is a little bit fussy,” and “betrays in some degree a little of the legal school master—a tendency which experience in the Court is likely to moderate.” A week later he wrote to Justice Van Devanter, “Stone continues to tinker, but I don’t think he helps much.”

Yet Justice Stone’s barrage of comments amplified the crucial issue of how far Chief Justice Taft’s logic of executive removal power would cut. And that is the crux of Post’s account: once Chief Justice Taft reached the conclusion that the Constitution empowered the President to remove officers such as Portland’s Postmaster Myers, he needed to explain how far the logic of presidential removal power would cut—to executive officers alone, or to members of independent regulatory commissions, or to members of the civil service?

Post parses Taft’s opinion, especially in light of Justices Brandeis’s and McReynolds’s dissents, and concludes that Taft fell short of the analytic task. “At root,” Post writes, “the weakness of Taft’s position lay in its failure to specify the precise circumstances that required unfettered executive control.”

Moreover, while Taft’s opinion for the Court is remembered for exalting executive power, Post emphasizes that its attempt to identify a limiting principle (in response to McReynolds’s pointed dissent) seemed to concede immense power to Congress. For while Taft’s majority opinion held in favor of unfettered presidential power to remove principal officers, it further explained that an inferior officer, for whom Congress had vested appointment power in the department head rather than the President, might not be removable by the President at will after all. In drawing that line, Post writes, “Taft thus constructed an argument effectively ceding to Congress constitutional authority to determine when discretionary removal power for inferior executive officers was and was not prerequisite for the president’s capacity to execute the laws.”

It is a fascinating account, and Post connects it to modern debates surrounding executive power and originalism. It will entertain its readers and challenge them—especially those of us who are inclined to disagree with the conclusions that he draws with respect to independent agencies specifically, or Originalism and the “unitary executive” more broadly.

Sidestepping doctrinal questions, I would add to Post’s narrative one more story that I think illuminates Taft’s thinking in Myers.

Post connects Chief Justice Taft’s analysis to President Taft’s experience, writing that the Chief Justice “did not approach the Myers case as a blank slate … He would bring to Myers the entire weight of his considerable presidential experience.” Surely this is true, and to Post’s account of Taft’s presidency I would add still one more important episode: the Gifford Pinchot affair.

Pinchot, the first chief of the U.S. Forest Service, was a founding father of modern conservation policy—and a major thorn in President Taft’s side. Appointed to the Forest Service in 1905 by President Theodore Roosevelt, he continued in office for the first year of Taft’s term. But once Taft replaced Secretary of the Interior James Garfield, who was also a TR appointee, all hell broke loose. Pinchot waged war against the new Secretary, James Ballinger, largely through leaks to the press denouncing Ballinger as an enemy of conservation and a tool of the trusts. By January 1910, Taft had finally had enough, and he fired Pinchot. And that event, making front-page headlines nationwide, marked the beginning of the end of Taft’s presidency, for it inflamed the “Insurgent” Republicans against Taft and spurred TR to undertake the “Bull Moose” presidential campaign that ultimately thwarted Taft’s bid for re-election.

Surely the Pinchot debacle was not far from Taft’s mind when he wrote Myers. Indeed, the majority opinion’s most memorable rhetoric loudly echoes Taft’s letter firing Pinchot. As Chief Justice, Taft would write:

Each head of a department is and must be the President’s alter ego in the matters of that department where the President is required by law to exercise authority … He must place in each member of his official family, and his chief executive subordinates, implicit faith. The moment that he loses confidence in the intelligence, ability, judgment or loyalty of any one of them, he must have the power to remove him without delay.

Fifteen years earlier, President Taft’s January 8, 1910 letter to Pinchot (republished in full by the Washington Post) ended on a similar note:

… When the people of the United States elected me President they placed me in an office of the highest dignity, and charged me with the duty of maintaining that dignity and the proper respect for the office on the part of my subordinates. Moreover, if I were to pass over this matter in silence it would be demoralizing to the discipline of the executive branch of the government.

By your conduct you have destroyed your usefulness as a helpful subordinate of the government, and it therefore now becomes my duty to direct the Secretary of Agriculture to remove you from your office as the forester. Very sincerely yours, William H. Taft.

The Taft-Pinchot-TR story is an entertaining story for anyone who is interested in the modern history of administration. Pinchot was a character every bit as colorful as the Bull Moose whom he adored. "Gifford Pinchot is a dear,” TR once wrote, “but he is a fanatic.”

But more important for present purposes, the Pinchot affair seems invaluable for fully understanding Taft’s own understanding of the constitutional presidency, as informed by his own experience in that office—in addition to everything already offered by Robert Post in his entertaining and enlightening new article.

Adam J. White is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, and director of George Mason University’s C. Boyden Gray Center for the Study of the Administrative State.


Items included in this collection with the permission of rights holders are listed below. For further use or reproduction of those items contact the rightsholders listed.

Interview of William W. Lehfeldt by William Burr, April 29, 1987, made available here with permission from The Foundation for Iranian Studies, 4343 Montgomery Avenue, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.

Interview of John S. Service by Rosemary Levinson, 1977, made available here with permission from The Regional Oral History Office, 486 The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-6000.

Oral history interviews conducted by Mrs. Ann Miller Morin (below), made available here with permission from Mrs. Ann Miller Morin, 3330 North Leisure World Blvd., Apt. 808, Silver Spring, MD 20906.

  • Interview of Anne Cox Chambers, October 23, 1985
  • Interview of Jane Abell Coon, November 4, 1986
  • Interview of Betty Crites Dillon, December 9, 1987
  • Interview of Ruth Lewis Farkas, October 24, 1985
  • Interview of Rosemary Lucas Ginn, October 28, 1997
  • Interview of Constance Ray Harvey, 1988
  • Interview of Mari-Luci Jaramillo, February 21, 1987
  • Interview of Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick, May 28, 1987
  • Interview of Caroline Clendening Laise, May 8, 1985
  • Interview of Claire Boothe Luce, September 19, 1986
  • Interview of Mary Seymour Olmsted, June 25, 1985
  • Interview of Nancy Ostrander, May 14, 1986
  • Interview of Rozanne L. Ridgway, March 18, 1987
  • Interview of Mabel Murphy Smythe, May 2, 1986
  • Interview of Margaret Joy Tibbetts, May 28, 1985
  • Interview of Melissa Foelsh Wells, March 27, 1984
  • Interview of Faith Ryan Whittlesey, December 7, 1988

These 17 interviews are part of the collection on deposit in the Sophia Smith Collection External .


Taft's Attitude

Taft had written in 1906 that the Jim Crow laws designed to codify segregation and to disenfranchise Southern black voters were not harmful because African Americans were not ready to use the vote well anyway. In Taft&rsquos words, "When a class of persons is so ignorant and so subject to oppression and misleading that they are merely political children, not having the mental stature of manhood, then it can hardly be said that that their voice in the government secures any benefit to them." In 1906, over forty years after emancipation, Taft still favored a "gradual acquisition of political power" for Southern blacks.

During the campaign, President Taft wanted to break the Democratic Party&rsquos stranglehold on the "Solid South," and so he appealed to Southern whites.

Just like the other party platforms, the Republican Party Platform never mentions race. After receiving a great deal of pressure from African Americans the Republicans did include a statement condemning lynchings.


William H. Taft on Agriculture - HISTORY

William Howard Taft is known as the only person to have served both as a Chief Justice and as a President of the United States. He was born on the 15th of September 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio.

His parents were both of British ancestry. His father, Alphonso Taft, came from Vermont to practice law in order to become a judge. Alphonso later became secretary of war and an attorney general of President Grant. William’s mother, Louise Torrey, came from Massachusetts.

Zgodnje življenje

William studied at schools in Cincinnati and was found to be intelligent and a fast learner. He enrolled in Yale in the year 1874 and proved to become popular among various cliques. He graduated second in his batch in 1878 before returning to Cincinnati to attend law school. He was able to pass the bar exams in Ohio in 1880.

He was soon appointed as assistant prosecutor in the state’s Hamilton County a year later. Taft moved on to become the county’s collector of internal revenue, which proved short-lived as he soon moved on to become a private practitioner of law. Four years later he returned to Hamilton County to become an assistant on solicitors.

On the 19th of June 1886, Taft married his childhood sweetheart Helen “Nellie” Herron, a daughter of a high-profile lawyer. They had had three children, namely Robert Alphonso, Helen Herron, and Charles Phelps. Nellie was intelligent and determined to support her husband in his endeavors.

She played a significant role in Taft’s political career, especially when he was soon appointed by President Benjamin Harrison as the US solicitor general. This position did not last, however, when a year later he returned to Cincinnati to become a court judge for a span of eight years.

Chief Civil Administrator

In 1900, Taft was sent to the Philippines by President McKinley to serve as the chief civil administrator. Having displayed an understanding for the Filipinos, he made it a point to contribute to the country’s economy by building schools and roads. He even allowed the people’s participation in government matters.

Taft soon became the Philippines’ first civil governor. As a leader, it was his intention to spread the importance of quality education. At that time the Philippines was still suffering from the trauma brought by the colonialism of the Spaniards and the Roman Catholic friars. Taft saw to it that any hint of their rule was put to an end by achieving an independent country free from land ownership of foreigners. With the help of the Vatican, he was able to sell the land back to the Filipinos.

A few years later when McKinley was assassinated, the presidency was taken over by Theodore Roosevelt, who twice offered Taft a position on the US Supreme Court. Taft declined both offers, saying that his work in the Philippines was yet to come to its conclusion.

Joining Theodore Roosevelt’s Cabinet

Taft had little knowledge that Roosevelt had already set his eyes on him as his ideal successor. The then-current president had ascertained his need for Taft to become part of his Cabinet. Both of them soon arrived to an understanding that Taft would still be able to continue supervising his work in the Philippines, which allowed him to accept the position as Secretary of War.

Taft was known for his ability to multitask. He was able to serve the US administration both at home and in the Philippines. He was able to oversee the construction of the Panama Canal between the year 1904 and 1908. He became one of Roosevelt’s most favorite emissaries, and the president felt confident whenever Taft was by his side.

Taft was offered a position in the Supreme Court in the year 1906. It was at this point when Roosevelt had announced that he would not run after the 1904 volitve. A huge number of the ex-president’s supporters saw Taft as one of the best candidates to succeed the presidential seat. Even Roosevelt himself felt confident that his reforms would be continued once his favorite was elected. Taft decided to run for president.

William Jennings Bryan proved to be an intimidating opponent, having served as president twice in the past. Taft’s campaign methods involve undercutting Bryan’s support on liberalism. Bryan, on the other hand, assigned an elitist image on his opponent. After a strong and vigorous campaign period, Taft won by a small margin. In 1908, he was elected president.

Life as President

It was his new set of policies that made his presidential term memorable to Americans. William introduced new controls over the budget as well as an 8-hour workday for all employees serving the government. He also made it a point to pass the campaign-spending disclosure bills, which punished a number of companies that bypassed the anti-trust laws.

He found himself at a serious disadvantage after realizing the amount of contributions Roosevelt had done while in office. People saw him more as a judicial leader rather than a political one. He was often pointed out as a poor public speaker and a procrastinator. Soon there existed a falling out of trust between the two parties, with Roosevelt labeling Taft a huge disappointment and an incompetent individual controlled by important businesses. Taft would later on admit that he found his job overly intimidating.

In 1912 Roosevelt announced that he wanted the Republicans to nominate him as president. Taft, on the other hand, was resolute that his former friend would not succeed. At a 1912 convention he successfully stopped the organizers from giving important seats to a number of Roosevelt delegates. He acquired the Republican nomination afterwards. Roosevelt, desperate not to allow Taft to gain the seat of presidency for the second time, entered the Progressive Party, known as Bull Moose. The act managed to split the Republican votes. Taft’s past administration, however, proved ineffective to the voting masses, allowing his Democratic opponent Woodrow Wilson to win by a large margin.

Supreme Court Chief Justice

After losing the presidency, Taft worked as a Professor of Law in Yale. He spent his time writing articles for newspapers and books, most of which specialized in legal philosophy. He was also seen as an active advocate for world peace via international arbitration, which promoted the idea of a League of Nations. Years later, President Harding would make him Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, a position which he found to be one of the most memorable he took in his entire life. In fact, he once wrote that he never even remembered becoming president. He held the position of Chief Justice until his death.

On the 3rd of February 1930 Taft retired from the position due to ill health. He died a few weeks later on March 8, 1930. He was the first president to be buried in Arlington National Cemetery and was the only Chief Justice to gain a state funeral.

Various tributes to Taft spread after that. Courthouses in Ohio were named after him. So did streets in Cincinnati, a school in California, and a major street in Manila, Philippines, where he worked his hardest as a politician. His family would soon enter politics. Robert Taft, Jr., his grandson, became a Senator in Ohio from 1971 to 1977. William Howard Taft III, meanwhile, became US ambassador to Ireland in 1953.


Vsebina

The Classical Revival bridge was built from 1897 to 1907. It was designed by engineer George S. Morison and architect Edward Pearce Casey. [2] [3] It is an arch bridge with unreinforced concrete arches and a reinforced concrete deck. The total length of the bridge is 274.5 meters (901 ft). It has been called an "engineering tour de force" and the largest unreinforced concrete structure in the world. [4] In 1931, the bridge was renamed in honor of U.S. President William Howard Taft, who frequently walked the bridge while Chief Justice of the United States. [5]

During early planning for the Washington Metro in the 1960s, the Red Line was slated to run across the bridge to connect Dupont Circle and Woodley Park. Instead, the metro was built underground. [6]

The bridge is "guarded" by four large male lions, two on each end of the bridge (each approx. 7 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in. x 13 ft.). Two of the lions rest on all fours with their heads tilted upwards and mouths slightly open while the other pair lie with their eyes closed, apparently sleeping. They were originally designed and sculpted by Roland Hinton Perry in 1906 out of cast concrete (the bridge as a whole is one of the first cast concrete bridges in the country) and were installed in 1907.

In 1964 the lions were restored and weatherproofed by Washington-based sculptor Renato Luccetti, although this restoration proved to be less than entirely successful. When a major rehabilitation of the bridge began in 1993, the lions, which were in very bad condition, were removed for further restoration. They are currently stored in the Air Rights Tunnel on southbound I-395. The sculptures were finally found to be beyond restoring. [7] [8]

The United States Commission of Fine Arts worked with the city in the late 1990s to oversee the production of the replacement lions that now sit on the bridge. The sculptor Reinaldo Lopez-Carrizo of Professional Restoration produced molds based on the existing sculptures and photographs, and used them to cast new concrete lion sculptures that were installed on the bridge in July and August 2000. [9] The same molds were used to cast bronze lions installed at the main pedestrian entrance to the National Zoo farther north on Connecticut Avenue in 2002. [10] The white lion in the lobby of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts is a quarter-size replica from that effort. [11]

Twenty-four lampposts are equally spaced along both sides of the Taft Bridge. Created by sculptor Ernest Bairstow in 1906 ,the lampposts are composed of concrete bases (about 5 feet high, 8 inches deep and four feet wide) with painted iron lampposts (about 17 feet high and 4 wide) set in them. The pedestals are decorated with garland and a fluted column featuring acanthus leaves at the top and bottom. Above the leaves is a horizontal bracket with two globes hanging from each side of the column. Each lamppost is topped with a painted iron eagle with its wings spread. [12]

A replica of the Bairstow eagles is seen in a World War I monument in Middletown, Delaware. [13]


William H. Taft


Portrait of William Howard Taft from Cincinnati, Ohio. He was the twenty-seventh President, serving

William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on September 15, 1857. His father was Alphonso Taft, who had been President Ulysses S. Grant's secretary of war and then attorney general. His mother was Louisa Maria Torrey Taft. He attended Woodward High School, a local private school, before enrolling at Yale University in 1874. After graduation, Taft returned to Cincinnati, where he studied law at the University of Cincinnati Law School. Taft was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880. Six years later, Taft married Helen “Nellie” Herron on June 19, 1886.

Taft first entered politics in 1881, when he became the assistant prosecutor of Hamilton County. He continued to practice law in Cincinnati until 1887, when he was appointed as a judge on the Cincinnati Superior Court. Three years later, Taft became solicitor general of the United States and moved to Washington, DC. In 1892, Taft was appointed as a judge on the Sixth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. Ohio was part of the Sixth Circuit. At the same time, he taught law and served as dean of the University of Cincinnati Law School.

Taft had gained the attention of the national Republican Party by this time. In 1900, President William McKinley appointed Taft to be the Governor General of the Philippines. The United States had gained control of the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American War. It was Taft's role as Governor General to establish a new civilian government in the Philippines. It was a very difficult position, as some of the Filipinos were revolting against American control. The United States had gained a negative reputation in the region as a result of brutal attempts to put down the rebellion. Taft set out to create a peaceful environment for change on the islands, creating a constitution that was modeled after the United States Constitution and developing other aspects of civilian life.

President Theodore Roosevelt appointed Taft to be his secretary of war in 1904, a position that he held until the end of his term. He traveled around the world, overseeing United States foreign policy objectives during this era.

When Roosevelt decided not to run for reelection in 1908, he chose Taft as his most likely successor. Taft became the Republican Party's nominee and successfully won the presidency, running against Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Taft received 51.6 percent of the popular vote and 321 out of 483 electoral college votes.

Taft had promised to continue Roosevelt's Progressive reform policies if he won the presidency. During his administration, the United States ratified the Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, which allowed for the creation of a graduated income tax, and the Seventeenth Amendment, which established direct election of senators. He continued to pursue businesses with monopolistic tendencies, but Roosevelt believed that Taft did not have a strong commitment to other reforms. In the Election of 1912, Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination. Ultimately, Taft still won the nomination, but Roosevelt split the Republicans when he declared his own candidacy on the Progressive Party ticket. This split allowed Democrat Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Even Taft's home state of Ohio voted for Wilson in the election.

Taft's presidential administration had an important influence on the expansion of United States trade abroad during this era. Taft referred to his foreign policy as “dollar diplomacy.” The United States would seek to sell its products overseas, especially to Latin America and Asia. This policy led to military intervention to protect American economic interests and, at times, created anti-American sentiment abroad.

After completing his term as president, Taft took a position teaching at the Yale University Law School. President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1921, a position that he held until his death on March 8, 1930. Taft is the only person in American history to serve as head of both the executive and judicial branches of the national government.


The nation’s fattest president loved steaks for breakfast. Then he went on a diet.

One of the most entertaining White House memoirs in history was written not by a president but by a maid.

Her name was Elizabeth Jaffray.

From 1909 to 1926, Jaffray was the chief housekeeper for four presidents — William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge — and in a book titled “Secrets of the White House,” Jaffray chronicled their personal triumphs, foibles and domestic lives.

The meatiest of her stories were about her meatiest boss — Taft, a man so profoundly rotund that after sending a telegram to the secretary of war about a horseback ride, the secretary replied, “Referring to your telegram . . . how is the horse?”

As housekeeper, in addition to cleaning up after presidents, Jaffray was also responsible for their food — not just what they ate for themselves, but what they served to guests. Doing their grocery shopping gave Jaffray tremendous insight into presidential tastes and appetites.

At one end of the spectrum was Coolidge, her last boss.

Coolidge was a cheapskate who complained that the hams he was served were too large. He could eat just one slice. Also, according to the book “Real Life at the White House” by John and Claire Whitcomb, his breakfast consisted of a bit of wheat. How he survived on that caloric intake is one of history’s great mysteries.

At the other end: Taft, who occupied the White House from 1909 to 1913. The nation’s 27th president — who later became chief justice of the United States and an inspiration to a nation of yo-yo dieters — was Jaffray’s hungriest boss.

For him, Jaffray bought “butter by the tub, potatoes by the barrel, fruit and green vegetables by the crate,” she wrote.

Oh, and meat. A lot of meat.

Taft ate steak for breakfast.

“He wanted a thick, juicy twelve-ounce steak nearly every morning,” Jaffray wrote.

“President Taft liked every sort of food with the single exception of eggs,” Jaffray wrote. “He really had few preferences but just naturally liked food — and lots of it.”

The president scarfed down his steak breakfast every day at precisely 8:30 a.m. following a doctor prescribed workout in his bedroom with a personal trainer — a collision of routines that first lady Helen Taft found rather funny, according to Jaffray.

(For the record, the famous story of Taft getting stuck in a White House bathtub? That’s untrue.)

So let’s return to his eating habits. If you think Taft was just ahead of his time — going low-carb before the Atkins diet craze — you will be disappointed to learn that in addition to the steak, Jaffray reports Taft’s breakfasts included “several pieces of toast,” and his “vast quantity of coffee” were supplemented with large helpings of cream and sugar.

Under Jaffray’s watch, Taft got bigger and bigger.

In a diary entry from 1911, the housekeeper notes Taft’s weight — 332 pounds — and that he was going on a diet, apparently at the advice of his doctor. Taft told her, “Things are in a sad state of affairs when a man can’t even call his gizzard his own.”

Taft, who died in 1930 from heart disease, was deflated, but only metaphorically.

A year later, Jaffray wrote this in her diary: “The president looks as if he actually weighs 400 pounds."

Eventually, Taft ordered a reduction in steak sizes.

Instead of 12 ounces, he was served six.

“But somehow,” Jaffray wrote, “he really didn’t take off any great amount of weight while he was president.”



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