Maksimilijan II., Cesar Svetega Rima

Maksimilijan II., Cesar Svetega Rima


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MAXIMILIAN II (SVETI RIMSKI CARSTVO) (1527 – 1576 vladal 1564 – 1576)

MAXIMILIAN II (SVETI RIMSKI CARSTVO) (1527 – 1576 vladal 1564 – 1576), cesar Svetega Rima. Maksimilijan II., Rojen 31. julija 1527 na Dunaju in umrl 12. oktobra 1576 v Regensburgu, je bil češki kralj (vladal 1562 – 1576), kralj Rimljanov (1562) in kralj Madžarske (vladal 1563 & #x2013 1576). Cesar Svetega rimskega kraljestva je postal leta 1564. Leta 1548 se je poročil z Mar í ajem iz Habsburga (1528 – 1603), jedrim špancem (1548 – 1550). Maksimilijan je pokopan v katedrali svetega Vida v Pragi.

Sin novega kralja in kraljice Češke in Madžarske, Ferdinanda I. (vladal 1558 – 1564) iz Habsburga in Ane iz Jagiellona (umrl 1547), je Maksimilijan odraščal kot tekmec svojemu bratrancu Filipu Španiji, bodočemu kralju Filipu II (vladalo 1556 – 1598). Končno je Maksimilijan pridobil cesarski naslov in rodil dva cesarja svetega rimskega cesarja, Rudolfa II (vladal 1576 – 1612) in Matijo (vladal 1612 – 1619). Filip je pridobil iberske dežele, nizke dežele, dele Italije in habsburško čezmorsko cesarstvo v Ameriki, Afriki in Aziji.

Maksimilijana pogosto upodabljajo, da je imel na##x2014 veliko žalost svojega bolj ortodoksnega očeta — živahno radovednost, ko so šle religiozne zadeve. Zaradi te radovednosti je veliko svojega časa (in kasneje) ugibal, da je morda verjel nekaterim teološkim točkam, ki so jih predstavili privrženci Martina Lutherja (1483 – 1546). Nekateri učenjaki menijo, da je bil del njegove dediščine, da bi zadrževal mladega nadvojvodo, podarjen njegovim bratoma Ferdinandu in Karlu, Maksimilijana pa so poslali v Španijo, da bi s svojo nevesto Mar í a, sestro poznejšega Španca, deloval kot osrednji agent kralj Filip II.

Kljub temu je Maksimilijanov oče sčasoma zaupal novo pridobljena kraljestva Češko in Madžarsko skupaj z nekaterimi habsburškimi dednimi deželami Maksimilijanu in Mar í a. Po Ferdinandovi smrti leta 1564 je Maksimilijan prevzel naziv izvoljenega cesarja in nadaljeval z organizacijo obrambe krščanstva pred novimi ogrskimi pohodi, ki so jih v 1560 -ih letih začele Osmanlije. Obramba pa je bila manj kot spektakularna. Maksimilijan, očitno pretresen zaradi izkušenj, se je umaknil v bolj intelektualno in zakonsko omejeno sfero kulturnih prizadevanj in omejen politični angažma.

Ko sta spremljala možnosti v Iberiji (njegov bratranec Philip je imel težave pri ustvarjanju sposobnega dediča), sta Maximilian in Mar í rodila številne otroke, vključno z Anno, bodočo Filipovo ženo. Druga hči, Elizabeth, je postala kraljica Francije kot žena kralja Charlesa IX (vladala 1560 – 1574).

Inteligentni in odprti, je Maksimilijan podpiral raziskave o zgodovinskih in botaničnih temah ter je še naprej uvažal sloge in ideje iz Italije, proces, ki ga je njegov oče aktivno podpiral. Zunaj svojega prebivališča na Dunaju je Maksimilijan nadziral gradnjo impresivne vrtne rezidence, znane preprosto kot "novogradnja" (Neugeb ä ude). Postavljena na vzponu s pogledom na reko Donavo, je bila ta zgradba urejena alternativa pogosto kaotični politični pokrajini, nad katero cesar ni imel jasnega nadzora.

Maksimilijan je v cesarski Italiji izgubil vpliv glede zadev, kot je, kakšen naziv naj bi podelili Medici v Firencah. Kljub temu je češke in ogrske krone ter cesarski naslov prenesel na svojega sina Rudolfa, deloma tako, da je pomembnim plemičem v različnih deželah dovolil slabo opredeljeno mero verske strpnosti.

V deželah, oddaljenih od osmanske fronte na Madžarskem, je Maksimilijanovo politiko zaznamovalo jasno spoštovanje določb verskega miru, ki ga je leta 1555 v Augsburgu določil njegov oče. Maksimilijan je veliko stavil na podporo saških volivcev, ki so bili na novo vezani na cesarsko ustavo. Dosegel je tudi običajno sovražnega Valoisa v Franciji, saj so se predstavniki te dinastije borili z verskim in civilnim kaosom v svojem kraljestvu. Maximilian je celo vzpostavil prisrčne odnose z angleško kraljico Tudor, Elizabeto I. (vladala 1558 – 1603). Njegova žena Mar í a in Elizabeth of England sta si delili botrovske odgovornosti za Maximilian in Mar íino vnukinjo Marie-Isabelle, hčerko Charlesa IX in Elizabeth.

Maksimilijana II so mučile zdravstvene težave. Srce in postava sta mu odpovedala in umrl je pri devetinštiridesetih letih. Po Evropi so krožile različne zgodbe o njegovem vedenju na posmrtni postelji in vsi so poskušali uganiti, kaj njegovo vedenje pomeni za oblačno prihodnost (krščanske) verske naselbine leta 1555. Njegovi sinovi Rudolf in Matija sta prevzela cesarsko funkcijo, vendar se njihova zaporedna vladavina ni nadaljevala očetov spravni projekt.

Poglej tudi Avstrija Češka Elizabeta I (Anglija) Ferdinand I (Sveto rimsko cesarstvo) Firence Habsburška dinastija: Avstrija Sveto rimsko cesarstvo Madžarska Matija (Sveto rimsko cesarstvo) otomanski imperij Filip II (Španija) Rudolf II (Sveto rimsko cesarstvo) Dunaj .


Vsebina

Maximilian se je rodil v Wiener Neustadtu 22. marca 1459. Njegov oče Friderik III., Cesar Svetega rimskega sveta, ga je poimenoval za nejasnega svetnika Maksimilijana iz Tebesse, za katerega je Friderik verjel, da ga je nekoč v sanjah opozoril na neizbežno nevarnost. V otroštvu je njega in njegove starše na Dunaju oblegal Albert Avstrijski. Eden virov pripoveduje, da se je mladi princ v najtemnejših dneh obleganja taval po grajski garnizon in prosil služabnike in oborožene za koščke kruha. [3] Mladi princ je bil odličen lovec, njegov najljubši hobi je bil lov na ptice kot lokostrelec.

Takrat so bili burgundski vojvode, kadetska veja francoske kraljeve družine, s svojim prefinjenim plemstvom in dvorno kulturo vladarji znatnih ozemelj na vzhodni in severni meji Francije. Vladajoči vojvoda Karlo Drzni je bil glavni politični nasprotnik Maksimilijanovega očeta Friderika III. Frederick je bil zaskrbljen zaradi obsežnih teženj Burgundije na zahodni meji njegovega Svetega rimskega cesarstva in je, da bi preprečil vojaški spopad, poskušal zagotoviti poroko edine Charlesove hčerke Marije iz Burgundije s svojim sinom Maksimilijanom. Po obleganju Neussa (1474–75) je bil uspešen. Poroka med Maksimilijanom in Marijo je bila 19. avgusta 1477. [4]

Maksimilijanova žena je po očetovi smrti v bitki pri Nancyju 5. januarja 1477 podedovala velike burgundske oblasti v Franciji in nižjih deželah. Že pred svojim kronanjem za kralja Rimljanov leta 1486 se je Maximilian odločil, da bo zavaroval tega oddaljenega in obsežnega Burgundija. dediščino svoji družini, hiši Habsburg, za vsako ceno. [5]

Francoska krona je v skladu s salitskim pravom zahtevala tudi vojvodino Burgundijo [6], Ludvik XI. Francije pa je z vojaško silo odločno izpodbijal habsburški zahtevek za burgundsko dediščino. Maksimilijan se je branil oblasti svoje žene pred napadom Ludvika XI. In 7. avgusta 1479 premagal francoske sile pri Guinegateju, sodobni Enguinegatti. [7]

Poročna pogodba Maksimilijana in Marije je določala, da ju bodo njuni otroci nasledili, a da par ne moreta biti dediča drug drugega. Mary je to pravilo poskušala zaobiti z obljubo, da bo v primeru njene smrti prenesla ozemlja kot darilo, vendar so bili njeni načrti zmedeni. Po Marijini smrti v jahalni nesreči 27. marca 1482 v bližini gradu Wijnendale je bil Maksimilijanov cilj zdaj zagotoviti dediščino njegovemu in Marijinemu sinu Filipu Lepemu. [5]

Nekatere nizozemske pokrajine so bile sovražne do Maksimilijana in leta 1482 so podpisale pogodbo z Ludvikom XI v Arrasu, ki je prisilila Maksimilijana, da Franche-Comté in Artois odstopi francoski kroni. [6] V obdobju 1482–1492 so se dvakrat odkrito uprli in poskušali znova pridobiti avtonomijo, ki so jo uživali pod Marijo. Flamskim upornikom je uspelo ujeti Filipa in celo Maksimilijana, vendar so bili poraženi, ko je posredoval Friderik III. [8] [9] Maksimilijan je še naprej upravljal preostalo Marijino dediščino v imenu Filipa Lepega. Ko se je regentstvo končalo, sta Maksimilijan in Charles VIII iz Francije v Senliški pogodbi (1493) zamenjala ta dva ozemlja za Burgundijo in Picardy. Tako je velik del Nizozemske (znane kot sedemnajst provinc) ostal v habsburški dediščini. [6]

Mirni ponovni prevzem Avstrije Edit

Maksimilijan je bil 16. februarja 1486 v Frankfurtu na Majni na očetovo pobudo izvoljen za kralja Rimljanov in 9. aprila 1486 okronan v Aachnu. Velik del Avstrije je bil pod avstro-ogrsko vojno (1477-1488) pod madžarsko oblastjo. Po smrti madžarskega kralja Matije Korvina so Habsburžani lahko brez vojaških spopadov zasedli avstrijska ozemlja. Maksimilijan je brez obleganja leta 1490 vstopil na Dunaj. Mirna habsburška priključitev avstrijskih ozemelj je bila možna, potem ko sta Maksimilijan in novoizvoljeni ogrski kralj Vladislav II. Podpisala mirovno pogodbo v Pressburgu. Maksimilijan je postal vladar Svetega rimskega cesarstva po očetovi smrti leta 1493.

Italijanske in švicarske vojne Edit

Ker je Senliška pogodba razrešila francoske razlike s Svetim rimskim cesarstvom, je francoski kralj Ludvik XII zavarovalo meje na severu in se osredotočil na Italijo, kjer je zahteval vojvodino Milano. Leta 1499/1500 ga je osvojil in regent Sforza Lodovico il Moro odpeljal v izgnanstvo. [10] To ga je pripeljalo v potencialni konflikt z Maksimilijanom, ki se je 16. marca 1494 poročil z Bianco Marijo Sforza, hčerko Galeazza Maria Sforze, vojvode Milana. [6] [10] Vendar Maksimilijan Francozom ni mogel preprečiti prevzema Milana. [10] Dolgotrajne italijanske vojne so povzročile [6], da se je Maksimilijan pridružil Sveti ligi, da bi nasprotoval Francozom. Leta 1513 je Maksimilijan z angleškim Henrikom VIII v bitki pri Spursih proti Francozom dosegel pomembno zmago in ustavil njihovo napredovanje v severni Franciji. Njegove kampanje v Italiji niso bile tako uspešne in njegov napredek je bil hitro preverjen.

Razmere v Italiji niso bile edini problem, ki ga je imel takrat Maksimilijan. Švicarji so v bitki pri Dornachu 22. julija 1499 zmagali proti cesarstvu. Maksimilijanu ni preostalo drugega, kot da se je strinjal z mirovno pogodbo, podpisano 22. septembra 1499 v Baslu, ki je Švicarski konfederaciji podelila neodvisnost od Svetega rimskega cesarstva.

Poleg tega sta se tirolska županija in vojvodina Bavarska pozno v 15. stoletju vojskovali. Bavarska je od Tirolske zahtevala denar, posojen na podlagi zavarovanja tirolskih dežel. Leta 1490 sta oba naroda zahtevala, naj Maksimilijan I. posreduje v sporu. V odgovor je prevzel nadzor nad Tirolsko in njenim dolgom. Ker Tirolska v tem času ni imela zakonske kode, je plemstvo svobodno odtujilo denar od prebivalstva, kar je povzročilo, da je kraljeva palača v Innsbrucku pokvarila korupcijo. Po prevzemu nadzora je Maximilian uvedel takojšnjo finančno reformo. Da bi simboliziral svoje novo bogastvo in moč, je zgradil Zlato streho, nadstrešek s pogledom na središče mesta Innsbruck, s katerega si je lahko ogledal praznovanja ob praznovanju prevzema oblasti na Tirolskem. Nadstrešek je v celoti izdelan iz zlate skodle. Pridobivanje teoretskega nadzora nad Tirolsko za Habsburžane je bilo strateškega pomena, saj je povezalo Švicarsko konfederacijo z avstrijskimi deželami, ki so bile pod nadzorom Habsburžanov, kar je olajšalo nekaj imperialne geografske kontinuitete.

Prepoved judovske literature in izgon Judov Edit

Leta 1496 je Maksimilijan izdal odlok, s katerim je vse Jude izgnal iz Štajerske in Wiener Neustadta. [11] Podobno je leta 1509 sprejel "cesarski zaplembni mandat", ki je odredil uničenje vse judovske literature razen Svetega pisma. [12] Kljub temu je še vedno opravljal finančne posle z Judi, kot je Abraham iz Češke.

Reforme Uredi

V Svetem rimskem cesarstvu se je Maksimilijan soočal s pritiskom lokalnih vladarjev, ki so menili, da kraljeve nadaljnje vojne s Francozi za povečanje moči njegove lastne hiše niso v njihovem interesu. Obstaja tudi soglasje, da so za ohranitev enotnosti cesarstva potrebne globoke reforme. [13] Reforme, ki so se dolgo zavlačevale, so se začele v Reichstagu leta 1495 v Wormsu. Predstavljene so bile nove orgle, Reichskammergericht, ki naj bi bil v veliki meri neodvisen od cesarja. Za njegovo financiranje je bil uveden nov davek, tj Gemeine Pfennig, čeprav njeno zbiranje nikoli ni bilo popolnoma uspešno. [13] Lokalni vladarji so želeli večjo neodvisnost od cesarja in okrepitev lastne teritorialne oblasti. To je pripeljalo do tega, da se je Maksimilijan strinjal, da bo ustanovil organ, imenovan Reichsregiment, ki so se sestali v Nürnbergu in so ga sestavljali cesarjevi poslanci, lokalni vladarji, prebivalci in volilci knezov Svetega rimskega cesarstva. Novi organ se je izkazal za politično šibkega in njegova moč se je vrnila k Maksimilijanu leta 1502. [10]

Zaradi težkih zunanjih in notranjih razmer, s katerimi se je soočil, je Maksimilijan menil, da je treba uvesti reforme na zgodovinskih ozemljih Habsburške hiše, da bi lahko financiral svojo vojsko. Kot model Burgundije je poskušal ustvariti enotno državo. To ni bilo zelo uspešno, vendar je bil eden od trajnih rezultatov ustanovitev treh različnih pododdelkov avstrijskih dežel: Spodnje Avstrije, Zgornje Avstrije in Vorderösterreicha. [10]

Maksimilijana so vedno skrbele finančne pomanjkljivosti, za katere se mu zdi, da nikoli niso zadostovali za vzdrževanje njegovih obsežnih ciljev in politik. Zaradi tega je bil prisiljen vzeti znatne kredite iz zgornjenemških bankirjev, zlasti iz družin Baumgarten, Fugger in Welser. Jörg Baumgarten je bil celo Maksimilijanov finančni svetovalec. Fuggers, ki so na Tirolskem prevladovali v dejavnosti pridobivanja bakra in srebra, so zagotovili skoraj milijon goldinarjev kredita za podkupovanje volivcev knezov, da so za novega cesarja izbrali Maksimilijanovega vnuka Karla V. Ob koncu Maksimilijanove vladavine je dolg Habsburžanov znašal šest milijonov guldnov, kar ustreza desetletju davčnih prihodkov iz njihovih podedovanih zemljišč. Ta konec dolga je trajalo do konca 16. stoletja.

Leta 1508 je Maximilian s soglasjem papeža Julija II Erwählter Römischer Kaiser ("Izvoljeni rimski cesar"), s čimer se je končal večstoletni običaj, da je moral svetega rimskega cesarja okronati papež.

Kot del Arraške pogodbe je Maksimilijan zaročil svojo triletno hčerko Margareto s francoskim Daufinom (kasneje Karlom VIII.), Sinom svojega nasprotnika Ludvika XI. Po pogojih Margaretine zaroke je bila poslana v Louis, da bi bila vzgojena pod njegovim skrbništvom. Kljub Louisovi smrti leta 1483 je kmalu po prihodu Margaret v Francijo ostala na francoskem dvoru. Dauphin, zdaj Charles VIII, je bil še mladoleten, njegova regentka do leta 1491 pa je bila njegova sestra Anne. [14] [15]

Umrl kmalu po podpisu Le Vergerjeve pogodbe je Frančišek II., Vojvoda Bretanje, svoje kraljestvo prepustil svoji hčerki Anne. V iskanju zavezništev za zaščito svoje domene pred sosednjimi interesi se je leta 1490 zaročila z Maksimilijanom I. Približno leto kasneje sta se poročila po pooblastilu. [16] [17] [18]

Vendar sta Charles in njegova sestra želela njeno dediščino za Francijo. Ko je leta 1491 prvi postal polnoleten in je izkoristil Maksimilijanovo in očetovo zanimanje za nasledstvo svojega nasprotnika Mathiasa Corvina, ogrskega kralja [19], je Charles zavrnil svojo zaroko z Margareto, vdrl v Bretanijo, prisilil Anne iz Bretanije da se odreče svoji nepopolni poroki z Maksimilijanom in se poroči z Anno iz Bretanije. [20] [21] [22]

Margaret je nato ostala v Franciji kot nekakšna talka do leta 1493, ko so jo s podpisom Senlisske pogodbe končno vrnili k očetu. [23] [24]

Istega leta, ko so se pripravljale sovražnosti dolgih italijanskih vojn s Francijo, [25] je Maksimilijan sklenil še eno poroko zase, tokrat z Bianco Marijo Sforzo, hčerko Galeazza Maria Sforze, vojvode Milana, s priprošnjo njegov brat, Ludovico Sforza, [26] [27] [28] [29], potem pa regent vojvodine po prvi smrti. [30]

Leta kasneje se je Maksimilijan, da bi zmanjšal naraščajoče pritiske na cesarstvo, ki so jih povzročile pogodbe med vladarji Francije, Poljske, Madžarske, Češke in Rusije, ter da bi zagotovil Češko in Madžarsko za Habsburžane, srečal z jagelonskimi kralji Madžarskega Ladislava II. In Češkega ter Sigismunda I. poljskega na prvem dunajskem kongresu leta 1515. Tam so uredili, da se Maksimilijanova vnukinja Marija poroči z Ludvikom, sinom Ladislava, in da se Ana (sestra Ludovika) poroči z Maksimilijanovim vnukom Ferdinandom (oba vnuka sta otroka Filipa Lepega, Maksimilijanovega sina in Joanne iz Kastilje). [31] [32] Poroke, ki so bile tam sklenjene, so leta 1526 pripeljale Habsburžane na Madžarsko in Češko. [33] [34] Maksimilijan je po smrti Ladislava sprejel Ano in Ludvika. [ potreben citat ]

Tako si je Maksimilijan s svojimi zakoni in zakoni njegovih potomcev (neuspešno in uspešno poskušanih podobno) prizadeval, tako kot je to veljala takratna praksa za dinastične države, razširiti svoje vplivno področje. [34] Poroke, ki jih je uredil za oba otroka, so uspešneje izpolnile poseben cilj, ki je preprečil francoske interese, po prelomu v šestnajsto stoletje pa se je njegovo druženje osredotočilo na vnuke, za katere je pogledal stran od Francije proti vzhodu. [34] [35] Te politične poroke so bile povzete v naslednji latinski elegični parček: Bella gerant aliī, tū fēlix Austria nūbe/ Nam quae Mars aliīs, dat tibi regna Venera, "Naj drugi vodijo vojno, toda ti, o srečna Avstrija, se poroči za tista kraljestva, ki jih Mars daje drugim, Venera tebi." [36]

Maksimilijanova politika v Italiji je bila neuspešna in po letu 1517 so Benetke ponovno osvojile zadnje dele svojega ozemlja. Maksimilijan se je začel v celoti osredotočati na vprašanje svojega nasledstva. Njegov cilj je bil zagotoviti prestol članu njegove hiše in Francu I. Francoskemu preprečiti, da bi prevzel prestol, kar je povzročilo "volilno kampanjo" brez primere zaradi množične uporabe podkupovanja. [37] Družina Fugger je Maksimilijanu zagotovila milijon gulden kredita, ki je bil uporabljen za podkupovanje volilcev knezov. [38] Vendar so bili zahtevki za podkupnino izpodbijani. [39] Sprva se je ta politika zdela uspešna in Maksimilijanu je uspelo zagotoviti glasove iz Mainza, Kölna, Brandenburga in Češke za svojega vnuka Karla V. Smrt Maksimilijana leta 1519 je ogrozila nasledstvo, a v nekaj mesecih so bile zagotovljene izvolitve Karla V. [10]

Leta 1501 je Maximilian padel s konja in si hudo poškodoval nogo, kar mu je povzročilo bolečino do konca življenja. Nekateri zgodovinarji menijo, da je bil Maksimilijan "morbidno" depresiven: od leta 1514 je s svojo krsto potoval povsod. [40] Maksimilijan je umrl v Velsu v Zgornji Avstriji, nasledil pa ga je cesar njegov vnuk Charles V, njegov sin Filip Lepi pa je umrl leta 1506. Zaradi spokornih razlogov je Maksimilijan dal zelo natančna navodila za zdravljenje svojega telesa po smrti. Želel je, da bi mu odstrigli lase in mu izbili zobe, telo pa bičali in pokrili z apnom in pepelom, zavili v platno ter "javno razstavili, da bi pokazali pokvarljivost vse zemeljske slave". [41] Čeprav je pokopan v grajski kapeli v Wiener Neustadtu, je izjemno izdelan grob s kenotafom za Maksimilijana v Hofkircheju v Innsbrucku, kjer je grob obdan s kipi junakov iz preteklosti. [42] Veliko dela je bilo opravljenega v njegovem življenju, vendar je bilo dokončano šele desetletja pozneje. [ potreben citat ]

Maximilian je bil velik zagovornik umetnosti in znanosti, obkrožil pa se je z učenjaki, kot sta Joachim Vadian in Andreas Stoberl (Stiborius), ter ju promoviral na pomembna sodna mesta. Mnogi od njih so bili naročeni, da mu pomagajo dokončati vrsto projektov v različnih umetniških oblikah, namenjenih poveličevanju za prihodnost njegovega življenja in dejanj ter tistih njegovih habsburških prednikov. [43] [44] Te projekte je označil kot Gedechtnus ("memorial"), [44] [45], ki je vključeval vrsto stiliziranih avtobiografskih del: epske pesmi Theuerdank in Freydalin viteški roman Weisskunig, oba objavljena v izdajah, bogato ilustriranih z lesorezi. [43] V tem smislu je naročil serijo treh monumentalnih grafik iz lesenih blokov: Slavolok (1512–18, 192 lesorezov, širokih 295 cm in visokih 357 cm - približno 9'8 "x 11'8½") in Triumfalna povorka (1516–18, 137 lesnih plošč, dolgih 54 m), ki ga vodi a Velika zmagovita kočija (1522, 8 lesorezov, 1½ 'visoka in 8' dolga), ki so jih ustvarili umetniki, med drugim Albrecht Dürer, Albrecht Altdorfer in Hans Burgkmair. [46] [47]

Maximilian je imel veliko strast do oklepa, ne le kot opremo za bitke ali turnirje, ampak kot umetniško obliko. Slog oklepov, ki je postal priljubljen v drugi polovici njegovega vladanja, je vseboval izpopolnjene žlebove in obdelavo kovin ter postal znan kot maksimilijanski oklep. Poudaril je podrobnosti pri oblikovanju same kovine in ne jedkane ali pozlačene oblike, priljubljene v milanskem slogu. Maximilian je kralju Henriku VIII podaril tudi bizarno tekmovalno čelado - vizir čelade ima človeški obraz z očmi, nosom in nasmejanimi usti ter je bil oblikovan po videzu samega Maksimilijana. [48] ​​Ima tudi par ovnatih rogov ovna, medeninasta očala in celo jedkano brado. [48]

Maksimilijan je svojo hčerko Margareto imenoval za regentko Nizozemske ter za varuha in vzgojitelja svojih vnukov Karla in Ferdinanda (njunega očeta Filipa, ki je imel pred tem Maksimilijana), in to nalogo je dobro izpolnila. Z vojnami in porokami je razširil habsburški vpliv v vseh smereh: na Nizozemsko, v Španijo, na Češko, Madžarsko, Poljsko in v Italijo. Ta vpliv je trajal stoletja in oblikoval velik del evropske zgodovine. Habsburško cesarstvo je preživelo kot Avstro-Ogrsko, dokler se ni razpustilo 3. novembra 1918-399 let 11 mesecev in 9 dni po smrti Maksimilijana.

Maksimilijanovo življenje se v Srednji Evropi še stoletja pozneje spominja. Red svetega Jurija, ki ga je sponzoriral, še vedno obstaja. [49] Leta 2011 so mu na primer v Cortini d’Ampezzo postavili spomenik. [50] Tudi leta 1981 so v Cormonsu na Piazzi Liberta znova postavili Maksimilijanov kip, ki je bil tam do prve svetovne vojne. [51] Ob 500 -letnici njegove smrti so bili leta 2019 številni spominski dogodki, na katerih je Karl von Habsburg, sedanji vodja Habsburške hiše, predstavljal cesarsko dinastijo. [52] [53] [54]


Konsolidacija moči

Po smrti Friderika III. Leta 1493 je Maksimilijan postal edini vladar nemškega kraljestva in vodja hiše Habsburg. Nato je izgnal Turke iz svojih jugovzhodnih meja, se poročil z Bianco Marijo Sforzo iz Milana (1494) in nizke dežele izročil svojemu sinu Filipu (1494), pri čemer si je pridržal pravico do skupne oblasti. Razcvetna kultura nizkih držav je vplivala na literaturo, umetnost, vlado, politiko in vojaške metode v vseh drugih posesti Habsburžanov.

Invazija Karla VIII v Italijo (1494) je porušila evropsko ravnovesje moči. Maksimilijan se je povezal s papežem, Španijo, Benetkami in Milanom v tako imenovani Sveti ligi (1495), da bi izgnal Francoze, ki so osvajali Neapelj. Leta 1496 je vodil kampanjo v Italiji, a čeprav so bili Francozi izgnani, je dosegel le malo koristi. Pomembnejše so bile poroke njegovega sina Filipa s špansko novorojenko Joan (norih) istega leta in njegove hčerke Margaret s španskim prestolonaslednikom leta 1497. Te poroke so mu zagotovile nasledstvo v Španiji in nadzor španskih kolonij.

Na zasedanju Reichstaga (cesarske diete) v Wormsu leta 1495 je Maksimilijan poskušal okrepiti cesarstvo. Predvideno je bilo, da bodo zakoni reformirali Reichskammergericht (cesarska sodniška zbornica) in obdavčitev ter dali trajnost javnemu miru, vendar za številne vojaške in upravne težave ni bilo rešitve. Knezi niso dovolili krepitve osrednje oblasti, ta omejitev moči pa je nevtralizirala cesarsko politiko. Da bi preprečil nasprotovanje, ki ga je vodil predvsem lord kancler Berthold, nadškof v Mainzu, je Maximilian ustanovil lastne izvenustavne sodne in finančne komisije.

Leta 1499 je Maksimilijan vodil neuspešno vojno proti Švicarski konfederaciji in bil prisiljen priznati njeno virtualno neodvisnost z Baselskim mirom (22. september). Hkrati so se Francozi v sodelovanju s Španijo preselili nazaj v Italijo in zasedli cesarski feud v Milanu.

Leta 1500 so cesarski knezi v Reichstagu v Augsburgu Maksimilijanu umaknili precejšnjo oblast in jo vložili v Reichsregiment, vrhovni svet 21 volivcev, knezov in drugih. Razmišljali so celo o tem, da bi ga dali v najem, vendar je načrt spodletel zaradi njihove apatije in Maksimilijanovih učinkovitih protiukrepov. Evropski položaj je okrepil s sporazumom s Francijo, ugled v imperiju pa si je povrnil z zmagami v dinastični vojni med Bavarsko in Renskim pfalcem (1504). Hkrati pa ga je smrt Bertholda iz Mainza rešila enega njegovih glavnih nasprotnikov. Kreditni dogovori z južnimi nemškimi podjetji, kot so Fuggers, so Maksimilijanu zagotovili sredstva za tuje in domače potrebe, kampanja proti Madžarski leta 1506 pa je okrepila habsburški zahtevek za madžarski prestol. Čeprav je bil nemški kralj, ga papež ni okronal za cesarja, kot je bilo običajno. Sovražni Benečani, ki so bili izključeni iz Italije, ni mogel oditi v Rim na kronanje in se je moral zadovoljiti z naslovom izvoljenega rimskega cesarja, ki mu je bil podeljen s soglasjem papeža Julija II. 4. februarja 1508.

Da bi nasprotoval Benetkam, je Maximilian leta 1508. vstopil v Cambraijevo ligo s Francijo, Španijo in papežem. Njihov cilj je bil razdeliti Beneško republiko. V vojni, ki je sledila, so Maksimilijana zaradi pomanjkanja sredstev in vojakov označili za nezanesljivega partnerja. Huda bolezen papeža Julija je spodbudila Maksimilijana, naj razmisli o sprejetju papeževe službe, ki mu jo je ponudil razkolniški svet v Pisi. Na trenutke pobožen, včasih antipapski, je mislil, da bi si lahko pri finančni pomoči nemške cerkve priskrbel denar, če bi bil tekmec papež, a se je na koncu pustil, da ga je od tega odvrnil Ferdinand II (katolik) iz Aragona. Ko se je odpovedal francoskemu zavezništvu, je s papežem, Španijo, Anglijo in njihovimi zavezniki vstopil v novo sveto zvezo (1511). S pomočjo Anglije je zmagal proti Francozom v bitki pri Spursu (1513), medtem ko so se njegovi zavezniki osredotočili na to, da si povrnejo Milano in Lombardijo. Francozi so v Italiji v bitki pri Marignanu leta 1515 zmagali, Maksimilijanova prizadevanja, da bi ponovno osvojila Milan, pa niso uspela. Bruseljska pogodba je Francozom podelila Milano, Benečanom pa Verono, Maksimilijanu pa so ostale le ozemeljske meje Tirolske.

Na vzhodu je z ustopom v Rusijo lahko pritisnil na Poljsko, Češko in Madžarsko, da so se strinjali z njegovimi ekspanzionističnimi načrti. Leta 1515 so bile sklenjene ugodne poroke med člani družine Habsburg in madžarsko kraljevo hišo, s čimer se je okrepil položaj Habsburžanov na Madžarskem in tudi na Češkem, ki je bilo pod isto dinastijo. Zaradi zapletenega sistema zavezništev, ki je zajemal tako srednjo Evropo kot Iberski polotok, je bil Maksimilijan močna sila v evropskih zadevah.

12. januarja 1519 je po tem, ko je prejšnje leto poskušal, da bi bil njegov vnuk Charles izvoljen za cesarja in vzpostavil evropsko koalicijo proti Turkom, umrl v Welsu v Zgornji Avstriji. Pokopan je bil v Georgskircheju v Wiener Neustadtu. (Njegova veličastna grobnica v Hofkircheju v Innsbrucku je bila dokončana kasneje.) Njegovi načrti so se uresničili, ko je njegov vnuk, ki je bil že španski kralj, kasneje istega leta postal cesar kot Charles V.


Elizabeta Yorška se poroči z Maksimilijanom, cesarjem Svetega Rima

To bo vsekakor zanimivo. Domnevam, da bi Maksimilijan obdržal Filipa kot burgundskega vojvodo, nato pa bi morda želel, da bi sina Elizabeta okronala za cesarja svetega rimskega sveta, da bi pozneje zagotovila zavezništvo z Madžarsko.

Isabella

To bo vsekakor zanimivo. Domnevam, da bi Maksimilijan ohranil Filipa za burgundskega vojvodo, nato pa bi morda želel, da bi sina Elizabeta okronala za cesarja svetega rimskega sveta, da bi pozneje zagotovila zavezništvo z Madžarsko.

WillVictoria

Avstrija bo najverjetneje odšla k Elizabetinemu najstarejšemu sinu (združenemu s cesarskim nasledstvom po Filipovi smrti), ki bo poročen bodisi s Katarino Aragonsko ali s princeso Jaggiellon (rojeno leta 1482) ali z njenimi nečakinjami Margareto (rojeno 1482) , Sophia (rojena 1485), Anna (rojena 1487), Elizabeth (rojena 1494) ali Barbara (rojena 1495) iz Brandeburg-Ansbacha ali Anna (rojena 1492) ali Sophia (rojena 1498) iz Pomeranije).
Maksimilijan bo svoje hčerke Elizabete poročil tudi z Vladislausom (kot tretjo ženo) in Sigismundom (kot prvo ženo) Jagiellonom.


No, bistvo je v tem, kdo se tukaj Filip ne bo poročil z Juano, saj se bo poročil s svojo prvotno zaročeno Anne iz York. Juana se bo tu najverjetneje poročila bodisi z Manuelom I iz Portugalskega (potem ko bo postal kralj) bodisi z Edwardom V iz Anglije, če bo poroka z Anno iz Bretanije prišla do njegovega mlajšega brata Richarda (ker sta državi vedno ločeni). Seveda, če Anne iz Bretanje ni na voljo za Charlesa VIII, se bo poročil z Margareto iz Burgundije, kot je bilo načrtovano, Juan pa se bo na tej točki najverjetneje poročil s Catherine of York


BIBLIOGRAFIJA

Primarni viri

Burgkmair, Hans Triumf Maksimilijana I: 137 Lesorez Hans Burgkmair in drugi. Uredil in prevedel Stanley Appelbaum. New York, 1964.

Freydal: Des Kaisers Maximilian I: Turniere und Mummereien (Freydal: Turnirji in noše cesarja Maksimilijana I.). Uredil Franz, Graf Folliot de Crenneville. 2 zv. Dunaj, 1880 – 1882. Pripisano Maksimilijanu.

Kaiser Maximilians Theuerdank. 2 zv. Faksimil. Plochingen, 1968. Pripisano Maksimilijanu, prvotno objavljeno 1517.

Maksimilijan I, cesar Svetega Rima. Kaiser Maximilians I Weisskunig. Uredil H. T. Musper. 2 zv. Stuttgart, 1956.

Sekundarni viri

Benecke, Gerhard. Maximilian I (1459 – 1519): Analitična biografija. Boston, 1982.

Scholz-Williams, Gerhild. Književni svet Maksimilijana I.: Komentirana bibliografija. Bibliografija šestnajstega stoletja, letn. 21. St. Louis, 1982.

Wiesflecker, Hermann. Kaiser Maximilian I: Das Reich, Ö sterreich und Europa an der Wende zur Neuzeit (Cesar Maksimilijan I.: Cesarstvo, Avstrija in Evropa na predvečer modernosti). 5 zvezkov. München, 1971 – 1986. Standardna biografija.

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Charles I of Spain elected Holy Roman emperor

Charles I of Spain, who by birth already held sway over much of Europe and Spanish America, is elected the successor of his late grandfather, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Charles, who was also the grandson of Ferdinand II and Isabella of Spain, had bribed the princes of Germany to vote for him, defeating such formidable candidates as King Henry VIII of England, King Francis I of France, and Frederick the Wise, the duke of Saxony.

Crowned as Emperor Charles V, the new Holy Roman emperor sought to unite the many kingdoms under his rule in the hope of creating a vast, universal empire. However, his hopes were thwarted by the Protestant Reformation in Germany, a lifelong dynastic struggle with King Francis, and the advance of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. In 1558, after nearly four decades as Holy Roman emperor, Charles abdicated the throne in favor of his brother, Ferdinand. He had already granted much of the other European territory under his rule to his son Philip.


Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian II (31 July 1527 – 12 October 1576), a member of the Austrian House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 until his death. He was crowned King of Bohemia in Prague on 14 May 1562 and elected King of Germany (King of the Romans) on 24 November 1562. On 8 September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary and Croatia in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (Pozsony in Hungarian now Bratislava, Slovakia). On 25 July 1564 he succeeded his father Ferdinand I as ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. [1] [2]

Maximilian's rule was shaped by the confessionalization process after the 1555 Peace of Augsburg. Though a Habsburg and a Catholic, he approached the Lutheran Imperial estates with a view to overcome the denominational schism, [ further explanation needed ] which ultimately failed. He also was faced with the ongoing Ottoman–Habsburg wars and rising conflicts with his Habsburg Spain cousins.

According to Fichtner, Maximilian failed to achieve his three major aims: rationalizing the government structure, unifying Christianity, and evicting the Turks from Hungary. [3]

Maximilian was born in Vienna, Austria, the eldest son of the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand I, younger brother of Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the Jagiellonian princess Anne of Bohemia and Hungary (1503–1547). He was named after his great-grandfather, Emperor Maximilian I. At the time of his birth, his father Ferdinand succeeded his brother-in-law King Louis II in the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Kingdom of Hungary, laying the grounds for the global Habsburg Monarchy.

Having spent his childhood years at his father's court in Innsbruck, Tyrol, Maximilian was educated principally in Italy. Among his teachers were humanist scholars like Kaspar Ursinus Velius and Georg Tannstetter. He also came in contact with the Lutheran teaching and early on corresponded with the Protestant prince Augustus of Saxony, suspiciously eyed by his Habsburg relatives. From the age of 17, he gained some experience of warfare during the Italian War campaign of his uncle Charles V against King Francis I of France in 1544, and also during the Schmalkaldic War. Upon Charles' victory in the 1547 Battle of Mühlberg, Maximilian put in a good word for the Schmalkaldic leaders, Elector John Frederick I of Saxony and Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, and soon began to take part in Imperial business.

Heir apparent

On 13 September 1548 Emperor Charles V married Maximilian to Charles's daughter (Maximilian's cousin) Maria of Spain in the Castile residence of Valladolid. By the marriage his uncle intended to strengthen the ties with the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs, but also to consolidate his nephew's Catholic faith. Maximilian temporarily acted as the emperor's representative in Spain, however not as stadtholder of the Habsburg Netherlands as he had hoped for. To his indignation, King Ferdinand appointed his younger brother Ferdinand II administrator in the Kingdom of Bohemia, nevertheless Maximilian's right of succession as the future king was recognised in 1549. He returned to Germany in December 1550 in order to take part in the discussion over the Imperial succession.

Maximilian's relations with his uncle worsened, as Charles V, again embattled by rebellious Protestant princes led by Elector Maurice of Saxony, wished his son Philip II of Spain to succeed him as emperor. However, Charles' brother Ferdinand, who had already been designated as the next occupant of the imperial throne, and his son Maximilian objected to this proposal. Maximilian sought the support of the German princes such as Duke Albert V of Bavaria and even contacted Protestant leaders like Maurice of Saxony and Duke Christoph of Württemberg. At length a compromise was reached: Philip was to succeed Ferdinand, but during the former's reign Maximilian, as King of the Romans, was to govern Germany. This arrangement was not carried out, and is only important because the insistence of the emperor seriously disturbed the harmonious relations that had hitherto existed between the two branches of the Habsburg family an illness that befell Maximilian in 1552 was attributed to poison given to him in the interests of his cousin and brother-in-law, Philip II of Spain.

The relationship between the two cousins was uneasy. While Philip had been raised a Spaniard and barely travelled out of the kingdom during his life, Maximilian identified himself as the quintessential German prince and often displayed a strong dislike of Spaniards, whom he considered as intolerant and arrogant. [4] While his cousin was reserved and shy, Maximilian was outgoing and charismatic. His adherence to humanism and religious tolerance put him at odds with Philip who was more committed to the defence of the Catholic faith. [5] Also, he was considered a promising commander, while Philip disliked war and only once personally commanded an army. Nonetheless, the two remained committed to the unity of their dynasty.

In 1551 Maximilian attended the Council of Trent and the next year took up his residence at Hofburg Palace in Vienna, celebrated by a triumphal return into the city with a large entourage including the elephant Suleiman. While his father Ferdinand concluded the 1552 Treaty of Passau with the Protestant estates and finally reached the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, Maximilian was engaged mainly in the government of the Austrian hereditary lands and in defending them against Ottoman incursions. In Vienna, he had his Hofburg residence extended with the Renaissance Stallburg wing, the site of the later Spanish Riding School, and also ordered the construction of Neugebäude Palace in Simmering. The court held close ties to the University of Vienna and employed scholars like the botanist Carolus Clusius and the diplomat Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. Maximilian's library curated by Hugo Blotius later became the nucleus of the Austrian National Library. He implemented the Roman School of composition with his court orchestra, however, his plans to win Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina as Kapellmeister foundered on financial reasons. In the 1550s, Vienna had more than 50,000 inhabitants, making it the largest city in Central Europe with Prague and before Nuremberg (40,000 inhabitants).

The religious views of the future King of Bohemia had always been somewhat uncertain, and he had probably learned something of Lutheranism in his youth but his amicable relations with several Protestant princes, which began about the time of the discussion over the succession, were probably due more to political than to religious considerations. However, in Vienna he became very intimate with Sebastian Pfauser [de] , a court preacher influenced by Heinrich Bullinger with strong leanings towards Lutheranism, and his religious attitude caused some uneasiness to his father. Fears were freely expressed that he would definitely leave the Catholic Church, and when his father Ferdinand became emperor in 1558 he was prepared to assure Pope Paul IV that his son should not succeed him if he took this step. Eventually Maximilian remained nominally an adherent of the older faith, although his views were tinged with Lutheranism until the end of his life. After several refusals he consented in 1560 to the banishment of Pfauser, and began again to attend the Masses of the Catholic Church.

Vladanje

In November 1562 Maximilian was chosen King of the Romans, or German king, by the electoral college at Frankfurt, where he was crowned a few days later, after assuring the Catholic electors of his fidelity to their faith, and promising the Protestant electors that he would publicly accept the confession of Augsburg when he became emperor. He also took the usual oath to protect the Church, and his election was afterwards confirmed by the papacy. He was the first King of the Romans not to be crowned in Aachen. In September 1563 he was crowned King of Hungary by the Archbishop of Esztergom, Nicolaus Olahus, and on his father's death, in July 1564, he succeeded to the empire and to the kingdoms of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia.

The new emperor had already shown that he believed in the necessity for a thorough reform of the Church. He was unable, however, to obtain the consent of Pope Pius IV to the marriage of the clergy, and in 1568 the concession of communion in both kinds to the laity was withdrawn. On his part Maximilian granted religious liberty to the Lutheran nobles and knights in Austria, and refused to allow the publication of the decrees of the council of Trent. Amidst general expectations on the part of the Protestants he met his first summoned Diet of Augsburg in March 1566. He refused to accede to the demands of the Lutheran princes on the other hand, although the increase of sectarianism was discussed, no decisive steps were taken to suppress it, and the only result of the meeting was a grant of assistance for the war with the Turks, which had just been renewed. Maximilian would gather a large army and march to fight the Ottomans, but neither the Habsburgs nor the Ottomans would achieve much of anything from this conflict. The Ottomans would besiege and conquer Szigetvár in 1566, but their sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, would die of old age during the siege. With neither side winning a decisive engagement, Maximilian's ambassadors Antun Vrančić and Christoph Teuffenbach would meet with the Ottoman Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha in Adrianople to negotiate a truce in 1568. The terms of the Treaty of Adrianople required the Emperor to recognise Ottoman suzerainty over Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia.

Meanwhile, the relations between Maximilian and Philip of Spain had improved, and the emperor's increasingly cautious and moderate attitude in religious matters was doubtless because the death of Philip's son, Don Carlos, had opened the way for the succession of Maximilian, or of one of his sons, to the Spanish throne. Evidence of this friendly feeling was given in 1570, when the emperor's daughter, Anna, became the fourth wife of Philip but Maximilian was unable to moderate the harsh proceedings of the Spanish king against the revolting inhabitants of the Netherlands. In 1570 the emperor met the diet of Speyer and asked for aid to place his eastern borders in a state of defence, and also for power to repress the disorder caused by troops in the service of foreign powers passing through Germany. He proposed that his consent should be necessary before any soldiers for foreign service were recruited in the empire but the estates were unwilling to strengthen the imperial authority, the Protestant princes regarded the suggestion as an attempt to prevent them from assisting their co-religionists in France and the Netherlands, and nothing was done in this direction, although some assistance was voted for the defense of Austria. The religious demands of the Protestants were still unsatisfied, while the policy of toleration had failed to give peace to Austria. Maximilian's power was very limited it was inability rather than unwillingness that prevented him from yielding to the entreaties of Pope Pius V to join in an attack on the Turks both before and after the victory of Lepanto in 1571 and he remained inert while the authority of the empire in north-eastern Europe was threatened.

In 1575, Maximilian was elected by the part of Polish and Lithuanian magnates to be the King of Poland in opposition to Stephan IV Bathory, but he did not manage to become widely accepted there and was forced to leave Poland.

Maximilian died on 12 October 1576 in Regensburg while preparing to invade Poland. On his deathbed he refused to receive the last sacraments of the Church. He is buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.

By his wife Maria he had a family of ten sons and six daughters. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Rudolf, who had been chosen king of the Romans in October 1575. Another of his sons, Matthias, also became emperor three others, Ernest, Albert and Maximilian, took some part in the government of the Habsburg territories or of the Netherlands, and a daughter, Elizabeth, married Charles IX of France.

Maximilian's policies of religious neutrality and peace in the Empire afforded its Roman Catholics and Protestants a breathing space after the first struggles of the Reformation. His reign also saw the high point of Protestantism in Austria and Bohemia and unlike his successors, Maximilian did not try to suppress it.

He disappointed the German Protestant princes by his refusal to invest Lutheran administrators of prince-bishoprics with their imperial fiefs. Yet on a personal basis he granted freedom of worship to the Protestant nobility and worked for reform in the Roman Catholic Church, including the right of priests to marry. This failed because of Spanish opposition.

Maximilian II was a member of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

On 13 September 1548, Maximilian married his first cousin Maria of Spain, daughter of Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal. Despite Maria's commitment to Habsburg Spain and her strong Catholic manners, the marriage was a happy one. The couple had sixteen children:

    (1 November 1549 – 26 October 1580). Married Philip II of Spain, her uncle. She was the mother of Philip III of Spain.
  • Archduke Ferdinand of Austria (28 March 1551 – 25 June 1552). (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612). , (15 July 1553 – 12 February 1595). He served as Governor of the Low Countries. (5 July 1554 – 22 January 1592). Married Charles IX of France.
  • Archduchess Marie of Austria (27 July 1555 – 25 June 1556). (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619).
  • A stillborn son (20 October 1557). (12 October 1558 – 2 November 1618). Elected king of Poland, but never crowned. He served as grandmaster of the Teutonic Order and Administrator of Prussia. (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621). He served as Governor of the Low Countries. (9 March 1561 – 22 September 1578).
  • Archduke Frederick of Austria (21 June 1562 – 16 January 1563).
  • Archduchess Marie of Austria (19 February 1564 – 26 March 1564). Named after her deceased older sister.
  • Archduke Charles of Austria (26 September 1565 – 23 May 1566). (25 January 1567 – 5 July 1633). A nun.
  • Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (4 November 1568 – 12 March 1580).

Maximilian II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Prince of Swabia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. etc.


The Habsburg Imperial Plan of Emperor Maximilian I

Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire (1459–1519) was the first great Habsburg emperor. The son of Emperor Frederick III and Eleanor of Portugal, Maximilian succeeded his father in 1495 and was a gifted warrior and an ambitious politician who wanted as much power and international influence as he could get for himself and his royal dynasty. His own marriage to Duchess Mary of Burgundy made him rich. His son Duke Philip of Burgundy’s marriage to Princess Juana of Castile linked Austria to Spain, which were then joined under one ruler in the person of Philip and Juana’s son Emperor Charles V. Maximilian’s other grandson, the future Emperor Ferdinand I, also became king of Hungary and Bohemia due to his grandfather’s ambitions.

The Marriage of Emperor Maximilian I and Duchess Mary of Burgundy

Duchess Mary of Burgundy was the sole heir of the richest and most powerful state in Europe. After much negotiation, Maximilian and Mary were married in 1477 when he was eighteen and she nineteen. They got along very well and had a happy marriage, living mostly in Ghent in her territory and pursuing their interests in art and literature. They only had two surviving children, Philip of Burgundy and Margaret, and after Mary died in 1482, Maximilian deeply grieved for her. Although he married twice more, to Anne of Brittany and the rich Bianca Sforza, he never had any more children.

The Children of Emperor Maximilian I and Duchess Mary of Burgundy

Maximilian used his children’s marriages to help him in diplomatic negotiations and increase Habsburg power and influence. His daughter Margaret had three such diplomatic marriages. In 1482, Maximilian had been forced to sign the Treaty of Arras, in which he agreed to allow France to keep all the Burgundian land it had invaded and also gave the young Princess Margaret to the French dauphin. Years later, however, the French rejected her for a better diplomatic marriage and she was sent home.

She was next involved in a 1495 double betrothal, in which she and her brother Philip were promised to Juan and Juana, the children of the great Spanish monarchs King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile. Margaret’s marriage ended soon with the early death of her husband, but Philip and Juana’s marriage produced many children and introduced the Habsburg dynasty to Spain.

Margaret was thirdly given to Prince Philibert of Savoy, but he soon left her a widow again. She spent the rest of her life in the Burgundian territory of Flanders where she was regent of the Netherlands.

The Habsburg Grandchildren of Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire

The marriage of Philip of Burgundy and Princess Juana of Castile (also known as Juana la Loca) introduced the Habsburg dynasty to Spain. Philip died young and Juana went crazy, so Maximilian was essential in the upbringing of his grandchildren.

Emperor Maximilian I wanted his eldest grandson Charles to succeed him as Holy Roman Emperor, and spent the last years of his reign campaigning to get him elected. Charles eventually became both Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King Carlos I of Spain, ruling a vast empire that spanned the globe.

Emperor Maximilian was also interested in peace with neighboring Hungary, and used his grandchildren Ferdinand and Mary for that. In a 1491 peace treaty, Maximilian and King Ladislaus II of Hungary agreed that if Ladislaus had no surviving male heir then the Habsburgs would inherit his land. Maximilian then arranged a double marriage in 1515 between Ferdinand and Mary and Ladislaus’s children Louis and Anna. After Ladislaus’s early death, Maximilian adopted Louis, and when Louis died with no heirs, Ferdinand inherited Hungary and Bohemia.

The Legacy of Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire

Emperor Maximilian I of the Holy Roman Empire was one of the most ambitious and influential Austrian rulers. He strengthened the power of the Habsburg dynasty mostly through marriage alliances. His own marriage to Duchess Mary of Burgundy gave the Habsburgs wealth and land. His son Philip of Burgundy’s marriage to Princess Juana of Castile established the Habsburgs in Spain, and their son Charles inherited both lands as Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and King Carlos I of Spain. Maximilian’s grandchildren’s marriages to Hungarian royals linked Austria with the neighboring land, and his grandson Ferdinand eventually ascended as King Ferdinand of Hungary and Bohemia and later became Emperor Ferdinand I of the Holy Roman Empire. Because of Emperor Maximilian I’s ambition and strategic alliances, the Habsburgs began to grow in international power and eventually became one of the most powerful royal familes in Europe.


Official style

Maximilian II, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King in Germany, of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, etc. Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Luxemburg, Württemberg, the Upper and Lower Silesia, Prince of Swabia, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Moravia, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Princely Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Ferrette, Kyburg, Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Lord of the Wendish March, Pordenone and Salins, etc. etc.


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