Je to Sikstinska kapela predzgodovinske umetnosti?

Je to Sikstinska kapela predzgodovinske umetnosti?


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Od vseh gradenj, gravur, slik in izvirnih mest, ki smo jih videli, nobena ni bila bolj oddaljena ali težko dostopna ali se k njej kdaj vrnila, kot jama Zlatega bumeranga. Niti Evan niti jaz nisva mogla popraviti nobenega mejnika ali grebena, da bi se odpravila, bili smo popolnoma izgubljeni in pod vodstvom naših vodnikov.

Vnaprej so nam zagotovili, da je ta izolirana postojanka izvirne rock umetnosti tako edinstvena kot veličastna in ta galerija v obeh pogledih ni razočarala. Kljub temu pa nismo bili pripravljeni na obseg, umetnost in pozornost do podrobnosti. Dokler nismo stopili v to regijo in si ogledali to kamnito ploščo figur v gibanju in predanosti, smo sprejemali trditve učenjaka pri opredelitvi posebnih regionalnih izvirnih stilov in da vse oblike izvirnega umetniškega izraza pokrivajo široko paleto, vendar so pri tem zelo kratke. do reprezentativnih upodobitev človeškega telesa.

Najbližji in domnevno edini primer kakršne koli umetnosti pred kuharjem, ki meji na upodobitev, se imenuje "umetnost Bradshaw", razlage pa so raznolike, pri čemer je do skrajnosti nekaj prizanesljivo. Nekateri komentatorji, med katerimi je tudi samooklicani strokovnjak za rock umetnost Kimberleys, Graham Walsh, trdijo, da je ta oblika starodavne umetnosti preveč prefinjena in izpopolnjena za surovo paleto Original. Glede na to "dejstvo" sta Walsh in drugi domnevali, da so oker slike Bradshaw ustvarili neoriginalni ljudje, ki so odpluli v Avstralijo, slikali v jamah in nato odšli brez sledu ali kakršnih koli utemeljenih zgodovinskih dokazov.

Jama zlatega bumeranga

Na tisoče kilometrov južno od Kimberleyja se ta galerija razteza na več kot 20 metrov in je visoka več kot 4 metre. Na steni iz peščenjaka je vgraviranih in naslikanih šest figur/ikon: dve ženski (ena stoji, druga lebdi ali leti), en neoborožen samec, dojenček, en bumerang in tasmanski tiger (tilacin). Splošno trdijo, da je tasmanski tiger izumrl na avstralskem kopnem že vsaj 5000 let in kot tak zagotavlja zanesljiv minimalni datum.

Vsaka človeška figura je večja od naravne velikosti (pribl. Pol in pol) in neposredno sorazmerna. Takšna pozornost do podrobnosti je, da je tisoče let po nastanku še vedno mogoče prepoznati pasove na moški roki, ki ustvarjajo rahlo vdolbino v mesu, lok v plavajoči ženski nogi, upodobitev vsakega prsta, zelo nenavadno dreadlocked pričeska, ukrivljenost bokov, teleta in zadnjice itd. Umetnik se je zelo potrudil, da bi ponovil enaka razmerja, črto in obliko človeškega telesa. Verjetno je trditi, nemogoče pa je dokazati, da je bila ta skupina, če so bili uporabljeni dejanski modeli, natančna do milimetra. Nobena od figur Bradshawa ni nikjer tako sorazmerna ali velika, za primerjavo pa so podolgovate palice s kančkom telesne oblike.

Preostale sledi okerja, skoraj vse najbolj svete kategorije, rdeče, najdemo po celotni plošči. Dva najpomembnejša področja rdeče barve sta znotraj bumeranga, ki je najdebelejši, in zunanji del dveh krogov na pasu stoječe ženske. Zanimiv je bil rezultat Evanove uporabe različnih barvnih filtrov na fotografiji teh krogov, do takrat nihče ni videl šablon za roke znotraj vsakega rdeče oker kroga. Ali se uporablja istočasno ali po njej, je sporno, vendar dejstvo, da nihče od nas na dan ni videl odtisov rok na kraju samem ali ob ogledu običajnih fotografskih slik, samo krepi neverjetno skrivno sveto naravo te stolnice.

Pripoved, ki spremlja to galerijo, ni nič manj globoka ali sveta kot tista, ki je povezana s slikami na stropu Sikstinske kapele, in nič manj kot desetkrat starejša. Obstaja izrazit ženski podton z dvema ženskama, enim novorojenim otrokom in neoboroženim samcem, ki segata proti simbolu, ki predstavlja osvetlitev, vendar se ga ne dotika. Liberalna uporaba pasov, pasov in diagonalnih kril dodaja svetosti te priložnosti. V svojem vrhuncu, starejši od 5000 let in popolnoma poslikani, trdno verjamemo, da je ta galerija rock umetnosti brez primere po svoji umetnosti in mističnih spoznanjih ne le v Avstraliji, ampak po vsem planetu.

Vzorec se ponavlja

Vedno smo trdili, da so se popolnoma sodobna človeška bitja najprej razvila v Avstraliji, nato pa odplula s te celine, da bi delila svojo modrost, tehnologijo, kulturo in gene z ljudmi po vsem svetu. Med svojimi številnimi talenti so bili prvi umetniki in obvladali vse sloge in medije od abstraktnega, simboličnega, šrafiranega, pikčastega in pretiranega, pa vse do reprezentativnega. Jama zlatega bumeranga samo ponazarja, kako raznoliki in neverjetno nadarjeni so bili izvirni umetniki in kako malo je resnične izvirne zgodovine valuta teh dni.

Avtor: Steven in Evan Strong


Približno

Pred skoraj tridesetimi leti je Michael Stehr prispel na univerzo Stanford, pripravljen nadaljevati študij političnih znanosti, ki ga bo pripeljal do kariere v pravu ali podjetju. Štiri leta pozneje je Michael zapustil fakulteto z dodatnim predmetom iz umetnostne zgodovine, ki načrtuje romanje v umetnostno zgodovino v Evropo in rastočim hišnim slikarstvom, ki se bo kasneje razvilo v umetnost in umetnostno zgodovino Sikstinske kapele, kot obstaja danes.

Umetnost in umetnostna zgodovina Sikstinske kapele, poimenovani za najbolj izvrstno umetniško delo v zahodnem svetu, upa, da bo sporočil duh Michelangelovega Sikstinskega stropa-navdušujočo moč lepote, ustvarjalnosti in človeških inovacij-čeprav je Michaelova lastna likovna umetnost, okrasna slikanje in umetnostnozgodovinski ogledi in predavanja. Odkrivanje moči te ustvarjalne energije na fakulteti je za vedno spremenilo potek Michaelovega življenja in upa, da bo s svojim delom lahko zrcalil vpliv takšnega odkritja nanj na druge.

Michael večino svojega časa posveča svoji dekorativni umetnosti. Te notranje barve po meri vključujejo freske, večplastne barvne učinke, stenske obloge, barvne omete, zlato listje in ročno poslikano leseno zrnje. Vzorce Mihaelovih dekorativnih zaključkov najdete pod Dekorativna umetnost zavihek zgoraj.

Proti koncu vsakega leta Michael pokaže svojo likovno umetnost v galerijski razstavi v Piemontu. Njegove slike v prvi vrsti prikazujejo dva kraja, kjer se Michael najbolj počuti doma: območje zaliva in njegov daljni dom Italija. Michael uživa tudi v portretiranju in slikanju slik, pred kratkim pa je začel slikati živali, potem ko je ustvaril (študij? Majhna slika?) Družinskega psa kot božično darilo za svojo hčerko. Vzorce Michaelovih likovnih del najdete pod Likovna umetnost zavihek zgoraj.

Ko Michael ne ustvarja umetnosti, ga verjetno najdete pri njegovem učenju - brska po negotovem kupu indeksnih kartic ali lista po eni od številnih knjig o zgodovini umetnosti, ki sedijo na družinski mizi. Michael je predaval na številnih uglednih lokacijah, vključno s klubom Commonwealth, univerzo Stanford in več pomembnimi zasebnimi klubi in knjižnicami na območju zaliva San Francisco. Svoja likovna dela je tudi predaval in razstavljal v Rimu. Michael vodi tudi vsakoletne turneje po zgodovini umetnosti v Rimu in Parizu, dogodivščine, ki jih zaznamuje Michaelova neverjetna strast do umetnikov in njihovega dela, ki jih usmerja v ustvarjanje edinstveno prilagojene, zelo privlačne učne izkušnje. Več o Michaelovih umetniških potovanjih izveste pod Umetniške ture zavihek zgoraj in poglejte Prihajajoči dogodki za seznam prihajajočih Michaelovih predavanj.


Vsebina

Prvotno stropno sliko je napisal Pier Matteo d'Amelia in je na modrem ozadju [5] upodobil zvezde, podobne stropu kapele Arena, ki jo je okrasil Giotto v Padovi. [6] Šest mesecev leta 1504 je diagonalna razpoka v oboku Sikstinske kapele povzročila, da je kapelica neuporabna, papež Julij II (Giuliano della Rovere) pa je poškodovano sliko odstranil. [5]

Papež Julij II. Je bil "bojevnik papež" [7], ki je v svojem papežu začel agresivno kampanjo za politični nadzor, da bi združil in pooblastil Italijo pod vodstvom Cerkve. Vlagal je v simboliko, da bi prikazal svojo časovno moč, na primer svojo procesijo (na klasičen način), v kateri se je po eni od svojih številnih vojaških zmag vozil z vozovom skozi slavolok. Julij je leta 1506 začel z obnovo bazilike svetega Petra kot najmočnejšega simbola vira papeževe moči. [8]

Michelangelo je zapustil Bitka pri Cascini nedokončan, ko ga je spomladi 1505 papež Julij II poklical v Rim in mu naročil, naj naredi svoj grob v baziliki svetega Petra. [11] [12] [13] Michelangelo in papež Julij sta bila vroča in sta se kmalu prepirala. [12] [13] Kot je zapisal Walter Pater: "Michelangelo je bil zdaj star trideset let in njegov ugled se je uveljavil. Tri velika dela zapolnijo preostanek njegovega življenja - tri dela se pogosto prekinjajo, nadaljujejo skozi tisoč obotavljanj, tisoč razočaranj , prepiri s svojimi zavetniki, prepiri z družino, prepiri se morda najbolj sami s sabo - Sikstinska kapela, mavzolej Julija Drugoga in zakristija San Lorenzo ". [14] 17. aprila 1506 je Michelangelo na skrivaj odšel iz Rima v Rim in tam ostal, dokler ga florentinska vlada ni pritisnila, naj se vrne k papežu. [13] Novembra 1506 je namesto tega odšel v Bologno in zgradil ogromen bronasti kip papeža, ki je osvojil Bolognese. [13] (Bolognese so leta 1511 uničili bron). [13] Projekt papeškega groba je bil tiho odstavljen, [9] da bi ga družina Della Rovere poživila po njegovi smrti. [12] [13]

Leta 1506 je Julij II začel obnavljati baziliko sv. Petra, ki je pritegnila njegovo pozornost, in do februarja 1513, ko je umrl, je bilo na njegovem grobu malo dela. [15] [11] [12] To je bila velika naloga, v kateri je bilo izrezljanih 40 velikih figur. [12] Njegova prvotna zasnova se ni nikoli začela. [13] Na koncu je Michelangelo dokončal le tri figure za dokončan spomenik iz leta 1545, se zaporedoma zmanjšal na vrsto skromnejših modelov in končno zgradil v cerkvi San Pietro v Vincoliju, vključno s kipom c.1515 Mojzes. [15] [12] [11] Dva Sužnji, Bradati suženj in Mladi suženj, c.1513, so v Louvru. [15] [11] [12] Grobna komisija je trajala desetletja in Michelangelo je objokoval: "Zapravil sem vso svojo mladost, priklenjeno na to grobnico." [15] [11] Ascanio Condivi je afero opisal kot "tragedijo groba". [13]

Leta 1506 je papež Julij zasnoval program za poslikavo stropa Sikstinske kapele. [16] [ potrebna stran ] Stene kapele so bile okrašene 20 let prej. Najnižja od treh stopenj je naslikana tako, da spominja na drapirane zavese in je bila (in včasih še vedno) ob posebnih priložnostih obešena z nizom tapiserij, ki jih je zasnoval Raphael. Srednja raven vsebuje zapleteno shemo fresk, ki ponazarjajo Kristusovo življenje na desni strani in Mojzesovo življenje na levi strani. Izvedli so ga nekateri najbolj priznani renesančni slikarji: Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Signorelli in Cosimo Rosselli. [17] Zgornji nivo sten vsebuje okna, med katerimi so naslikani pari iluzionističnih niš s predstavitvami prvih 32 papežev. [18] Verjetno je, ker je bila kapela mesto rednih srečanj in maš elitnega telesa uradnikov, znanih kot Papeška kapela (ki bi opazovali odlikovanja in razlagali njihov teološki in časovni pomen), papež Julij namera in pričakovanje, da je treba ikonografijo stropa brati s številnimi plastmi pomena. [19]

Shema, ki jo je predlagal papež, je bila, da bi dvanajst velikih apostolov zasedlo pendentive. [20] [21] Vendar se je Michelangelo pogajal za višjo, veliko bolj zapleteno shemo in mu je bilo po njegovih besedah ​​končno dovoljeno, "da delam, kar mi je všeč". [22] [a] Predlagano je bilo, da je bil avguštinski fratar in kardinal Giles iz Viterba svetovalec za teološki vidik dela. [23] [ potrebna stran ] Mnogi pisci menijo, da je imel Michelangelo razum, svetopisemsko znanje in izumiteljsko moč, da je sam oblikoval shemo. To potrjuje izjava Ascania Condivija, da je Michelangelo med slikanjem stropa bral in prebral Staro zavezo, navdih pa je dobil iz besed Svetega pisma in ne iz ustaljenih tradicij sakralne umetnosti. [24]

Spomladi 1508 se je Michelangelo vrnil v Rim, da bi delal na ciklu fresk na oboku in zgornjih stenah Sikstinske kapele. [12] [13] Michelangelo, ki ni bil v prvi vrsti slikar, ampak kipar, se ni želel lotevati dela, ki ga je predlagal, da ga prevzame njegov mladi tekmec Raphael. [25] [26] Papež je bil odločen in Michelangelu ni pustil druge izbire, kot da ga sprejme. [27] [ potrebna stran ] Pogodba je bila podpisana 8. maja 1508 z obljubljeno pristojbino v višini 3.000 dukatov. [28] Michelangelo je sprva želel pritegniti pomočnike, da bi čim hitreje opravili težavno in nezaželeno delo, vendar ni mogel najti ustreznih kandidatov in je skoraj sam poslikal skoraj celoten strop. [13] Med florentinskimi umetniki, ki jih je Michelangelo pripeljal v Rim v upanju, da bo pomagal pri freski, je Giorgio Vasari imenoval Francesca Granaccija, Giuliana Bugiardinija, Jacopa di Sandra, l'Indaca starejšega, Agnola di Domenica in Aristotila. [29]

Michelangelo je začel delati spomladi 1508, začenši na zahodnem koncu leta Noetova pijanost in Prerok Zaharija in delati nazaj skozi pripoved do Ustvarjanje Eve, v petem zalivu oboka, ki je bil končan septembra 1510. [13] Prva polovica stropa je bila uradno odkrita 15. avgusta 1511 pri slikanju, ko je bilo pripravljeno novo oder. [13] Nato je bila druga polovica stropnih fresk narejena hitro in po predhodni predstavitvi in ​​papeški maši 14. avgusta 1511 [16] [27] je bilo dokončano delo razkrito 31. oktobra 1512, na večer vseh praznikov, [ 13] [12] bodo javnosti prikazani do naslednjega dne, na dan vseh svetih. Michelangelova končna shema za strop je vključevala približno tristo številk. [ potreben citat ]

Po razkritju dokončanega stropa Sikstinske kapele pri 37 letih se je Michelangelov ugled tako povečal, da so ga imenovali Michelangelo il divino. [12] [13] Od takrat naprej je bil Michelangelo priznan kot največji umetnik svojega časa, ki je sam povzdignil status umetnosti, priznanje, ki je trajalo do konca njegovega dolgega življenja, njegov sikstinski strop pa je od takrat vedno štel med "vrhunskimi mojstrovinami slikarske umetnosti". [11] [13] [15]

Michelangelove freske so podlaga za pripovedne cikle iz 15. stoletja o življenju Mojzesa in Kristusa Perugia in Botticellija na stenah kapele. [11] [15] Medtem ko glavni osrednji prizori prikazujejo dogodke v Knjiga Geneze, obstaja veliko razprav o natančni razlagi številnih številk. [15] [11] Strop Sikstinske kapele je plitvi sod, okrog 35 m (118 čevljev) dolg in približno 14 m (46 čevljev) širok. [13] Okna kapele so zarezala v krivuljo oboka in ustvarila vrsto lunetov, ki se izmenjujejo z lopaticami. [13]

Čeprav je Michelangelo trdil, da ima na koncu proste roke v umetniški shemi, je to trdil tudi Lorenzo Ghiberti o svojih monumentalnih bronastih vratih za krstilnico v Firencah, za katere je znano, da je bil Ghiberti omejen s predpisi o tem, kako bi morali prizori iz Stare zaveze pojavil in se je lahko odločil le o oblikah in številu slikovnih polj. Verjetno je bil Michelangelo svoboden pri izbiri oblik in predstavitve oblikovanja, vendar je o temah in temah odločal sam pokrovitelj. [20]

Osrednje, skoraj ravno polje stropa je omejeno z izmišljenim arhitekturnim vencem in razdeljeno na štiri velike pravokotnike in pet manjših s petimi pari poslikanih reber, ki prečno prerežejo osrednje pravokotno polje. Michelangelo je te pravokotnike, ki se odpirajo v nebo, naslikal s prizori iz Stare zaveze. [13]

Pripoved se začne na vzhodnem koncu kapele, s prvim prizorom nad oltarjem, v središču evharističnih obredov, ki jih izvaja duhovščina. Majhno pravokotno polje neposredno nad oltarjem prikazuje Prvotno dejanje ustvarjanja. Zadnje od devetih osrednjih polj na zahodnem koncu prikazuje Noetova pijanost pod tem prizorom so vrata, ki jih uporabljajo laiki. [13] Najdlje od oltarja je Noetova pijanost predstavlja grešno naravo človeka. [13]

Nad vencem, na štirih vogalih vsakega od petih manjših osrednjih polj, so goli moški mladeniči, imenovani ignudi, katerega natančen pomen ni znan. [13] [15] [11] V bližini svetih prizorov v zgornjem registru in za razliko od številk spodnjega registra, prikazanih v perspektivi, niso skrajšani. [13] Verjetno predstavljajo pogled florentinskih neoplatonistov na idealno platonsko obliko človeštva brez marca izvirnega greha, ki so mu podrejene vse nižje figure. [13] Kenneth Clark je zapisal, da je "njihova fizična lepota podoba božanske popolnosti, njihova budnost in živahna gibanja izraz božanske energije". [31]

Pod poslikanim vencem okoli osrednjega pravokotnega območja je spodnji register, ki prikazuje nadaljevanje obzidja kapele kot trompe-l'œil arhitekturni okvir, proti kateremu pritiskajo figure z močnim modeliranjem. [13] Številke so močno skrajšane in so v večjem obsegu kot figure v osrednjih prizorih, "kar ustvarja občutek prostorskega neravnovesja". [13]

Strop na štirih vogalih kapele tvori dvojni del, naslikan s odrešujočimi prizori iz Stare zaveze: Medena kača, Hamanovo križanje, Judita in Holofern, in David in Goljat. [13]

Vsak od okenskih lokov kapele zareže v ukrivljen obok in tako nad vsakim ustvari trikotno območje obokov. Lok vsakega okna je ločen od naslednjega s temi trikotnimi deli, v vsakem od njih je ustoličeno Preroki izmenično z Sibile. [13] [15] [11] Te figure, sedem starozaveznih prerokov in pet grško-rimskih sibil, so bile v krščanski tradiciji opazne zaradi svojih prerokb o Mesiji ali Jezusovem rojstvu. [13] Lunete nad okni so naslikane s prizori "čisto človeških" Kristusovi predniki, kot tudi presledki na obeh straneh vsakega okna. Njihov položaj je najnižji v oboku in najtemnejši, v nasprotju z zračnim zgornjim obokom. [13]

Urejanje tolmačenja

Odkrita tema zgornje meje je krščanski nauk o človekovi potrebi po odrešitvi, ki ga je Bog ponudil po Jezusu. Je vizualna metafora potrebe človeštva po zavezi z Bogom. Stara zaveza Izraelovih otrok po Mojzesu in Nova zaveza po Kristusu sta bili že predstavljeni okoli zidov kapele. [3] Nekateri strokovnjaki, vključno z Benjaminom Blechom in vatikanskim umetnostnim zgodovinarjem Enricom Bruschinijem, so opazili tudi manj odkrito temo, ki jo opisujejo kot "prikrito" in "prepovedano". [32] [ potrebna stran ] [33] [ potrebna stran ]

Na območjih v obliki polmeseca ali lunet, nad vsakim oknom kapele so plošče s predniki Kristusa in spremljevalnimi figurami. Nad njimi, v trikotnih lopaticah, je prikazanih nadaljnjih osem skupin figur, ki pa niso identificirane s posebnimi svetopisemskimi liki. Shemo dopolnjujejo štirje veliki vogali, ki ponazarjajo dramatično svetopisemsko zgodbo. [34]

Pripovedni elementi stropa ponazarjajo, da je Bog svet naredil kot popolno stvaritev in vanj vnesel človeštvo, da je človeštvo padlo v sramoto in da je bilo kaznovano s smrtjo in ločitvijo od Boga. Človeštvo je nato še bolj potonilo v greh in sramoto, kaznoval pa ga je Veliki potop. Bog je po rodu prednikov - od Abrahama do Jožefa - poslal odrešenika človeštva, Jezusa Kristusa. Prihod Odrešenika so prerokovali izraelski preroki in Sibile iz klasičnega sveta. Različni sestavni deli stropa so povezani s tem krščanskim naukom. [34] Tradicionalno so Staro zavezo dojemali kot predhodnico Nove zaveze. Mnogi dogodki in liki Stare zaveze so bili običajno razumljeni kot neposredna simbolna povezava z nekim posebnim vidikom Jezusovega življenja ali s pomembnim elementom krščanskega nauka ali z zakramentom, kot sta krst ali evharistija. Jona, na primer prepoznaven po atributu velike ribe, je bil običajno videti kot simbol Jezusove smrti in vstajenja. [4] [ potrebna stran ]

Večina simbolike stropa izvira iz zgodnje cerkve, vendar imajo strop tudi elemente, ki izražajo specifično renesančno razmišljanje, ki je skušalo uskladiti krščansko teologijo s filozofijo renesančnega humanizma. [35] V 15. stoletju je bilo v Italiji, zlasti v Firencah, veliko zanimanje za klasično književnost in filozofije Platona, Aristotela in drugih klasičnih piscev. Michelangelo je kot mladenič nekaj časa preživel na Platonski akademiji, ki jo je ustanovila družina Medici v Firencah. Bil je seznanjen z zgodnjimi humanističnimi kiparskimi deli, kot je Donatellov bron David in sam se je odzval z izrezljanjem ogromnega golega marmorja David, ki je bila postavljena na trgu Piazza della Signoria blizu Palazzo Vecchio, doma Firencinega sveta. [36] Humanistična vizija človeštva je bila tista, v kateri so se ljudje neposredno odzvali na druge ljudi, na družbeno odgovornost in na Boga, ne preko posrednikov, na primer Cerkve. [37] To je bilo v nasprotju s poudarkom Cerkve. Medtem ko je Cerkev poudarjala človeštvo kot v bistvu grešno in pomanjkljivo, je humanizem poudaril človeštvo kot potencialno plemenito in lepo. [ potreben citat ] [b] Ta dva pogleda nista bila nujno nezdružljiva s Cerkvijo, ampak le s priznanjem, da je edinstven način za dosego tega "dviga duha, uma in telesa" skozi Cerkev kot Božjega posrednika. Biti zunaj Cerkve je pomenilo biti onkraj odrešenja. V stropu Sikstinske kapele je Michelangelo predstavil katoliške in humanistične elemente na način, ki se ne zdi vizualno nasprotujoč. Vključitev "nebiblijskih" osebnosti, kot so Sibile ali Ignudi, je skladna z racionalizacijo humanistične in krščanske misli renesanse. Ta racionalizacija naj bi postala tarča protireformacije. [ potreben citat ]

Ikonografija stropa je imela v preteklosti različne interpretacije, nekaterim elementom pa je sodobna znanost nasprotovala. [c] Drugi, na primer identiteta figur v lunetah in lopatah, še naprej kljubujejo interpretaciji. [38] Sodobni znanstveniki so si še vedno neuspešno prizadevali določiti pisni vir teološkega programa stropa in se spraševali, ali ga je v celoti oblikoval umetnik sam, ki je bil hkrati navdušen bralec Svetega pisma in genij. [39] Nekatere sodobne učenjake zanima tudi vprašanje, kako se Michelangelovo duhovno in psihološko stanje odraža v ikonografiji in izrazu stropa. Ena takšnih špekulacij je, da je Michelangela mučil konflikt med njegovo homoseksualnostjo in "njegovim globokim, skoraj mističnim katolicizmom". [ potreben citat ] [d]

Michelangelo se je verjetno začel ukvarjati z načrti in risankami za oblikovanje od aprila 1508. [40] Pripravljalna dela na stropu so bila zaključena konec julija istega leta in 4. februarja 1510 je Francesco Albertini posnel Michelangela, ki je "okrasil zgornji, obokani del". z zelo lepimi slikami in zlatom ". [40] Glavna zasnova je bila v veliki meri končana avgusta 1510, kot nakazujejo Michelangelova besedila. [40] Od septembra 1510 do februarja, junija ali septembra 1511 Michelangelo ni delal na zgornji meji zaradi spora o plačilih za delo, opravljeno avgusta 1510, je papež zapustil Rim, da bi odšel v kampanjo papeških držav za ponovno osvojitev Bologne in kljub dvema obiski tam po Michelangelovi resoluciji so prišli šele nekaj mesecev po papeževi vrnitvi v Rim junija 1511. 14. avgusta 1511 je papež Julij v kapeli priredil papeško mašo in prvič videl napredek dosedanjega dela. [40] To je bilo bdenje za dan vnebovzetja 15. avgusta, pokroviteljski praznik na Sikstinski kapeli. [40] Celotna zasnova je bila obiskovalcem razkrita 31. oktobra 1512 z uradno papeško mašo naslednji dan, na praznik vseh svetih. [41] Klerikalna uporaba kapele se je nadaljevala ves čas, razen kadar je bilo zaradi del na odrih potrebno zapreti, motnje v obredih pa so bile zmanjšane z začetkom dela na zahodnem koncu, najbolj oddaljenem od liturgičnega središča okoli oltarja na vzhodni steni . [40] Razprava o tem, v kakšnem zaporedju so bili pobarvani deli stropa, in o tem, kako je bil urejen oder, ki je umetnikom omogočil, da pridejo do stropa. Obstajata dva glavna predloga.

Večinska teorija pravi, da so bile glavne freske na stropu nanesene in poslikane v fazah, pri čemer so bili odri vsakič razstavljeni in preseljeni v drug del sobe, začenši na zahodnem koncu kapele. [41] Prva faza, vključno z Noetovim osrednjim življenjem, je bila zaključena septembra 1509 in odri so bili odstranjeni - šele nato so bili prizori vidni od tal. [41] Naslednja faza, sredi kapele, je zaključila Ustvarjanje Eve in Padec in izgon iz raja. The Kumajska Sibila in Ezekiel so bili v tej fazi tudi naslikani. [41] Michelangelo je figure naslikal v večjem obsegu kot v prejšnjem razdelku, kar je pripisano umetnikovi sposobnosti, da prvič učinkovito oceni okvir in kompozicijo od tal. [41] Številke tretje faze na vzhodnem koncu so bile še vedno v večji lestvici od druge Ustvarjanje Adama in drugi Ustvarjanje plošče so bile zaključene na tej stopnji, ki je potekala leta 1511. [41] Lunete nad okni so bile nazadnje pobarvane z majhnim premičnim odrom. [41] V tej shemi, ki jo je predlagal Johannes Wilde, sta bila prvi in ​​drugi register oboka, nad in pod fiktivnim arhitekturnim vencem, poslikana skupaj po stopnjah, ko se je oder premaknil proti vzhodu, s slogovnim in kronološkim prelomom proti zahodu in vzhodu od Ustvarjanje Eve. [40] Po osrednjem oboku je bil glavni oder zamenjan z manjšim krčenjem, ki je omogočilo barvanje lunetov, okenskih obokov in obešal. [41] Ta pogled je izpodrinil starejše stališče, da je osrednji obok tvoril prvi del dela in je bil dokončan, preden so se začela dela na drugih delih Michelangelovega načrta. [40]

Druga teorija je, da je oder dolga leta moral zajemati celotno kapelo. [40] Da bi odstranili obstoječo dekoracijo stropa, je moralo biti celotno območje dostopno za delavce, ki so pred vsakim novim delom odsekali fresko z zvezdnatim nebom. [40] 10. junija 1508 so se kardinali pritožili zaradi nevzdržnega prahu in hrupa, ki ga povzročajo dela, do 27. julija 1508, ko je bil postopek zaključen, vogalni deli kapele pa so bili spremenjeni v trikotne pandente dokončane zasnove z dvojnimi lopaticami. [40] Potem je bilo treba okvir novih modelov označiti na površini, ko se je začelo freskanje, kar je tudi zahtevalo dostop do celotnega stropa. [40] To tezo potrjuje odkritje med sodobno obnovo natančnega števila giornate zaposlen pri freskah, če je bil strop poslikan v dveh fazah, prva je trajala dve leti in se je raztezala na Ustvarjanje Eve drugi pa le eno leto, potem bi moral Michelangelo naslikati 270 giornate v enoletni drugi fazi v primerjavi s 300 poslikanimi v prvih dveh letih, kar je komaj mogoče. [40] Nasprotno, če je prvi stropni register - z devetimi prizori na pravokotnih poljih, medaljoni in ignudi - je bil naslikan v prvih dveh letih, v drugi fazi pa je Michelangelo v drugem registru naslikal le njihovo obrobo, Preroki in Sibile, nato pa giornate konča v vsakem letu so razdeljeni skoraj enako. [40] Ulrich Pfisterer, ki napreduje v tej teoriji, Albertinijevo pripombo o "zgornjem, obokanem delu z zelo lepimi slikami in zlatom" februarja 1510 razlaga tako, da se nanaša le na zgornji del oboka - prvi register z devetimi slikovnimi polji, ignudi, in njegovi medaljoni, okrašeni z zlatom - in ne do oboka kot celote, saj je bilo treba izmišljeno arhitekturno podstrešje s svojimi preroki in preroki šele začeti. [40]

Odri so morali zaščititi obstoječe stenske freske in druge okraske kapele pred padajočimi naplavinami in omogočiti nadaljevanje verskih obredov spodaj, pa tudi prepustiti zrak in nekaj svetlobe iz spodnjih oken. [40] Karpelni venec, ki je tekel po prostoru pod lunetami ob izvirih samih okenskih lokov, je podpiral poševne nosilce konstrukcije, nosilne nosilce pa so z luknjami za pritrditev namestili v steno nad vencem. [40] Ta odprta konstrukcija je podpirala brvi in ​​samo premično delovno ploščad, katere verjetno stopničasta zasnova je sledila obrisu oboka. Spodaj je bil strop, ki je zaščitil kapelo. [40] Čeprav bi nekaj sončne svetlobe vstopilo v delovni prostor med stropom in odrom, bi bila za slikanje potrebna umetna svetloba, ki bi lahko vplivala na videz uporabljenih živih barv. [40]

Michelangelo je oblikoval svoj oder, ravno leseno ploščad na nosilcih, zgrajeno iz lukenj v steni blizu vrha oken, namesto da bi bil zgrajen od tal. Mancinelli ugiba, da je to bilo zato, da bi znižali stroške lesa. [42] Po mnenju Michelangelovega učenca in biografa Ascania Condivija so bili nosilci in okvir, ki so podpirali stopnice in tla, postavljeni na začetku dela, pod njimi pa je bil obešen lahek zaslon, po možnosti krpo, ki je ujel kapljice ometa, prahu in brizganja barve. [43] [ potrebna stran ] Samo polovica prostora je bila naenkrat odrezana, ploščad pa premaknjena, saj je bilo slikanje izvedeno v fazah. [42] Območja stene, ki jih pokriva oder, so še vedno videti kot nepobarvana območja po dnu lunet. Luknje so bile v zadnji obnovi ponovno uporabljene za držanje odrov. [ potreben citat ]

Celoten strop je freska, ki je starodavna metoda za slikanje fresk, ki temelji na kemični reakciji med vlažnim apnenim ometom in pigmenti na vodni osnovi, da delo trajno zlije v steno. [44] Michelangelo je bil vajenec v delavnici Domenica Ghirlandaia, enega najbolj kompetentnih in plodovitih florentinskih freskarjev, v času, ko je bil slednji zaposlen na fresko ciklusu v Santa Maria Novelli in katerega delo je bilo zastopano na stene Sikstinske kapele. [45] [ potrebna stran ] Na začetku mavec, intonaco, je začela gojiti plesen, ker je bila preveč mokra. Michelangelo ga je moral odstraniti in začeti znova. He then tried a new formula created by one of his assistants, Jacopo l'Indaco, which resisted mould and entered the Italian building and fresco tradition. [43] [ potrebna stran ]

Because he was painting affresco, the plaster was laid in a new section every day, called a giornata. At the beginning of each session, the edges would be scraped away and a new area laid down. [42] The edges between giornate remain slightly visible thus, they give a good idea of how the work progressed. It was customary for fresco painters to use a full-sized detailed drawing, a cartoon, to transfer a design onto a plaster surface—many frescoes show little holes made with a stiletto, outlining the figures. Here Michelangelo broke with convention once confident the intonaco had been well applied, he drew directly onto the ceiling. His energetic sweeping outlines can be seen scraped into some of the surfaces [ potreben citat ] , [e] while on others a grid is evident, indicating that he enlarged directly onto the ceiling from a small drawing. [ potreben citat ]

Michelangelo painted onto the damp plaster using a wash technique to apply broad areas of colour, then as the surface became drier, he revisited these areas with a more linear approach, adding shade and detail with a variety of brushes. For some textured surfaces, such as facial hair and wood-grain, he used a broad brush with bristles as sparse as a comb. He employed all the finest workshop methods and best innovations, combining them with a diversity of brushwork and breadth of skill far exceeding that of the meticulous Ghirlandaio [ potreben citat ]. [f]

The work commenced at the end of the building furthest from the altar, with the latest of the narrative scenes, and progressed towards the altar with the scenes of the Creation. [23] [ potrebna stran ] The first three scenes, from The Drunkenness of Noah, contain smaller figures than the later panels. This is partly because of the subject matter, which deals with the fate of Humanity, but also because Michelangelo underestimated the ceiling's scale. [34] [46] Also painted in the early stages was the Slaying of Goliath. [47] After painting the Creation of Eve adjacent to the marble screen which divided the chapel, [g] Michelangelo paused in his work to move the scaffolding to the other side. After having seen his completed work so far, he returned to work with the Temptation and Fall, followed by the Creation of Adam. [48] [46] As the scale of the work got larger, Michelangelo's style became broader the final narrative scene of God in the act of creation was painted in a single day. [49]

The bright colours and broad, cleanly defined outlines make each subject easily visible from the floor. Despite the height of the ceiling, the proportions of the Creation of Adam are such that when standing beneath it, "it appears as if the viewer could simply raise a finger and meet those of God and Adam". [ potreben citat ] Vasari tells us that the ceiling is "unfinished", that its unveiling occurred before it could be reworked with gold leaf and vivid blue lapis lazuli as was customary with frescoes and in order to better link the ceiling with the walls below, which were highlighted with a great deal of gold. But this never took place, in part because Michelangelo was reluctant to set up the scaffolding again, and probably also because the gold and particularly the intense blue would have distracted from his painterly conception. [27] [ potrebna stran ] Michelangelo's patron and the ceiling's commissioner, Pope Julius II, died only months after the ceiling's completion, in February 1513. [41]

According to Vasari and Condivi, Michelangelo painted in a standing position, not lying on his back, as another biographer Paolo Giovio imagined. [50] Vasari wrote: "The work was carried out in extremely uncomfortable conditions, from his having to work with his head tilted upwards". [27] Michelangelo may have described his physical discomfort in a poem, accompanied by a sketch in the margin, which was probably addressed to the humanist academician Giovanni di Benedetto da Pistoia, a friend with whom Michelangelo corresponded. [50] Leonard Barkan compared the posture of Michelangelo's marginalia self-portrait to the Roman sculptures of Marsyas Bound in the Uffizi Gallery Barkan further connects the flayed Marsyas with Michelangelo's purported self-portrait decades later on the flayed skin of St Bartholomew in his Last Judgement but cautions that there is no certainty the sketch represents the process of painting the Chapel ceiling. [51] Michelangelo wrote his poem "I' ho già fatto un gozzo" describing the arduous conditions under which he worked the manuscript is illustrated with a sketch – likely of the poet painting the ceiling:


Fracking Arrives at the ‘Sistine Chapel’ of Prehistoric Art

On March 31 last year, a region in northern Spain quietly granted a concession of land, dubbed Arquetu, for natural gas exploration.

In Cantabria, the Arquetu traditionally was known as a mythological traveler who carries a coffer full of gold coins and lives an extremely simple lifestyle. Having disappeared from Cantabria’s folklore, now the Arquetu is back. Again, he is foreign, and bears riches, but this time he is surrounded by controversy.

Trofagas, which is owned by the California-based BNK Petroleum, was awarded the six-year concession of 24,876 hectares (61,470 acres) by the regional Government of Cantabria. In the new Arquetu territory, Trofagas will drill at least four wells to search for unconventional natural gas using hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking.’

With its gently rolling landscape, some parts of the concession strikingly resemble Carter County, in Southern Oklahoma, where BNK operates 22 wells. However, there are important differences between the two. The most significant difference is underground. Cantabria’s geology is extremely complex. Some areas are transected by a vast network of underground caves that expands into the neighboring region of Asturias. Those caves can be more than 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) deep, and the entire network, still unexplored, can be hundreds of kilometers long. People from Cantabria and Asturias joke that, if you drop painting in a cave, the water in some river—or in another cave—will become colored.

That geological structure supports a number of critically important archaeological sites. At least four decorated caves from the Paleolithic Age that have been listed as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO lie within the Arquetu. Among them is the world-famous Altamira Cave which, in 1880, became the first discovery of Prehistoric art, and has been nicknamed ‘the Sistine Chapel of Paleolithic Art’ for the quality and the degree of preservation of its paintings. Surrounding Arquetu are 13 other UNESCO-listed caves, plus other sites, such as El Sidrón, in Asturias, where exceptionally well-preserved Neanderthal remains have been discovered.

Moreover, part of the concession overlaps territories occupied by brown bears. These are the last 130 brown bears genetically “Spanish” (the ones in the Pyrenees have been introduced from Slovenia). They co-exist with the last remaining 500 Cantabrian grouse, a subspecies of the Western Capercaillie that the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service classifies as endangered.

Could development activity in Arquetu damage all of these natural and cultural assets? Could the fracking provoke small earthquakes that could damage the caves, as has happened in the United Kingdom and, more recently, in the United States? Could the roads and wells disturb the bears and the grouses, or the fluids and gases poison some of the last rivers in Spain that still have significant populations of Atlantic salmon?

In June, when I visited BNK’s operations in Carter County, the company’s representatives told me that they are ready to change their procedures to enhance safety in their Cantabrian operation. However, environmental groups have petitioned the regional government to halt the operations, and nine Cantabrian municipalities have asked the same — not only because of the potential environmental risk, but also because they were not informed about the concession until it was reported in the media. The government has not responded to the petitions, and in December two environmental groups challenged the decision in court. Sources from the oil industry admit that the countless interconnected caves and subterranean sources of water pose a significant challenge for fracking in some parts of Northern Spain.

On the other hand, it is equally true that Spain is going through a tremendous economic crisis, and that any source of jobs and economic growth is welcome, no matter the environmental or archeological uncertainties. So far, the Spanish government has granted Trofagas 1.2 million hectares (296,000 acres) to frack in Spain.

The Arquetu is far from the only shale gas potential being explored in Spain, as seen from this map. Not far to the east of Arqetu in the Gran Enara area, two American companies—True Oil in Wyoming, and HEYCO, from New Mexico—are partnering with the Basque government to explore 13 areas that officials say contain enough unconventional natural gas to supply Spain for five years.

Some accuse the opposition to fracking of being inadvertently manipulated by the influential lobby of conventional natural gas importers, who import gas for Spanish consumption from Algeria and sense the business threat of this new exploration.

In the end, the travels of this 21st century Arquetu bring to the countryside not the simple reflections of a pilgrimage, but instead, complex questions on international forces in an energy-thirsty world.


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Sistine Chapel Ceiling Layout

The overall structure of the ceiling paintings was designed by Michelangelo himself, via Wiki Commons

Michelangelo’s original commission was simply to paint the twelve apostles on the pendentives in the corners of the chapel. Unhappy first with being sidetracked from his preferred project, and now with having his work prescribed to him, the artist demanded complete artistic control. He designed a series of paintings that went far beyond his initial brief.

Running along the centre of the ceiling would be nine paintings showing stories from Genesis: the creation of the world the creation of mankind man’s fall from grace and subsequent suffering. The pendentives would show not the twelve apostles, but twelve prophetic figures, each of whom had foretold the arrival of the saviour. They were to be accompanied by four important biblical scenes featuring Moses, Esther , David and Judith .

The Last Judgement , Michelangelo, 1536-154, painted fresco, via Vatican Museums


Michelangelo also decorated much of the wall space, often depicting human figures who were not sufficiently holy to warrant a spot on the ceiling itself, but who still played a crucial role in the religious narrative he wanted to tell. Among these are the ancestors of Christ and the past popes. Most famous of all is his epic The Last Judgement , a later addition to the Sistine Chapel which stands behind the altar to remind (or warn) worshippers of what awaits. All in all, within the confines of a single room, Michelangelo painted a staggering 5000 square feet of frescoes .


Here's a first look at Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel: The Exhibition in San Antonio

When I entered the historic Lambermont mansion, I truly felt I was escaping the city life and entering another world filled with breathtaking, floor-to-ceiling art reproduced photographically from Michelangelo's renowned frescoes inside the Vatican's Sistine Chapel.

Martin Biallis, CEO of Los Angeles-based Special Entertainment Events, brought Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel: The Exhibition to San Antonio for the first time to give everyone that exact feeling: to leave your problems behind and go back in time. The exhibit has toured venues all around the world for the last six years. It will be at the Lambermont Events building, at 950 E Grayson Street, from Friday, June 11 to Thursday, September 30.

"This is one of the most iconic artworks that has been done in history," Biallis told MySA at a media event on Thursday, June 10. "Even if you're not Catholic or religious, it's more about the art and the story he was trying to tell . You get to step out of reality for an hour or two and experience beautiful pieces of art up close. The Pope could not even do that in the Sistine Chapel."

The unique exhibition showcases 34 reproductions on 16-foot panels spread out in nine rooms of the 3-floor building. The perspective is displayed in their original size, except for "The Last Judgement" (my favorite of the bunch), as it is a smaller size than its original 45-foot by 40-foot display at the Sistine Chapel.

At the chapel, Michelangelo began painting in 1508 and he continued until 1512, painting scenes from, among things, the "Book of Genesis." It was painted at the commission of Pope Julius II. The complex design includes several sets of individual figures, both clothed and nude.

Scroll below to know more about the exhibit:

On the first floor, you'll find three rooms, including one that is handicap accessible (there isn't an elevator in the building). The room has a slideshow of all the frescoes on the top two floors, along with two large artworks. In another room, you'll find the "Sacrifice of Noah" and the "Drunkenness of Noah."

In the Last Judgement room, there are four stunning frescoes. It instantly became my favorite as I grew up in an unorthodox, cult-like church that drilled into my head the "Book of Revelations" and what's to come when God's judgment comes. It spoke to me.

Also, if you look closely, Michelangelo painted himself in "The Last Judgement" artwork that has more than 300 figures in it. He displays himself as a melting individual who thought he was going to hell, but was ultimately saved and entered heaven. Try to find it. It's symbolic and truly takes your breath away.

David And Goliath on the second floor hallway of the Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel: The Exhibition at the Lambermont.

After going up a stairwell, you'll find the second floor that has a gift shop with snacks and drinks and four rooms filled with art. The first room you're most likely to encounter is on the left, and features "The Great Flood" artwork, which is another one of my favorites.

In the hallway, you'll see the famous "David and Goliath" piece (who doesn't love an underdog story?). You'll also find comfortable chairs and couches in all rooms, but I sat and stared at the"David and Goliath" one for a while. It's a symbol of never giving up, which, of course, I love.

In a separate room on the second floor, you'll find the "Prophet Jonah," but the coolest part of it all is that it leads to a long balcony with views of the green landscape typically meant for weddings.

Note: I couldn't post anything when I was there so be prepared to save videos and photos. My poor AT&T service wasn't working maybe you'll have better luck. Also, the farthest room on this floor (towards the back) is extremely cold. Bring a light cardigan if you can.

The Creation of the Sun, Moon and Earth is on the third floor of Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel: The Exhibition at the Lambermont.

There are two rooms on the third floor, with the "Creation of the Sun, Moon and Earth" being my star of the floor as the pastel pink colors pop out more than others did. The room with that painting is probably the most colorful and bright.

As you enter the floor, the first room to the left has four of the artwork with a nice and comfy black couch for others to enjoy. You'll find "The Prophet Ezekiel" in this one, as well as "The Delphic Sibyl."

The vibe up here is a bit attic-like as you'll hear every squeaky noise on the wood floors. It's quite warm so prepare to take off that light cardigan.

The Lambermont is located at 950 E Grayson Street.

Starting Friday, June 11, the exhibit will be open to the public. However, tickets for tomorrow's event are sold out. You can visit the place from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. The visit will take around 60 to 90 minutes.

Tickets are $17,50 for adults and $12.70 for children ages four to 12. Seniors 65 and older, students and military members can enter for $14.40. To book a day, visit sistinechapelexhibit.com.

Starting next Thursday, June 17, you can grab a bite to eat at the cafe in the backyard of the mansion. You can buy wine, salads, sandwiches and fruit cups. Visitors will be required to wear face masks.

You can take as many pictures as you want but don't touch the artwork.

Other than that, enjoy the mansion and all its glory. It's quite a sight to see and experience.


Sistine Chapel

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Sistine Chapel, papal chapel in the Vatican Palace that was erected in 1473–81 by the architect Giovanni dei Dolci for Pope Sixtus IV (hence its name). It is famous for its Renaissance frescoes by Michelangelo.

The Sistine Chapel is a rectangular brick building with six arched windows on each of the two main (or side) walls and a barrel-vaulted ceiling. The chapel’s exterior is drab and unadorned, but its interior walls and ceiling are decorated with frescoes by many Florentine Renaissance masters. The frescoes on the side walls of the chapel were painted from 1481 to 1483. On the north wall are six frescoes depicting events from the life of Christ as painted by Perugino, Pinturicchio, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and Cosimo Rosselli. On the south wall are six other frescoes depicting events from the life of Moses by Perugino, Pinturicchio, Botticelli, Domenico and Benedetto Ghirlandaio, Rosselli, Luca Signorelli, and Bartolomeo della Gatta. Above these works, smaller frescoes between the windows depict various popes. For great ceremonial occasions the lowest portions of the side walls were covered with a series of tapestries depicting events from the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles. These were designed by Raphael and woven in 1515–19 at Brussels.

The most important artworks in the chapel are the frescoes by Michelangelo on the ceiling and on the west wall behind the altar. The frescoes on the ceiling, collectively known as the Sistine Ceiling, were commissioned by Pope Julius II in 1508 and were painted by Michelangelo in the years from 1508 to 1512. They depict incidents and personages from the Old Testament. The Last Judgment fresco on the west wall was painted by Michelangelo for Pope Paul III in the period from 1534 to 1541. These two gigantic frescoes are among the greatest achievements of Western painting. A 10-year-long cleaning and restoration of the Sistine Ceiling completed in 1989 removed several centuries’ accumulation of dirt, smoke, and varnish. Cleaning and restoration of the Last Judgment was completed in 1994.

As the pope’s own chapel, the Sistine Chapel is the site of the principal papal ceremonies and is used by the Sacred College of Cardinals for their election of a new pope when there is a vacancy.


'Prehistoric Sistine Chapel' gets world heritage status

The 1,000 drawings carved in the walls of the Decorated Cave of Pont dɺrc, or Grotte Chauvet, are 36,000 years old and include mammoths and hand prints.

Cave experts only discovered it in 1994 as the entrance had been concealed by a rockfall 23,000 years earlier.

It was one of several cultural and natural wonders granted the status by a committee of delegates in Doha, Qatar.

UN cultural agency Unesco said the cave, located in the Ardeche region of France featured "the earliest and best-preserved expressions of artistic creation of the Aurignacian people", who were believed to be the first modern human culture in Europe.

"The large number of over 1,000 drawings covering over 8,500 square metres (90,000 square feet), as well as their high artistic and aesthetic quality, make Grotte Chauvet an exceptional testimony of prehistoric cave art," said Unesco.

"Its state of preservation and authenticity is exceptional as a result of its concealment over 23 millennia."


 The Sistine Chapel. The Home of Iconic Renaissance Art masterpieces.

The Sistine Chapel plays an important role in Italian Renaissance art history and it houses some of the most iconic images of the era. The chapel, located within the Vatican City, is named after Sixtus IV della Rovere and is built on the site of a Medieval hall the "Cappella Magna". It was used for assemblies by the Papal Court.

The building work started in 1475 ended in 1483, and the chapel was inaugurated by the Pope who dedicated it to Our Lady of the Assumption. The chapel is used by the College of Cardinals for the election of a new pope (who is considered to be the successor of St Peter).

The chapel's dimensions (40.23 meters in length, 13.40 meters in width and 20.70 meters in height) are reputed to be copied from Solomon’s temple in Jerusalem which was destroyed in 70 A.D.

When the structure was complete the side walls of the chapel were decorated in 1481 with frescoes by the greatest Italian Renaissance artists. From Florence, Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandaio and Signorelli and Umbrian artists such as Perugino and Pinturicchio.

 Painted imitation curtains with the pope’s coat of arms were frescoed on the lower walls above these hung tapestries by Raphael and his followers.

Initially, the ceiling was decorated with gold stars on a blue background by the artist Umbrian artist, Pier Matteo d’ Amelia.

The Chapel's decoration was completed by Michelangelo and was Commissioned by Pope Julius II. Michelangelo was reluctant to accept the work (he always considered himself to be a sculptor rather than a painter) but he eventually agreed to fresco the vault and the painting took four years to complete 1508-1512.

 His famous ceiling frescoes replaced the earlier work by Pier Matteo d’ Amelia.

It is impossible to fully appreciate the grandeur of this building without visiting it for yourself. With its arched windows and barrel vault ceiling, you are surrounded by some of the greatest artwork ever produced.

If you love art this place will make your head spin, it is a feast for the senses and, even if you are just a curious tourist, you will be blown away.

You have got to see this great bit of technology which gives you private access to the Chapel. It's great because in reality you would never be alone in the room, which is always very crowded, and of course, in person, you can't see Michelangelo's spectacular artwork close up as you can here.

This virtual tour was prepared by Villanova University at the request of the Vatican.

Just click and drag your arrow in the direction you wish to see.  In the lower left, click on the plus (+) to move closer,  or on the minus (-) to move away.

The two images above are from the series of paintings on the Sistine Chapel walls. Perugino's Moses picture is on the left wall and Rosselli's Sermon on the Mount is on the right wall. Also see Botticelli's paintings in the Sistine Chapel.

The Sistine Chapel Ceiling.

The Ignudi support the corners of the smaller scenes on the chapel ceiling. These four examples highlight Michelangelo's understanding of the human form. (s)

The Altar wall - The Last Judgement.

Twenty years after finishing the frescoes for the vault Michelangelo painted his "Last Judgement" on the far wall of the chapel.

Restoration and Preservation.

The restoration of the Sistine Chapel was done between 1980 and 1992 and the work on the Last Judgement lasted for four years ending in 1994. The restoration consisted of washing the frescoes with distilled water and a mild solvent removing the layers of dirt that had built up over the years.

All of the candle smoke produced in the chapel had dulled the colours in the frescoes to such an extent that it was thought that Michelangelo was more interested in his bulky figures than any rendition of colour.

The cleaning process has revealed the vivid, bright colours that had been skilfully blended by the artist reducing the flattening effect of the figures.      

The result is a re-discovery of Michelangelo's works which can now be seen as vividly as the day the artist originally painted them.

The chapel is now climate controlled, with filters and air conditioning to deal with modern pollution levels.  


Poglej si posnetek: Pod Mikelanđelovim freskama


Komentarji:

  1. Wes

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  2. Welles

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  7. Tibault

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