Grad Poppi in ubijalska gospa Matilda

Grad Poppi in ubijalska gospa Matilda


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Grad Poppi je srednjeveški grad s pogledom na dolino Casentino v provinci Arezzo v italijanski regiji Toskana. Ta grad naj bi bil zgrajen okoli druge polovice 13 th stoletju našega štetja, čeprav nekateri viri trdijo, da je sklicevanje na grad Poppi mogoče najti v dokumentih iz konca 12 th stoletju pr. Danes grad Poppi običajno velja za enega najbolje ohranjenih gradov v Toskani.

Grad Poppi je zgradila družina Guidi in je bil v njihovi lasti do 15 th stoletju. Guidiji so bili fevdalna družina, ki naj bi segala v 10 th stoletju in so obvladovali dolino Casentino. Poleg gradu Poppi je imela družina Guidi še druge trdnjave v dolini Casentino, pa tudi v regijah na severu. Priljubljena legenda je, da bi lahko Guidis s sistemom luči in ogledal poslal sporočilo od Poppija do francoske meje v manj kot 8 urah.

Gradbena postavitev

Prvotno jedro gradu je bil njegov visok kvadratni stolp. Ta struktura je prevladovala in še danes vlada nad ostalim gradom in spodnjo dolino. Vendar pa je današnji stolp rekonstrukcija izvirnika, saj je bilo treba obnovitvena dela opraviti, potem ko ga je udaril strela. Prvotni stolp je bil višji in je imel na vrhu mačikolacije (dodatni obrambni mehanizem, s katerega so lahko napadalci skozi odprtine v tleh padali kamenje in vrele tekočine). Po legendi je bila ta impresivna struktura uporabljena kot model za gradnjo stolpa Palazzo Vecchio v Firencah.

Pogled na grad Poppi. Vir fotografije: ( CC BY 2.0 )

Okoli stolpa je obzidan ograjen prostor, iz katerega so se razvili drugi deli gradu. Obstajata samo dve vrati, ki omogočata dostop v grad Poppi. Do glavnih vrat se pride po strmi rampi dostopa in se nahaja na strani proti dolini in predmestju Ponte a Poppi, starodavne mestne tržnice. Druga vrata se nahajajo na strani proti mestnemu trgu.

  • Dramatična zgodovina gradu Kamianets-Podilskyi v Ukrajini: od gradu do zapora
  • Grad Elmina in njegova mračna zgodovina zasužnjevanja, mučenja in smrti

Grad ima tudi shrambo, ki vsebuje od najnižjega do najvišjega nadstropja: zapor, depozit in stanovanjsko območje. Kolo je bilo nekoč ločeno od stolpa (povezano le z dvižnim mostom v najvišjem nadstropju), tako da so napadalci otežili zasedbo obeh struktur. Danes sta trdnjava in stolp povezana z zaveso.

Grad Poppi Pogled s severa. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Zloglasni prebivalci

Eden najbolj zloglasnih prebivalcev gradu Poppi naj bi bila ženska po imenu Matilda / Matelda. Po nekaterih virih je bila Matilda žena starejšega grofa Guidija, drugi pa trdijo, da je bila hči te vladajoče družine. Vsekakor pa Matilda ni bila zadovoljna s svojo poroko in je iskala družbo mladeničev iz mesta. Ko bi enega izmed njih povabila v grad, bi prenočila pri njem. Preden sonce vzide, pa bi ga poslala domov.

Grad Poppi od Andrea Mignola | Utripajoče mesto na Vimeu.

Matilda naj bi uporabila zadnja vrata, da bi se izognila prešuštvu. Da bi zagotovila, da njen ugled ni umazan, je svoje ljubimce za vedno utišala. Ne vedoč, da je pot, ki jim jo je pokazala Matilda, vsebovala loputo, zaradi katere so se zaljubljenci usmrtili. Izginotje mladeničev je kmalu sprožilo sum meščanov. Na koncu je jezna rulja vdrla v grad, ujela Matildo, jo zazidala v stolp in pustila umreti. Po nekaterih virih duh Matilde še vedno preganja grad.

  • Prepoznavanje Tereša morskih ljudstev
  • Radzyn Chelminski: Očarljiva zgodovina gradu Tevtonskega reda

Konec Guidisovega pravila

Leta 1440 je družina Guidi izgubila grad Poppi, ki je prišel v roke republike Firence. Zapisano je, da je družina Guidi podpirala Milana med enim od svojih spopadov s Firencami. Ko so Milance porazili Florentinci, se je morala družina Guidi predati. Grad Poppi so zasedli Firentinci, Guidije pa izgnali in tako končali svojo oblast v dolini Casentino.

Pogled na gotski stolp in merlone na gradu Poppi ( CC BY 2.0 )


Grad Wolfenbach

Grad Wolfenbach (1793) je najbolj znan roman [1], ki ga je napisala angleška gotska pisateljica Eliza Parsons. Prvič objavljen v dveh zvezkih leta 1793, je med sedmimi "grozljivimi romani", ki jih je v romanu Jane Austen priporočila lik Isabella Thorpe Opatija Northanger in pomembno zgodnje delo v žanru, ki je nastalo pred Ann Radcliffe Skrivnosti Udolfa in meniha Lewisa Menih.

Drago bitje! Koliko sem vam dolžan in ko končate Udolpho, bomo brali Italijan skupaj sem vam sestavil seznam desetih ali dvanajstih iste vrste.

Ste res imeli! Kako sem vesel! Kaj so vsi?

Njihova imena vam bom prebral neposredno v moji žepnici. Grad Wolfenbach, Clermont, Skrivnostna opozorila, Nekromant Črnega gozda, Polnočni zvon, Renska sirota, in Grozne skrivnosti. To nam bo trajalo nekaj časa.

Ja, zelo dobro, vendar so vsi grozljivi, ste prepričani, da so vsi grozljivi?

Opatija Northanger, Poglavje 6

Imena Jane Austen Grad Wolfenbach v njenem romanu Opatija Northanger prikazati gotski roman kot oblikovan okoli lastne družbe, ki dokazuje bralstvo ter medrazredni in medspolni interes za gotski roman. [2] Vsebuje standardne gotske trope brezmadežne dame v stiski, osrednjost ogromne, mračne, starodavne stavbe na parceli, odkrivanje škandaloznih družinskih skrivnosti in končno spopad med silami dobrega in zla. Odločilno protikatoliško, pro-angleško protestantsko razpoloženje je tudi značilnost žanra.


Legenda o lepi dami Matildi na gradu Poppi

Če se odločite preživeti čudovite počitnice v Toskani in bi svojim načrtom potovanja želeli dodati nekaj zanimivih zanimivosti za obiskovalce, bi bil obisk gradu Poppi v dolini Casentino odličen enodnevni izlet.

Lahko bi izvedeli vse o strašljivi legendi o precej, a grozni deklici po imenu Matilda. Obiskovalci, ki želijo nekaj dni ostati v dolini Casentino, imajo na voljo obilo odličnih kmečkih hiš, kamor se lahko brez težav odpravijo v zloglasni grad Poppi in se naučijo njegove pisane zgodovine!

Bila je najlepša ženska v deželi, ki so jo želeli vsi moški, vendar je bila že v mladosti poročena z najmočnejšim moškim v Poppiju. Bil je del "Guidija", ki je z železno pestjo vladal Toskani. Bil je starec, ki je večino svojega časa preživel zunaj vojaških poslov. Matilda ni čutila ljubezni do svojega starejšega moža, ker je bil strog srca in ni mogel zadovoljiti njenih potreb. Nevoščljiva je bila navadnim ljudem, na katere je gledala s svojega gradu, ki so se lahko poročili s tistimi, ki so si jih želeli, in zdelo se je, da vodijo tako brezskrbno življenje.

Začela je pošiljati mlade, ki izpolnjujejo pogoje, da pridejo na grad, da opravijo popravila ali ji pripravijo zabavo. Z veseljem bi naredili vse, kar je zahtevala, saj so se vsi hitro zaljubili v lepo Matildo. Uživala je v tej obilni naklonjenosti in vsak večer je izbrala enega od teh moških, da bi prišel v njeno sobo prenočiti.
Naslednje jutro, pred sončnim vzhodom, jih je odpeljala na zadnja vrata, da se ne bi ujela v prešuštvo. Toda ti možje nikoli več niso zapustili gradu živi. Šli so čez loputo, ki je pod njimi oddala, kjer so med ostrimi britvicami in razbitim steklom krvavo padli!

Matilda se je razveselila svojih pošastnih načrtov, da bi moške privabila v strastno noč z njo, preden je doživela grozljivo smrt, a kmalu so meščani začeli opažati vse večje število moških, ki so skrivnostno "izginili", potem ko so nekaj časa delali v gradu Poppi. Govorice o Matildinih hudobnih poteh so se kot požar razširile po vsej deželi in eden od zaključkov te legende pripoveduje, da so meščani v velikem številu vdrli v grad, zajeli Matildo in jo ujeli v stolp gradu. Zgradili so vsa vrata in jo pustili umreti počasi zaradi svojih grehov.

Danes je veliko ljudi, ki živijo v Poppiju, trdilo, da so videli duha Matilde, tako lepega, kot ga opisuje legenda, in oblečenega v belo. Pogosto naj bi stala ob oknu stolpa, v katerega je bila ujeta, zdaj pa se imenuje "Torre dei Diavoli", kar pomeni "Hudičev stolp".

Turisti bi v celoti uživali v fascinantnem izletu, ki ga ponuja grad Poppi, kjer se lahko sprehodijo po prostorih, kjer je bila ta grozljiva zgodba stkana pred toliko leti.

To je le ena izmed legend, opisanih v znamenitem italijanskem dokumentarcu o legendah Toskane. Na tej povezavi lahko kupite DVD, katerega ena epizoda je posvečena Lepi Mateldi iz gradu Poppi.

Sorodni članek opisuje te in druge legende, ki so obogatile zgodovino Toskane in bi vam lahko pomagale pri načrtovanju počitnic tukaj z razliko!


Vsebina

Grad se je začel kot obroč iz poznega 11. stoletja. Pravokotno kamnito steno in glavno zaveso so v 12. stoletju pod družino de Turberville dodali Normani. Trinadstropna hiša je bila predvsem obrambna zgradba. [3]

Obsežna predelava se je zgodila v 14. stoletju, ko je bila srednja vhodna hiša k ostavi pritrjena domača gredica. Novi kamniti oboki so nadomestili prejšnja lesena tla. Osrednji osmerokotni pomol za oboke je še vedno viden med grajskimi ruševinami. Sosednje kapelsko krilo z visokim vzhodnim oknom je bilo v 15. stoletju dodano v prvo nadstropje na vzhodnem koncu domačega območja.

Thomas de la Bere je umrl kot mladoleten 28. oktobra 1414, nato pa se je gospostvo vrnilo k Sarah de Turberville, najmlajši sestri Richarda de Turbervillea, ki je očitno ustvarila moško potomstvo iz poroke z Williamom Gamageom. V nekaj letih po smrti sira Lawrencea Berkerollesa je prišlo do splošnega preoblikovanja premoženjskih interesov v Glamorganu, na primer z družino Stradling. Sarahina poroka s sirom Williamom Gamageom iz Roggietta, Gwent, je gospostvo pripeljala v družino Gamage, kjer je ostala do leta 1584. Zasedbe Gamage pa septembra 1412 ni bilo mogoče doseči, kar pomeni, da naj bi bil pravi dedič mladoletni Thomas de la Bere je bil še živ, William Gamage, ki mu je pomagal sir Gilbert Denys († 1422) iz Sistona v Gloucestershireu in prej iz Waterton-by-Ewennyja [4], v Coity gospostvu, je mesec dni oblegal Coity. iz gradu izstopila Lady Joan Verney, žena Sir Richarda Verneyja in hči Margaret de Turberville. Zdi se, da se je Joan nastanila, da bi v zmedi po Berkerollesovi smrti uveljavila svojo zahtevo do Coity. Ker je bila ženska, vdova in brez sina, je bila očitno njena trditev šibka ali bolje rečeno povsem lažna. [ izvirna raziskava? ] [ potreben citat ] Vnos v patentah je:

Westminster, 16. septembra 1412. Komisija Williamu Newportu, Chivalerju, Reesu ap Thomasu, Johnu Organu, Williamu Sparenoreju, Richardu Delabereju in Robertu Wytneyju glede informacij, da so Gilbert Denys, Chivaler in William Gamedge odšli brez zmerne množice oboroženih v grad Coytif v Walesu in ga oblegala in nameravala izgnati Joan, pokojno ženo Richarda Vernona, Chivalerja, iz njene posesti, da bi šla čim tišje do gradu in dvignila obleganje, povzročila razglasitev naredil, da ga nihče, ki mu grozi zaseg, ne sme oblegati, ampak tisti, ki se pretvarjajo, da imajo pravico in lastnino, tožijo po zakonu in običajih. Aretirajte in zaprite vse, ki jim nasprotujejo, in o tem potrdite kralja v kanclerju. Avtor K.

Kralj je zato svojim lokalnim glavnim najemnikom dal naročilo, da dvignejo obleganje, in je mesec dni kasneje za isti namen dal še eno provizijo Johnu Grendourju. [5] [ izvirna raziskava? ] Denys in Gamage sta končala v londonskem stolpu, ker sta od 19. novembra 1412 do 3. junija 1413 vzela zakon v svoje roke, izpuščena po smrti Henrika IV. [6] Njihovo dejanje pa se je izkazalo za uspešno pri uveljavljanju zahtevka Gamage do Coity. Denysjeva najstarejša hči Joan je bila žena nekega Thomasa Gamagea, [7] morda brata Williama. Še ena Denysova hči, Matilda, po drugi. žena, poročila se je z drugim Thomasom Gamageom, sinom ali vnukom Williama in Sarah, in s tem postala Lady of Coity po nasledstvu svojega moža, s čimer se je rodil sin in dedič John Gamage. [8]

V 16. stoletju je grad Coity, ki je bil takrat v lasti družine Gamage, popolnoma preoblikovan v bivalnih prostorih, vključno z nadstropjem, novimi okni in dvema dimniškima. Glavne komore so ležale v zgornjih nadstropjih. Paleta domačih stanovanj je obsegala osrednjo dvorano v prvem nadstropju, postavljeno nad obokano podstrešje, od koder se je prišlo po velikih spiralnih stopnicah. Na zahodu so bile pritlične sobe, verjetno s kuhinjo, s pečmi. Osnova uničene velike peči za slad je ostala. Na skrajni strani območja je stolp, ki je štrlel iz stene zavese, vseboval stranišča. V drugem nadstropju so se nahajala zasebna stanovanja. [9]

Družina Gamage je imela Coity do smrti Johna Gamagea leta 1584. [10] Grad je bil opuščen okoli 17. stoletja. [ potreben citat ] Grad so v 18. stoletju prodali Edwinsom iz Llanharryja. Skozi Edwinove je gospostvo Coity prešlo k grofom Dunraven. [11]

Grajske ruševine zdaj skrbi Cadw.

Parna lokomotiva Great Western Railway Castle razreda 5035 je dobila ime Coity Castle. [12]


Legende, zgodovina in duhovi gradu Poppi

O gradu Poppi smo že govorili, a le o grozljivi legendi o Matildi, najlepši ženski na tem območju, ki je bila mlada poročena s starim moškim iz družine Guidi, ki je z železno pestjo vladala Toskani.

Nihče ni imel preveč rad svojega moža in je bil ljubosumen na svobodo navadnih ljudi, zato je začela pošiljati mlade nežence, ki izpolnjujejo pogoje, da pridejo na grad Poppi, da bi jo popravila ali zabavala. Vsak večer bi izbrala enega od teh moških, ki bi prišel v njeno sobo, da bi prenočil, naslednje jutro pa jih je, da ne bi odkrila prešuštva, potisnila skozi loputo, kjer so krvavo padli med britvicami in razbitim steklom . Ko so začeli opažati število pogrešanih mladeničev, so se razširile govorice o Matildi in po legendi so meščani vdrli v grad. Matilda je bila ujeta v stolpu gradu, vrata pa so bila zazidana, zaradi česar je umrla od lakote.

Danes naj bi preganjala grad in v preteklih letih so poročali o številnih opazovanjih čudovitega duha. Vendar pa ima grad poleg tega grozljive zgodbe še veliko več. Prvič omenjeno leta 1169, ko je pripadalo opatiji San Fidele de Strumi, je v 1190 -ih prešlo v Conti Guidi.

Dokumentacija gradu se ponavadi nanaša na konec dvanajstega stoletja, vendar analiza temeljev kaže, da je na tem mestu obstajala prejšnja zgradba in da sedanja stavba sega v trinajsto stoletje. Zasnoval naj bi ga Arnolfo di Cambio, arhitekt Firence Palazzo Vecchio, ki naj bi ga oblikoval po vzoru gradu Poppi.

Tako kot pri takšnih stavbah so jo z leti dodajali in spreminjali, vse do 19. stoletja, ko je zaradi poškodb zaradi strele bilo potrebno ponovno modeliranje, vendar od takrat ni bilo resnih sprememb.

Ena glavnih znamenitosti gradu je kapela Guidi, ki jo freske pokriva Taddeo Gaddi, učenec Giotta. Vendar pa je pomembna tudi zgodovina gradu - resnična in legendarna - dve znameniti toskanski bitki sta vključevali grad, bitko pri Campaldinu in bitko pri Anghiariju.

Poppi sam velja za eno "najlepših vasi v Italiji" in se nahaja v osrčju Casentina, doline, znane po naravi, umetnosti in zgodovini ter s kulinaričnim in vinskim turizmom. Poiščite počitniške hiške v mestu Casentino in se odpravite na raziskovanje tega očarljivega bisera.


Vsebina

Družina Guidi, ki izvira iz Langobardov, naseljenih v Toskani sredi 10. stoletja. [2] Legenda o družini Guidi pravi, da je prednik družine Tegrimo Guidi pretepel Lady Engelrada, hči ravenskega vojvode Martina, z jelenom, ki ga je ubil. Ta gesta si je pridobila naklonjenost in oba sta bila poročena, kar je povečalo Tegrimov vpliv med plemiči iz Emilije-Romagne. [2] [3]

Do leta 960 je Guido Guidi, sin Tegrima, pridobil posest v dolini Sieve, ki mu jo je podelil Oberto, sin Hugha, markgrofa Toskanskega. [2] Guido je razširil tudi družinski nadzor nad mestom Pistoia. V Pistoji je imela družina v lasti številne hiše s stolpom blizu mestnega obzidja, ki poveljujejo prehodu. Zaradi tega je vhod v mesto postal znan kot Porta Guidi. [2]

Guidov sin, Giovanni Guidi, je kot menih bival v Firencah. leta 1035 je več cerkvenjakov obtožil simonije in je bil zaradi tega prisiljen pobegniti iz mesta. Zatekel se je v puščavo Acqua Bella. Tu je pripomogel, da je puščavnica postala viden samostan. [2]

Guido Guidin drugi sin, imenovan tudi Guido, je živel v odprtem sovraštvu s cerkvijo in je prišel v konflikt s Petrom Damianom po očetovi smrti leta 1010. [2] Leta 1043 je Guido od Pise pridobil mesto Empoli. Guido je tudi opatiji v Firencah oropal zlato, dragulje in artefakte.

Guido je imel tudi sina po imenu Guido. Za razliko od svojega očeta je bil Guido v dobrih odnosih z duhovščino, nanj pa je vplivalo reformno gibanje v Firencah, ki ga je vodil Giovanni Gualberto. [2] [4] Guido je vrnil zlato in dragulje, ki jih je njegov oče izrobil iz opatije v Firencah in plačal gradnjo bolnišnice v mestu. [2] Guido je med polemiko o naložbah prišel na stran Matilde iz Toskane. [2] Guidova sinova, Guido in Tegrimo, sta med prvo križarsko vojno odšla iz Italije v Palestino, oba pa sta bila leta 1097 zaprta iz neznanih razlogov. Njihov oče je bil prisiljen zbirati denar, da bi plačal odkupnino za njihovo izpustitev maja 1099. [2] Kasneje leta 1099 je Matilda iz Toskane uradno posvojila Guidovega sina Guida in mu podelila naziv markiz. Leta 1102 je Guido mlajši prevzel položaj vodje družine. Leta 1109 je podprl mesto Faenza v uporu proti Etelbertu, ravenskemu škofu, ki je imel tradicionalno pravico imenovati grofa v mestu. [2] Guidova pomoč je privedla do tega, da je Etelberto odpravil obleganje mesta.

Doslej se je bližnje mesto Firence močno povečalo po velikosti in vplivu zaradi spora v Toskani med kontroverzo naložb. [2] Mesto se ni podredilo vladavini Matildinega naslednika Raboda, markiza Toskane, in je namesto tega dalo prednost samoupravi kot republiki. Naraščajoča moč Firenc je neposredno ogrožala moč grofov Guidi na obrobju mesta in v okolici podeželja. [2]

Člani družine Guidi so postali politični voditelji in sodniki v podeželskih skupnostih, ki so jim vladali, medtem ko so drugi postali vojaški poglavarji v spopadih v osrednji Italiji. [5] Vendar ni dokazov, ki bi nakazovali, da je kateri koli član družine Guidi postal profesionalec kondotir.

Do zgodnjega trinajstega stoletja so gospostva grofov Guidi razpršila Apenine med Romagno in Toskano, od Mugella do Casentina, druga gospostva, ki so jim bila podrejena, pa so ležala v spodnjem Valdarnu zahodno od Firenc (Empoli in drugi kaštelani), zgornji Valdarno , Pratomagno in Val d'Ambra. [5]

Sredi trinajstega stoletja se je sovražnost do družine Guidi umaknila iz republike Firence, ki je videla podeželsko gospostvo Guidi kot blokado firentinskim ambicijam regionalne hegemonije. [5]

Do štirinajstega stoletja so oblast podeželskih gospostev Guidi postopoma zmanjševali Firentinci. Zadnji bastion Guidijeve moči v osrednji Italiji, grad Poppi, je bil leta 1440 predan Firencam. [5] [6] [7]


Več kosov za svinčnik v sablasno pot v Toskani

Ta teden smo glede na letni čas govorili o strašni strani Toskane. Jesen je čudovit čas za načrtovanje potovanja v Toskano, saj sezonska hrana, čudovito pisana pokrajina in manjše množice vabijo vseeno, obstaja tudi bogata zgodovina, ki je povzročila precej veliko število duhov, zaradi česar je še toliko bolj zanimivo kot oktobrska počitniška destinacija. Preberite, če želite izvedeti več o najbolj grozljivih točkah Toskane. če si upaš.

3. Grozne zgodbe o umoru in duhovih gradu Poppi

Grad Poppi je čudovita stavba v Casentinu, dolini, ki slovi po naravi, umetnosti in zgodovini ter živilskem in vinskem turizmu, a pod očarljivo zunanjostjo je krvava zgodovina.

Ena od prejšnjih prebivalcev in najbolj razvpita je bila mlada ženska po imenu Matilda, ki je bila takrat najlepša ženska na tem območju in je bila prisiljena v poroko s starim in mogočnim moškim iz družine Guidi, vladajoče družine v čas. Matilda, ki je bila zaradi tega preobrata zelo nezadovoljna in ljubosumna na svobodo, ki so jo imeli navadni ljudje, je začela pošiljati mlade primerne neženje, pod krinko, da jo popravijo ali zabavajo. Nato bi izbrala enega od teh moških, ki bi prišel v njeno sobo, nato pa bi naslednji dan odstranila dokaze o svoji neskladnosti, tako da bi jih skozi pokrov potisnila v luknjo, napolnjeno z britvicami in razbitim steklom.

Sčasoma se je začelo opažati število pogrešanih mladeničev in meščani so vdrli v grad, Matildo ujeli v stolp gradu, zazidali vrata in jo pustili, da umre od lakote. Kot si lahko predstavljate, je veliko zgodb o preganjanju in za tiste, ki jih zanimajo grozljive in ogabne stvari v življenju, je treba najti počitniško najemnino v Casentinu in oditi na raziskovanje tega očarljivega dragulja.

4. Duh Palazzo Vecchio

Obstaja veliko razlogov, da poiščete luksuzno vilo v Firencah in preživite čas v tem čudovitem mestu. Eden grozljivih razlogov je duh, ki preganja Palazzo Vecchio. Rečeno je, da je v Palazzo Vecchio pravzaprav veliko duhov, najbolj znan pa je Baldaccio d'Anghiari, srednjeveški plemič in pogumen bojevnik, ki so ga izdali, napačno obtožili izdaje in ubili v palači Vecchio leta 1441. Od takrat potem je preganjal to zgradbo v Firencah in se pojavljal kot razjarjen človek in je bil večkrat opažen. Najbolj znano opazovanje Baldaccia se je zgodilo leta 2001, ko je mlad par, ki je fotografiral zunaj Palazzo Vecchio, opazil prosojen obraz jeznega, duhovitega moškega, ki je strmel skozi okno stavbe. Strokovnjaki so razglasili, da je pristen, vendar se razprava o tem, kakšen učinek bi lahko povzročil ali če je bil res duh, nadaljuje.

Po Toskani je treba raziskati še bolj fascinantne in sablasne točke, zato nadaljujte do konca te serije.


Vsebina

Vsaka epizoda vključuje dramske rekreacije z igralci, ki pripovedujejo najbolj skrivnostne, skrivne in čudne zgodbe in legende iz zgodovine gradu. Te zgodbe so se dogajale bodisi v utrdbah bodisi v bližini številnih znanih in celo zloglasnih gradov v Evropi in Ameriki.

Sezona Epizode Prvotno predvajano Datum izdaje DVD-ja in Blu-rayja
Premiera sezone Finale sezone Regija 1 Regija 2 Regija 4
1 5 [1] 19. januar 2014 23. februar 2014 N/A N/A N/A
2 13 2. januar 2015 27. marec 2015 N/A N/A N/A
3 13 8. januar 2016 31. marec 2016 N/A N/A N/A

1. sezona (2014) Urejanje

Ep. # Naslov Prvotni datum predvajanja
1.1"Prava Frankensteinova mamica prekletnica v železni maski [2]"19. januar 2014 (2014-01-19)
V premieri serije se v Clivedenusovi hiši v Taplowu v Angliji začne škandalozna afera med ministrom britanske vlade, igralko in sovjetskim vohunom. Grad Frankenstein, ki je danes v ruševinah na skalnatem hribu v Darmstadtu v Nemčiji, je dom znanstvenika Johanna Konrada Dippela, ki je izvajal poskuse oživljanja mrtvih in je bil navdih za delo Mary Shelley Frankenstein. Grad Highclere v Hampshireu, ena najbolj znanih podeželskih graščin v Angliji, hrani egipčanski zaklad, ko po lastniku doma peti grof od Caranrvona prekleti, ko odkrije dolgo zakopan grob Tutankamona. Legenda o kraju zapora Človeka v železni maski je razkrita v slutnji Fort Royal na otoku Île Sainte-Marguerite poleg Lérinskih otokov, pol milje od francoske obale pri Cannesu. Obisk gradu Hammond v Gloucesterju v Massachusettsu, kjer sta izumitelj John Hays Hammond Jr. in psihični medij Eileen Garrett poskusila s Faradayevo kletko, ki je dokazala, ali obstaja ESP.
1.2"Crown Jewels Heist Marquis de Sade Enigma iz Kasparja Hauserja"26. januar 2014 (2014-01-26)
Londonski stolp v Londonu v Angliji, zgrajen leta 1066 kot kraljeva rezidenca, je tam, kjer so kronski dragulji varno shranjeni do poskusa irskega upornika Thomasa Blooda, ki je poskušal ukrasti regalije leta 1671. Dvorec Morris-Jumel v New Yorku je še vedno dom duha Elize Jumel, za katero se domneva, da je pustila možu trgovca z vinom, da je umrl v svoji hiši leta 1832. Château de Miolans, neprebojni bastion v St. Pierre d'Albignyju na jugu Francije tam je bil zaprt francoski aristokrat, pisatelj Marquis de Sade, potem ko ga je stranka izven nadzora leta 1772 obtožila poskusa umora. Palača Karlsruhe v nemškem Karlsruheju, postavljena leta 1706, je hranila večstoletno skrivnost o skrivnostnem najstniku Kasparju Hauserju, ki je trdil, da je svoje življenje preživel zaprt v sobi brez oken. S svojo strastjo do hitrih avtomobilov si zamisel Williama Vanderbilta, da bi na svojem dvorcu v španskem slogu, Eagle's Nest v Centerportu v New Yorku, zgradil dirkalno pot, utira pot sodobni Ameriki. Zaroto za umor protestantske kraljice Elizabete I. načrtujejo katoliški zarotniki v skrivnih prehodih Thrumpton Halla, podeželskega dvorca iz 16. stoletja v Nottinghamshireju v Angliji.
1.3"Hound of Baskervilles Lord Gordon-Gordon Escape from Colditz"9. februar 2014 (2014-02-09)
Cromer Hall, britanski dvorec na barju, je navdihnil Sir Arthurja Conana Doylea, da je napisal svoj klasični roman, Pas Baskervilles njegovih zgodb o Sherlocku Holmesu. Ko škotski aristokrat Lord Gordon-Gordon dobi delež v železniški progi Erie, pride do škandala iz sheme roparja barona Wall Streeta Jaya Goulda in lastnika gradu, znanega kot Lyndhurst v Tarrytownu v New Yorku. Poskus pobega britanskega kapitana Pata Reida se odkrije znotraj kamnitih zidov gradu Colditz v nemškem Colditzu, ki je med drugo svetovno vojno služil kot taborišče za vojne ujetnike, ki so ga vodili nacisti. Grad Berkeley v mestu Berkeley Springs v Zahodni Virginiji je zgradil polkovnik Samuel Taylor Suit za svojo mlado nevesto, ki naj bi po njegovi smrti sodelovala pri smrti njenih ljubimcev. Leta 1885 zgodovina Tour Magdale, oddaljene citadele v srednjeveški vasici Rennes-le-Château, postane sanje lovca na zaklade, ko duhovnik Bérenger Saunière najde pergamente iz skritega zlata Blanche of Castile iz 8. stoletja. Marmorna hiša, neoklasicistični dvorec v Newportu na Rhode Islandu, je postavila oder slavnega spora med mamo in hčerko v pozlačeni dobi, ko družbena plezalka Alva Erskine Smith zaklene svojo hčer v svojo sobo, ko zavrne dogovorjeno poroko.
1.4"The Tichborne Claimant Washington Washington Resurrection Loch Ness Hoax"16. februar 2014 (2014-02-16)
Castello di Malaspina v Fosdinovu v Italiji postane grobnica Biance Malaspina, albino deklice, ki je kljubovala svojim plemenitim staršem, ko se je zaljubila v stabilnega fanta, zaradi česar so jo živo zazidali v ječi. Upton House v mestu Poole v Angliji je bil del spora o dedovanju, ko je moški iz avstralskega Wagga Wagga trdil, da je angleški aristokrat Roger Tichborne, edini družinski dedič, ki se je pred 10 leti utopil v brodolomu. V petek, 13. decembra 1799, je George Washington zbolel in potem, ko so ga zdravniki poskušali zdraviti s krvoproličem, je naslednji dan umrl v svojem domu, Mount Vernon v Mount Vernon v Virginiji, vendar dr. William Thornton predlaga radikalno postopek za njegovo oživitev. Ko je francoski cesar Napoleon Bonaparte izgnan na majhen otok Elba, 7 milj od italijanske obale, se njegovi načrti pobega rodijo v njegovem dvorcu iz 17. stoletja, Villa dei Mulini. Opazovanja pošasti iz Loch Nessa segajo v 6. stoletje, ko je irski misijonar Saint Columba opazil bitje na Loch Nessu blizu gradu Urquhart v Invernessu na Škotskem. Washington Times-Herald lastnica, Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson, po tem, ko je pobegnila od svojega ženskarskega moža, svoj dom Mount Airy v zgornjem Marlboru v Marylandu naredila za svoj dom.
1.5"Voynichov rokopis na črni večerji Seward Attack"23. februar 2014 (2014-02-23)
Leta 1440 se je fant kralj James II maščeval uporniškemu grofu Douglasovemu, ker si je želel njegov prestol, in ga povabil na banket v gradu Edinburgh v Edinburghu na Škotskem, pozneje poznanem kot "črna večerja", ki je navdihnil enega najbolj brutalnih prizori v Igra prestolov. Ko bogata vdova železniškega milijonarja Marka Hopkinsa zboli in umre po poroki z Edwardom Searlesom, oblikovalcem gradu Searles v Great Barringtonu v Massachusettsu, skupnost meni, da jo je zastrupil za denar. Grad Gradara v mestu Gradara v Italiji je bil v središču dveh nasprotujočih si družin - Malatestas in Polentas -, ki sta svojo čudovito hčerko Francesco poročila z grdo Giovanni Malatesta in začela tragično zgodbo o ljubezni med njo in njegovim bratom Paolom. Danesfield House v Marlowu v Angliji je bil sedež britanske CIU, kjer je častnica RAF Constance Babington Smith odkrila posnetek nacističnih V-1 iz zraka, ki je med drugo svetovno vojno povzročil operacijo Crossbow. Po poskusu zarote Lewisa Powella v zaroti atentata na Lincolna se državni sekretar William Seward upokoji v svojem ljubljenem domu, danes imenovanem Muzej hiše Seward v Auburnu v New Yorku. Vila Mondragone v Rimu v Italiji je mesto, kjer se je začela skrivnost rokopisa Voynich, ko je trgovec s starinskimi knjigami Wilfrid Voynich leta 1912 odkril starodavno knjigo, napisano v skrivnostni šifri.

2. sezona (2015) Urejanje

Opomba: Epizode v tej sezoni so se predvajale pod spremenjenim imenom naslova Skrivnosti na gradu.


Vsebina

Začetne vrstice pesmi prve svetovne vojne "Na flandrijskih poljih" se nanašajo na mak, ki raste med grobovi žrtev vojne v Belgiji. Pesem je napisana z vidika padlih vojakov in v zadnjem verzu vojaki pozivajo žive, naj nadaljujejo spopad. [6] Pesem je 3. maja 1915 napisal kanadski zdravnik John McCrae, potem ko je bil dan prej priča smrti svojega prijatelja in soborca. Pesem je bila prvič objavljena 8. decembra 1915 v londonski reviji Udarec.

Moina Michael, who had taken leave from her professorship at the University of Georgia to be a volunteer worker for the American YMCA Overseas War Secretaries Organization, was inspired by the poem. She published a poem of her own called "We Shall Keep the Faith" in 1918. [7] In tribute to McCrae's poem, she vowed to always wear a red poppy as a symbol of remembrance for those who fought in and assisted with the war. [8] At a November 1918 YMCA Overseas War Secretaries' conference, she appeared with a silk poppy pinned to her coat and distributed twenty-five more poppies to attendees. She then campaigned to have the poppy adopted as a national symbol of remembrance.

At its conference in 1920, the National American Legion adopted the poppy as their official symbol of remembrance. [8] Frenchwoman Madame Guérin [1] was invited to address American Legion delegates at their 1920 Cleveland Convention about 'Inter-Allied Poppy Day.' After the convention, the American Legion too adopted the poppy as its memorial flower and committed to support Madame Guérin in her planned U.S. Poppy Day. It was also following this event that the American Legion christened Madame Guérin as "The Poppy Lady from France." Madame Guérin successfully organized the U.S.'s first nationwide Poppy Day during the week before Memorial Day in May 1921 using silk poppies made by the widows and children of the devastated regions of France. [1]

When the American Legion stopped using the poppy symbol in favor of the daisy, Veterans of Foreign Wars' members supported Madame Guérin instead. Using French-made poppies purchased through her, the V.F.W. organized the first veterans' Poppy Day Drive in the US, for the 1922 Memorial Day. [1] In 1924, the Veterans of Foreign Wars patented the Buddy Poppy. [9]

Madame Guérin's ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ idea was also adopted by military veterans' groups in parts of the British Empire. After the 1921 Memorial Day in the US, Madame Guérin traveled to Canada. After she addressed the Great War Veteran Association on 4 July, the group also adopted the poppy emblem as well as ‘Inter-Allied Poppy Day’ concept. They were the first veterans of the British Empire (predecessor of the Commonwealth of Nations) to do so. [1]

Madame Guérin sent Colonel Moffat (ex-American Red Cross) to Australia and New Zealand (and probably South Africa) afterwards as her representative. She then traveled to Great Britain, where she informed Field Marshal Douglas Haig and the Royal British Legion about her idea. Because it was an underfunded organization, Madame Guérin paid for the British remembrance poppies herself and the British Legion reimbursed her after the first British Remembrance Day Poppy Day on 11 November 1921. [1]

James Fox notes that all of the countries which adopted the Remembrance Poppy were victors of World War I. [6]

An early reference to war and poppies in Flanders is found in the book The Scottish Soldiers of Fortune by James Grant. The Scots in Holland and Flanders: At Neerwinden, in 1693, the brigade again suffered heavy loss, and William was compelled again to give way before the white-coated infantry of France with the loss of 10,000 men. "During many months after," wrote the Earl of Perth to his sister (as quoted by Macaulay), "the ground was strewn with skulls and bones of horses and men, and with fragments of hats, shoes, saddles, and holsters. The next summer the soil, fertilised by 20,000 corpses, broke forth into millions of scarlet poppies." [10]

Remembrance poppies are mostly used in the Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, all of which are realms of the Commonwealth of Nations—to commemorate the servicemen and women killed in conflict. They are used to a much lesser extent in the United States.

Avstralija Edit

In Australia, the Flanders Poppy (remembrance poppies) has been used since 1921 to commemorate Australian soldiers who died in war. On Remembrance Day (11 November) and Anzac Day (25 April) they are laid at war memorials and are sold by the Returned and Services League of Australia (RSL) to raise funds. [11] Military folklore indicates that the vivid red of the poppies symbolize their comrades' blood soaking into the battleground. [12]

Canada Edit

In Canada, the poppy is the official symbol of remembrance. It was adopted as such in 1921 and it is to be worn during the two weeks leading up to 11 November. The Royal Canadian Legion, which has trademarked the image, [13] suggests that poppies be worn on the left lapel, or as near the heart as possible. [14]

Until 1996, poppies were made by disabled veterans in Canada, but they have since been made by a private contractor. [15] The Canadian poppies consist of two pieces of molded plastic covered with flocking with a pin for fastening to clothing. The poppies were initially made with a black centre. From 1980 to 2002, the centres were changed to green. Current designs are black only this change confused those unfamiliar with the original design. [16] In 2007, poppy stickers were introduced for children, the elderly, and healthcare and food industry workers. [17]

Canada also issues a cast metal "Canada Remembers" pin featuring a gold maple leaf and two poppies, one representing the fallen and the other representing those who remained on the home front. [18]

Following the 2000 installation of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the National War Memorial in Ottawa, where the national Remembrance Service is held, a new tradition began of attendees laying their poppies on the tomb at the end of the service. While not part of the official program, the act has become widely practiced elsewhere in the country, with others leaving cut flowers, photographs, or letters as well.

Since introduction to Canada in 1949, the Remembrance Poppy and Armistice Day commemorations have largely displaced Newfoundland's own commemorative floral emblem, the forget-me-not, as well as the province's Memorial Day held on 1 July. Although in recent years the forget-me-not has had somewhat of a resurgence in Newfoundland's military commemorations, [19] [20] the Remembrance Poppy remains more common.

Nova Zelandija Edit

In New Zealand, Remembrance Poppies are most often worn on Anzac Day (April 25) to commemorate New Zealand soldiers who died in war. They are also worn on Remembrance Day, and are sold by the Royal New Zealand Returned and Services' Association (RSA) to raise funds. The RSA planned to hold its first Poppy Day appeal around the time of Armistice Day 1921, as other countries were doing, but the ship carrying the poppies from France arrived in New Zealand too late. The association therefore waited until Anzac Day 1922. This first Poppy Day appeal was a success. Most of the money raised went to needy soldiers and their families, while the rest went to the French Children's League to help relieve suffering in war-ravaged areas of northern France.

The popularity of Poppy Day grew and there were record collections during World War II. By 1945, 750,000 poppies were distributed nationwide, an amount equal to half the country's population. [21]

Združeno kraljestvo Edit

In the United Kingdom, Remembrance Poppies are sold by The Royal British Legion (RBL). This is a charity providing financial, social, political, and emotional support to those who have served or who are currently serving in the British Armed Forces and their dependents. They are sold on the streets by volunteers in the weeks before Remembrance Day. The Remembrance Poppy is the trademark of The Royal British Legion. [22] [23] The RBL states, "The red poppy is our registered mark and its only lawful use is to raise funds for the Poppy Appeal," [24] its yearly fundraising drive in the weeks before Remembrance Day. The organization says these poppies are "worn to commemorate the sacrifices of our Armed Forces and to show support to those still serving today." [25] Other poppy merchandise is sold throughout the year as part of ongoing fundraising. [26]

In England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, the poppies typically have two red paper petals mounted on a green plastic stem with a single green paper leaf and a prominent black plastic central boss. The stem has an additional branch used as a pin to anchor the poppy in the lapel or buttonhole. In Scotland, the poppies are curled and have four petals with no leaf. The yearly sale of poppies is a major source of income for the RBL in the UK. The poppy has no fixed price it is sold for a donation or the price may be suggested by the seller. The black plastic centre of the poppy was marked "Haig Fund" until 1994 but is now marked "Poppy Appeal." [27] A team of about 50 people—primarily disabled former British military personnel—work year round to make millions of poppies at the Poppy Factory in Richmond. [28] Scottish poppies are made in the Lady Haig's Poppy Factory in Edinburgh.

For years after World War I, poppies were worn only on Remembrance Day. [29] Today the RBL's "Poppy Appeal" has a higher profile than other charity appeals in the UK. [29] The pins are widespread from late October until mid-November every year and are worn by the general public, politicians, the Royal Family and other public figures. It has become common to see large poppies on buses, tube trains and airplanes, as well as on lampposts, billboards, public buildings, and landmarks. Many newspapers and magazines show a poppy on their cover page, and some social network users add poppies to their avatars. [ potreben citat ] Each year, an official Poppy Appeal single has been released. [30] Remembrance Poppy sellers are found on streets and at numerous public events such as concerts, fairs, marathons and competitions. Other awareness raising events have initiated. For example, in 2011, a Second World War aeroplane dropped 6,000 poppies over the town of Yeovil in Somerset. [31] In 2014, Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red, a public art installation was created in the dry moat of the Tower of London by covering it with 888,246 ceramic poppies – one for each soldier of the British Empire killed in World War I.

There has been growing controversy over the Poppy Appeal. Some—including British Army veterans—have argued that the Poppy Appeal has become excessive, and that it is being used to marshal support for British military activities and that poppy wearing has become compulsory for public figures. [5] [32] Channel 4 newsreader Jon Snow described it as "poppy fascism". [33] Columnist Dan O'Neill wrote that "presenters and politicians seem to compete in a race to be first – poppies start sprouting in mid-October while the absence of a poppy is interpreted as absence of concern for the war dead, almost as an unpatriotic act of treachery." [34] Likewise, Jonathan Bartley of the religious think-tank Ekklesia said "Public figures in Britain are urged, indeed in many cases, required, to wear . the red poppy, almost as an article of faith. There is a political correctness about the red poppy." [35] Journalist Robert Fisk complained that the poppy has become a seasonal "fashion accessory" and that people were "ostentatiously wearing a poppy for social or work-related reasons, to look patriotic when it suited them." [36] Some far-right groups have used the poppy as a symbol of militant British nationalism, while some Muslims have begun to reject it as a symbol of Western imperialism. [6]

In 1997 and again in 2000 the Royal British Legion registered the Poppy under Intellectual Property Rights [37] and Trade Mark. [38]

Northern Ireland Edit

The Royal British Legion also holds a yearly poppy appeal in Northern Ireland and in 2009 raised more than £1m. [39] The wearing of poppies in Northern Ireland is controversial. [6] It is seen by many as a political symbol [6] [40] and a symbol of Britishness, [6] [41] [42] representing support for the British Army. [40] The poppy has long been the preserve of the unionist/loyalist community. [6] [41] Loyalist paramilitaries (such as the UVF and UDA) have also used poppies to commemorate their own members who were killed in The Troubles. [43]

Most Irish nationalists/republicans, and Irish Catholics, choose not to wear poppies [40] they regard the Poppy Appeal as supporting soldiers who killed Irish civilians (for example on Bloody Sunday) and who colluded with illegal loyalist paramilitaries (for example the Glenanne gang) during The Troubles. [6] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] Irish nationalist groups, and victims' groups, have urged the BBC to end its policy that all presenters must wear poppies. They argue that it breaches impartiality and points out that political symbols are banned in workplaces in Northern Ireland. They also say that the BBC, as a publicly funded body, should broadly reflect the whole community. [46] [49] Likewise, the director of Relatives for Justice has condemned the wearing of poppies by police officers in Catholic neighbourhoods, calling it "repugnant and offensive to the vast majority of people within our community, given the role of the British Army". [45] In the Irish Independent, it was claimed that "substantial amounts" of money raised from selling poppies are used "to build monuments to insane or inane generals or build old boys' clubs for the war elite". [47] On Remembrance Day 2010 the SDLP’s Margaret Ritchie was the first leader of a nationalist party to wear one. [50]

Republic of Ireland Edit

During World War I, all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom and about 200,000 Irishmen fought in the British Army (see Ireland and World War I). Furthermore some 70,000 citizens of the then independent state of Ireland served in the British armed services during World War II. [51]

Republic of Ireland citizens continue to enlist to this day. [52] [53] [54] The RBL has a branch in the Republic and holds a yearly Poppy Appeal and wreath-laying ceremony at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, which the President of Ireland has attended. [55]

The Republic has its own National Day of Commemoration for all Irish people who died in war. As in other non-Commonwealth countries, poppies are not often worn and are not part of the main commemorations. [56] [57] This is largely a consequence of the historic deployment of British forces against Irish independence during the War of Independence. More recent factors are the controversies involving British armed forces that arose during the Troubles.

In 2017, Taoiseach Leo Varadkar wore a "shamrock poppy" in the Dáil, the first Taoiseach to do so. [58]

Elsewhere Edit

In the United States, the Veterans of Foreign Wars conducted the first nationwide distribution of remembrance poppies before Memorial Day in 1922. [59] Today, the American Legion Auxiliary distributes crepe-paper poppies in exchange for donations around Memorial Day and Veterans Day. [60] [61] [62]

In Hong Kong—which was formerly a British colony—the poppy is worn by some participants on Remembrance Sunday each year. [63] [64] It is not generally worn by the public, although The Royal British Legion's Hong Kong and China Branch sells poppies to the public in a few places in Hong Kong only. [65]

Since 2014, Ukrainians have worn the poppy as a symbol of the Victory over Nazism and commemoration of the victims of World War II. It has largely replaced the Ribbon of Saint George, which became associated with pro-Russian separatists and Russian military aggression. A poppy logo was designed by Serhiy Mishakin and contains the text: "1939-1945 Never Again". [66]

In parts of Pakistan, the 'Great War Company' hold a private ceremony each 11 November where red poppies are worn, by descendants of World War I veterans from the old British Indian Army. [67]

In Albania, government representatives, including Prime Minister Edi Rama, wore the Remembrance Poppy during the commemoration ceremonies for the 70th Anniversary of the Liberation of Albania. [68]

White poppies Edit

Some people choose to wear white poppies as an alternative to the red poppy. The white poppy and white poppy wreaths were introduced by Britain's Co-operative Women's Guild in 1933. [69] Today, white poppies are sold by Peace Pledge Union or may be home-made. [27] The white poppy may be worn alone or alongside the red poppy. According to the Peace Pledge Union, it symbolises remembrance of all casualties of war including civilian casualties, and non-British casualties, to stand for peace, and not to glamorise war. [70] Some women in the 1930s lost their jobs for wearing white poppies, and today the controversy remains where white poppies are criticised for detracting from the meaning and the funds of the red poppy. [71]

Purple poppies Edit

To commemorate animal victims of war, Animal Aid in Britain has issued a purple remembrance poppy, which can be worn alongside the traditional red one, as a reminder that both humans and animals have been – and continue to be – victims of war. [72] [73] Recently, the purple poppy was replaced by a purple paw symbol that can be worn all year round. This was because people saw the poppy as implying animals had given their lives as heroes in the service of human beings. Animal Aid regards animals of having their lives taken by the abuse of humans in war, not given by the animals as could be the case with people who have the capacity to decide for themselves. [74]

Black poppies Edit

On Remembrance Sunday 1999, a Merseyside group protesting against sanctions and war on Iraq laid a wreath of black poppies on the cenotaph in Liverpool. [75] In 2014 the black poppy was embraced as an anti-war symbol by the Stop the War Coalition which reported 'anti militarists' in Glasgow distributing 16,000 black poppies in memory of World War I conscientious objectors. [76]

Khadi poppies Edit

Introduced in the 2018 Centenary year by Jitesh Gadhia and The Royal British Legion, the khadi poppy is intended to represent specific gratitude for the contribution of 1.5 million people from undivided India, as well as Commonwealth nations more generally, to the First World War. These poppies are identical to the Legion red poppy except the petals are made of khadi, a spun cotton cloth popularised by Mahatma Gandhi on his spinning wheel. [77] Jitesh Gadhia has stated that "the khadi poppy is a hugely symbolic and highly appropriate gesture to recognise the outsized contribution of Indian soldiers during WWI." [78] On the poppy's role to reach out to ethnic minority communities whose ancestors participated in the war effort, he said that "our identity is our destiny – and so the current generation of Asians should know that their fathers and grandfathers didn't just come to Britain as immigrants. Our ancestors fought for this country and for freedom and democracy – even though they lived in a colony at the time. British Asians should be proud of the role that their forebears played in shaping the destiny of the world." [ potreben citat ]

It has been worn by British Prime Minister Theresa May, and by cricketers Joe Root and Virat Kohli before a test match between England and India in September 2018. [79] [80]

Rainbow poppies Edit

In 2019, a listing appeared on eBay in the United Kingdom selling rainbow poppies.

The Royal British Legion confirmed that the Rainbow Poppy was not an officially endorsed product. While the eBay listing stated that the money raised by sales of the rainbow poppy would "go towards helping charity", it was not clear which charities would benefit from sales. [81] This led to widespread criticism online, with some accusing the seller of "hijacking" the poppy appeal. Brexit Party candidate Nicholas Goulding argued the poppy was "not for political controversy". Supporters of the poppy responded by tweeting Goulding examples of famous LGBTQ people who had played a significant role in previous conflicts, such as Alan Turing. [82]

The listing was subsequently removed by the original user, due to negative feedback. [83]

In 1993, The Royal British Legion complained that Cannon Fodder, a video game with an anti-war message, had planned to use a poppy on its cover. The Legion, along with some politicians, called it "offensive to millions" and "monstrous". The publisher was forced to change the cover before the game was released.

In 2010 a group of British Army veterans issued an open letter complaining that the Poppy Appeal had become excessive and garish, that it was being used to marshal support behind British military campaigns, and that people were being pressured into wearing poppies. [5] In 2014, the group protested by holding an alternative remembrance service: they walked to The Cenotaph under the banner "Never Again" with a wreath of white poppies to acknowledge civilians killed in war. Their tops bore the message "War is Organised Murder", a quote from Harry Patch, the last survivor of World War I. [84] [85]

A 2010 Remembrance Day ceremony in London was disrupted by members of the Muslims Against Crusades group, who were protesting against the British Army presence in Afghanistan and Iraq. They burnt large poppies and chanted "British soldiers burn in hell" during the two-minute silence. Two of the men were arrested and charged for threatening behavior. One was convicted and fined £50. [86] The same group planned to hold another protest in 2011, but was banned by the Home Secretary the day before the planned protest. [87] In 2014, a campaign was begun to encourage Muslim women to wear poppy hijabs. Some criticised it as a "shrouded loyalty test" which implied that Muslims needed to prove their loyalty to Britain. [88] [89] [90]

In November 2011 people were arrested in Northern Ireland after a picture of two youths burning a poppy was posted on Facebook. The picture was reported to police by a member of the RBL. [91] The following year, a young Canterbury man was arrested for allegedly posting a picture of a burning poppy on Facebook, on suspicion of an offence under the Malicious Communications Act. [92]

British Prime Minister David Cameron rejected a request from Chinese officials to remove his poppy during his visit to Beijing on Remembrance Day in 2010. The poppy was deemed offensive because it was mistakenly assumed to be connected with First and Second Opium Wars of the 19th century. [93]

In 2012 there was controversy when The Northern Whig public house in Belfast refused entry to a man wearing a remembrance poppy. [94] Although the owners apologised, the customer took the matter to court, supported by the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland (ECNI). [95] The case was significant for the decision supporting the view of the ECNI that "The poppy, although not directly linked to a specific religious belief or political opinion, would historically have been associated to a greater extent with the Protestant or unionist community in Northern Ireland". [96]

In the media Edit

In the British media, public figures have been attacked for not wearing poppies. British journalist and newsreader Charlene White has faced racist and sexist abuse for not wearing a poppy on-screen. She explained "I prefer to be neutral and impartial on screen so that one of those charities doesn't feel less favoured than another". [97] Newsreader Jon Snow does not wear a poppy on-screen for similar reasons. He too was criticised and he condemned what he saw as "poppy fascism". [98] Well-known war-time journalist Robert Fisk published in November 2011 a personal account about the shifting nature of wearing a poppy, titled "Do those who flaunt the poppy on their lapels know that they mock the war dead?". [99] While all newsreaders in the UK are expected to wear the remembrance poppy, those on the BBC's international news service are told not to. The BBC say this is because the symbol is not widely recognised overseas. The Royal British Legion condemned this, insisting that the poppy is the "international symbol of remembrance". [100]

Fabrizio De André, an Italian songwriter known for his sympathies towards anarchism, left-libertarianism and pacifism, featured red poppies in his song, 'Piero's war', about the death of a soldier, inspired the poem 'Le Dormeur du val' of Arthur Rimbaud: 'You sleep buried in a field of wheat it is neither the rose nor the tulip who watch over you from the shadow of ditches, but it is a thousand red poppies'.

In a November 2020 episode of Jeremy Vine, activist Femi Oluwole questioned why BBC presenters were still permitted to wear poppies, following new impartiality guidance warning against "virtue signalling, no matter how worthy the cause", which had previously prevented staff from expressing support for Black Lives Matter and LGBT rights. [101]

In sport Edit

In the run-up to Remembrance Day, it has become common for UK football teams to play with artificial poppies sewn to their shirts, at the request of the Royal British Legion. This has caused some controversy.

At a Celtic v Aberdeen match in November 2010, a group of Celtic supporters, called the Green Brigade, unfurled a large banner in protest at the team wearing poppies. In a statement, it said: "Our group and many within the Celtic support do not recognise the British Armed Forces as heroes, nor their role in many conflicts as one worthy of our remembrance". It gave Operation Banner (Northern Ireland), the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War as examples. [102]

Northern Irish–born footballer James McClean, who has played for several English teams, has received death threats and abuse since 2012 for refusing to wear a poppy on his shirt during matches. [103] McClean said he does not wear one because the Poppy Appeal supports British soldiers who served in Northern Ireland, and believes it would disrespect those killed in his hometown on Bloody Sunday. [104]

In November 2011, it was proposed that the England football team should wear poppies on their shirts in a match against Spain. FIFA turned down the proposal their decision was attacked by Prince William. [105] FIFA subsequently allowed the English, Scottish and Welsh teams to wear poppies on black armbands. [106]

On 11 November 2017, the third day of the Women's Test match held at North Sydney Oval as part of the Women's Ashes 2017–18, both the Australian and the English team players wore poppies to mark 99 years since the end of World War I. [107]

During the 2018 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers, the England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland football teams were fined for displaying the poppy during matches. FIFA rules forbid the display of "political or religious symbols". [108] [109] [110] The decision was strongly criticised by Prime Minister Theresa May, and the Welsh and English football associations appealed against the fine, with the English Football Association threatening to bring the matter to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. [110] [111] [112]

In November 2018, Manchester United's Serbian midfielder Nemanja Matić refused to wear a poppy on his shirt for a match against Bournemouth. [113] After the match, Matić was castigated and got threats by a number of people via social networks for not respecting servicemen who have died in war. [114] Matić stated that he will not wear a poppy because his village of Vrelo was hit by the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. [113]

In ice hockey, players and coaches traditionally wear a poppy, with players often featuring a poppy decal on their helmets. Even outside Canada and the Commonwealth (especially in the United States), hockey clubs will often feature the poppy in November because of the sport's Canadian heritage and the typical presence of Canadian team members. [115]


Royal Scandals Through The Centuries

Some royal scandals resound through history, cropping up like mushrooms whenever the subject of kingly misbehavior is raised—Henry VIII throwing over his wife and his church for the nubile charms of Anne Boleyn, Edward VIII renouncing his throne for an American divorcée with hip bones that could cut glass. Then there are the famous scandals that are not actually scandals at all—Catherine the Great did not, in fact, have intercourse with a horse—and some that really ought to be better known. Here are a few.

The Queen of Denmark and the Royal Physician

Poor Caroline Matilda! As a teenaged British princess, she was married off sight unseen to King Christian VII of Denmark—a perfectly nice young man except for his violent temper and fits of madness. In spite of Caroline Matilda’s warm charm and natural beauty, the royal marriage deteriorated swiftly along with the king’s mental state. His bouts of insanity were treated by a German doctor named Johann Struensee whose influence stabilized the monarch’s erratic behavior. The doctor believed that an improved relationship with his wife would also help the king, and he encouraged Christian to behave more kindly towards the queen. Isolated and unhappy in Denmark and at the mercy of a factional and gossipy court, Caroline Matilda was grateful for the doctor’s help and just as susceptible as her husband to Struensee’s calm authority. The physician and the queen became lovers, and together they worked to enact liberal reforms in the king’s name with Struensee eventually acquiring enough power to issue more than a thousand cabinet orders. Furious at the reforms, a conservative cabal plotted to overthrow the lovers in the king’s name. Struensee was executed, and Caroline Matilda was divorced from her husband and separated from her beloved children—one of whom was most likely Struensee’s. Thanks to the intervention of her brother, King George III of England, she was sent into exile in Germany rather than imprisoned in Denmark. In her genteel captivity, she amused herself with a tiny theatre, books, and charitable endeavors before dying suddenly of scarlet fever in 1775. She was 23.

The Tour de Nesle Affair

In 1314, King Philip IV of France was feeling rather good about his dynasty. His daughter, Isabelle, was Queen of England, and his three sons were neatly married off to a trio of noblewomen who were related to one another and ready to produce the next generation of French princes. Queen Isabelle, eager to welcome her sisters-in-law to the family, made them each a present of distinctive and costly embroidered purses. To Isabelle’s surprise, during the next family reunion, she spotted the purses hanging from the belts of a pair of brothers, knights at her father’s court at a time when prowess at arms made rock stars out of men who knew how to handle a lance. Wise to what this royal regifting meant, Isabelle hurried off to tell her father, and the king promptly set spies to watch his daughters-in-law. Within weeks, the trio of princesses were caught in flagrante with their lovers at a decrepit old Parisian fortress called the Tour de Nesle. The lovers were tortured in ways that would make any character on Igra prestolov shudder and finally executed—which must have come as a bit of a relief after all the castrating and flaying and oil-boiling. The princesses were imprisoned underground in dank, filthy dungeons, with their heads shaved and their children disinherited. The king himself died shortly afterwards. Within a generation, King Philip’s dynasty was destroyed, and the French throne passed to a distant cousin. The disagreement over who ought to inherit the crown sparked the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, plunging much of Western Europe into armed conflict that would last for the better part of a century, and all because of a trio of misbehaving princesses. In a delicious twist, it is said that the wreckage of King Philip’s dynasty is due to a curse laid upon him by Jacques de Molay, the Grand Master of the Templars, burned to death on bogus charges of heresy and witchcraft on the king’s orders earlier in 1314.

The Duke of Cumberland’s Midnight Intruder

Queen Victoria’s uncles were notorious for their exploits and excesses—drinking, gambling, seductions, and secret marriages—but none was as reviled as the Duke of Cumberland. In an age when character was supposedly mirrored by appearance, his sinister scar and violent temper marked him in public opinion as deeply malevolent. He was the least popular of King George III’s sons, and his reputation was not improved by the rumor that he had raped more than one noblewoman and impregnated his own sister, Princess Sophia. His infamy was sealed on a dark spring night in 1810. In the early hours, he suddenly leapt out of bed, screaming for his servants that he had been attacked, struck violently in the head several times. Claiming to be suspicious that his valet, Joseph Sellis, had not responded to his shouts, he dispatched his staff to search for the man. They found Sellis’s door bolted from the inside. After forcing the lock, they discovered Sellis, tucked in bed and nearly decapitated from a slash of a straight razor. Cumberland claimed—and an inquest agreed—that the valet committed suicide, but most people believed Sellis had been attacked by Cumberland. The public speculated about motives for the attack, each more sensational than the last and culminating in the explanation that Sellis was slashed after fighting off the duke’s attempt to rape him. True or not, it was a sordid story that followed Cumberland for the rest of his life, and there were fears upon Victoria’s accession to the throne that her uncle, heir presumptive until she bore her own child, would murder her to gain the crown. Part of the outpouring of jubilation at the birth of Queen Victoria’s eldest child was no doubt due to the fact that the villainous Cumberland was no longer first in the line of succession and had moved to Germany, never to return. (In 1830, another verdict of suicide was returned with another member of Cumberland’s household was found with a slashed throat. Nothing was ever proven against the duke, but it seems fair to suggest he was at the very least deeply unlucky.)

The Affair of the Poisons

Witchcraft! Poison! Sex! This scandal has it ALL. During the reign of Louis XIV, poison was having a heyday, providing a tidy path to inheritance and influence, but it came as a tremendous shock when the news broke that black magic rituals were being employed by those closest to the king himself. The scandal began with the arrest and execution of the Marquise de Brinvilliers, a noblewoman who murdered her father and brothers after trying out her poisons on the poor patients of the local charity hospital. The sensational story sparked rumors of other such crimes. A suspected forger and murderer claimed to have evidence that poison was rife at the court of the Sun King, and investigations were begun. It was discovered that the king’s chief mistress, the Marquise de Montespan, was implicated as a favored client of Catherine Monvoison, a Parisian supplier of powders and potions intended to secure the king’s affections. There were whispers of sex rituals and rites involving dead infants, news that horrified Louis. Monvoison—whose name, quite delightfully, means “my neighbor”—was burned at the stake and hundreds of others were implicated. Many died as a result of torture or suicide during the investigation, 36 were executed, and even those who escaped punishment were left with ruined reputations and lives in tatters. Madame de Montespan, who allegedly allowed a satanic priest to say a Black Mass over her naked body in a love rite to bind the Louis to her forever, was the mother of several of the king’s beloved illegitimate children and therefore too close to the monarch to be arrested and tried for her possible crimes. Instead, she quietly retired to a convent and a solemn life of contemplation and penance.

Princess Sophia Dorothea of Celle and the Case of the Missing Count

Beautiful and charismatic, Sophia Dorothea, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was betrothed to her first cousin, George, a man so revolting his own subjects referred to him as “Pig Snout.” But George was potentially heir to two thrones, and the duke agreed to the match, gambling on winning a crown for his enchanting daughter. Unfortunately, Sophia Dorothea did not see the value in the arrangement and promptly fainted upon learning of the betrothal in 1682. The marriage went rapidly downhill from there, with frequent loud scenes and violent arguments—the last ending with George throttling Sophia Dorothea until servants intervened to save her life. Little wonder that when the dashing and handsome Count von Königsmarck arrived from Sweden, the bored and restless Sophia Dorothea found him irresistible. Upon first arriving at court, he had dallied briefly with George’s mistress, Countess Platen, but he soon had eyes only for the princess, embarking upon a torrid affair that was as indiscreet as it was passionate. Together, the lovers plotted to run away and make a new life for themselves far beyond the reach of her unlovely and vindictive husband. To Sophia Dorothea’s despair, the very night Königsmarck was supposed to carry her off, he failed to keep the assignation, disappearing from court entirely. Courtiers whispered that Countess Platen allegedly took her revenge by having the count attacked before he could elope with the princess, but she was never charged and no evidence was ever produced, least of all a corpse. But there were new floorboards hastily laid in the gallery outside Sophia Dorothea’s bedchamber, and no one ever saw Königsmarck again…Enraged by the scandal, George divorced Sophia Dorothea, separated her from her children, and had her imprisoned in a tiny castle on a lake. He went on to become King George I of England, leaving his scorned wife behind.

Princess Charlotte of Prussia’s Burn Book

Kaiser Wilhelm was problematic from birth. Militant, bombastic, and rude, this eldest grandson of Queen Victoria eventually plunged Europe into World War I simply because he liked playing military games—but his younger sister was not much better. Wayward, willful, and frequently malicious, Charly was often admonished to behave better in letters from her grandmother but to no avail, and there is good reason to believe that she may have been at the center of an outrageous scandal in the heart of her brother’s court. The German imperial court was lavish and snobby and given to extravagant debauchery. In the last decade of the nineteenth century, courtiers were terrorized for four years by accusatory notes detailing their misdeeds—some complete with pornographic sketches. Duels were fought, lives lost, and reputations shredded as a result of the letters that spilled all of the juicy details—everything from mate-swapping to full orgies. One male court official—Kotze—was arrested for sending the letters but released when authorities determined they were the work of a woman. Suspicion immediately fell upon Princess Charly. Some believed she had written the notes others said her diary had been stolen and fallen into the wrong hands. There were even those who suggested Charly had hosted an evening of debauchery with the purpose of deliberately gathering blackmail material. In any event, the Kotze Affair remained a murky blot upon her reputation, the whispers following her until her death shortly after the first world war.

Marie Antoinette and the Dress That Shocked a Nation

The French queen’s most famous scandal is the affair of the diamond necklace, an outrageous fraud perpetrated by jewel thieves using her name, but a previous incident was perhaps even more damaging to the royal prestige. In 1783, Marie Antoinette was painted by the artist Élisabeth Vigée leBrun wearing a gaulle rather than formal court dress. A gaulle was a light, minimally structured gown of layers of cotton muslin with gently gathered sleeves, a rounded neck, and a wide, soft fabric sash—much more comfortable than the rigid, restrictive court attire—and suitable for the queen’s relaxed country pursuits at her private retreat on the grounds of Versailles. Unfortunately, the gaulle, for all its comfort and simplicity, resembled the chemise, a shift worn as an underlayer to protect expensive clothing from body odor and sweat. It might have been cool and practical and comfortable, but the choice of costume made it look like the Queen of France had been painted in her underwear. When the painting was displayed publicly, it was as deeply shocking to the French as if Queen Elizabeth II had been photographed in her Rigby and Peller corset. Not only was the queen shown stripped of the trappings of royalty, she was harshly criticized for not boosting the French luxury goods market by wearing costly domestic silks and trimmings. Cotton, associated with the slave trade and grown by the British in India and in the West Indies, was viewed as an English fabric, a deeply disloyal choice for a French queen. The uproar was immediate and deafening. The painting was swiftly taken down, but the damage had been done. Marie Antoinette was fair game for all manner of vicious attacks because she had permitted herself to be shown as human—and distinctly less than royal. The mystique of monarchy had been shattered once and for all, and within a decade, she would perish on the guillotine wearing another plain white cotton dress…Ironically, the gaulle became a fashionable garment for revolutionaries, signaling a rejection of the excesses of the nobility and a devotion to the principles of simplicity and authenticity.



Komentarji:

  1. Gardami

    Ja, hitreje, če je že odšla!!

  2. Phaon

    In všeč mi je bilo, kul je.

  3. Chas Chunk A

    I congratulate, the bright idea and timely

  4. Starling

    and you tried to do so yourself?



Napišite sporočilo