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Kako je FDR očaral savdskega kralja in si pridobil dostop ZDA do nafte

Tajno srečanje v času vojne. ...Preberi več

Razlitje nafte Exxon Valdez

Razlitje nafte Exxon Valdez je bila umetna katastrofa, ki se je zgodila, ko je Exxon Valdez, tanker za nafto v lasti družbe Exxon Shipping Company, 24. marca 1989. v Aljaski Prince William Sound razlil 11 milijonov litrov surove nafte. To je bilo najhujše razlitje nafte v Zgodovina ZDA do ...Preberi več

V Mehiškem zalivu se je začelo množično razlitje nafte

20. april 2010: Eksplozija in požar na ploščadi za vrtanje nafte Deepwater Horizon v Mehiškem zalivu, približno 50 milj od obale Louisiane, ubije 11 ljudi in sproži največje razlitje nafte na morju v ameriški zgodovini. Naprava je bila v zadnjih fazah ...Preberi več

Vreteno

10. januarja 1901 je ogromen gejzir nafte eksplodiral z vrtalnega mesta na hribu Spindletop, nasipa, ki ga je ustvarilo podzemno nahajališče soli v bližini Beaumonta v okrožju Jefferson, jugovzhodni Teksas. Doseči višino več kot 150 čevljev in proizvesti blizu 100.000 ...Preberi več

John D. Rockefeller

John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937), ustanovitelj Standard Oil Company, je postal eden najbogatejših ljudi na svetu in velik človekoljub. Rojen v skromnih okoliščinah v zvezni državi New York, je leta 1863 vstopil v takrat novopečeni naftni posel z vlaganjem v Cleveland, Ohio ...Preberi več

Naftna industrija

19. stoletje je bilo obdobje velikih sprememb in hitre industrializacije. Železarska in jeklarska industrija je ustvarila nove gradbene materiale, železnice so povezovale državo, odkritje nafte pa je zagotovilo nov vir goriva. Odkritje gejzirja Spindletop leta 1901 ...Preberi več

Redki Bugatti najdemo v britanski garaži

2. januarja 2009 mediji poročajo, da so v garaži britanskega zdravnika našli redko neobnovljenega Bugattija Type 57S Atalante Coupe iz leta 1937. Mesec dni kasneje, 7. februarja, je bil avto na pariški dražbi prodan za približno 4,4 milijona dolarjev. Črni dvosed, eden od le 17 57S ...Preberi več

Gusher označuje začetek ameriške naftne industrije

10. januarja 1901 vrtalni vijak na hribu Spindletop v bližini Beaumonta v Teksasu proizvede ogromno brizganja surove nafte, ki pokriva pokrajino za sto metrov in signalizira prihod ameriške naftne industrije. Gejzir so odkrili na globini več kot 1000 čevljev, ...Preberi več

Naftni delavci se utopijo v Severnem morju

Plavajoče stanovanje za naftne delavce v Severnem morju se je 30. marca 1980 zrušilo in umrlo 123 ljudi. Na platformi Alexander Kielland je bilo 208 moških, ki so delali na bližnji naftni ploščadi Edda na polju Ekofisk, 235 milj vzhodno od Dundeeja na Škotskem. Večina Phillips Petroleuma ...Preberi več

Obsodba kapetana Exxona Valdeza se razveljavi

Pritožbeno sodišče na Aljaski je razveljavilo obsodbo Josepha Hazelwooda, nekdanjega kapetana tankerja za nafto Exxon Valdez. Hazelwood, ki je bil zaradi svoje vloge pri velikem razlitju nafte v filmu Prince William Sound leta 1989 spoznan za krivega malomarnosti, je uspešno trdil, da je ...Preberi več


Olje - ZGODOVINA

Zaradi stanja puščave je bilo v Libiji veliko vrtalnih dejavnosti že dolgo pred tem, ko so se pojavili sumi o prisotnosti nafte. Iskanje vode je vključevalo vrtanje zelo globokih vrtin. Že leta 1915 so globokomorski vodnjaki, ki so jih izvrtali Italijani, včasih našli zemeljski plin. To je bilo zanimivo, toda zemeljski plin v tistem času ni bil glavna dobrina. V ZDA so zemeljski plin iz olj vžgali (sežgali) kot nadlogo.

Leta 1935 je profesor z milanske univerze, ki je vodil program vrtanja vodnjakov, opozoril na nafto. To je bilo verjetno bolj iz akademskega interesa kot resna skrb za iskanje pomembnega gospodarskega vira. Nekaj ​​let kasneje so v vodnjaku, vrtanem v bližini Tripolija, odkrili nafto.

Ta ugotovitev je bila dovolj za sprožitev geološke raziskave v Tripolitaniji. V iskanju nafte so izvrtali eno vrtino, a nobene niso našli. Kljub temu se je leta 1940 začel raziskovalni program, vendar razpoložljiva oprema ni bila ustrezna za spopadanje s hudimi razmerami v puščavi Sahara. Kmalu zatem je v Libijo prišla vojna in vsa raziskovanja so se ustavila.

Takoj po drugi svetovni vojni je bil politični status Libije, ki jo je nadzorovala Italija, negotov. Ni bilo države, ki bi podjetjem za raziskovanje nafte zagotovila pravice do tega, kar bi lahko našli. Zato je bilo raziskovanje opravljeno šele potem, ko je Libija postala neodvisna kraljevina leta 1951. Novo kraljestvo je s posvetovanjem z mednarodnimi naftnimi družbami razvilo zakonodajo o pravicah do mineralov. Leta 1953 je Libija izdala dovoljenja za iskanje enajstim naftnim družbam. Ta podjetja so opravila geološke raziskave. Leta 1955 so v puščavskih razmerah tik čez mejo v Alžiriji uspešno izvrtali naftno vrtino.

Voditelji Lidjana so bili odločeni, da bodo ohranili trg za raziskovalna dovoljenja v Libiji, namesto da bi podelili koncesijo enemu podjetju ali konzorciju nekaj podjetij. Še več, tudi če bi eno podjetje dobilo koncesijo na določenem področju, bi moralo po petih letih odstopiti eno četrtino koncesije. To je omogočilo vladi, da to ozemlje podeli novemu podjetju v upanju, da bi lahko novo podjetje uspelo tam, kjer drugo ni uspelo.

Pogoji so bili, da bodo naftne družbe morale plačati 12,5 -odstotni honorar za svoje prihodke in 50 -odstotni davek na dobiček. Avtorski honorar in drugi poslovni odhodki so bili seveda odbitni pri izračunu dobička družbe.

Naftne družbe so bile zelo zainteresirane za razvoj virov nafte v Libiji, ker se nahaja v Sredozemskem morju. Njihove vire iz Irana je omejevala tamkajšnja politična kriza v letih 1951 do 1954. Sueška kriza 1956–57 je povzročila zaprtje Sueškega prekopa. Vso nafto iz vzhoda iz Sueza je bilo treba z velikimi dodatnimi stroški prepeljati po južnem delu Afrike. Poleg tega naj bi imela Libija stabilno, prozahodno vlado.

Do leta 1957 je v Libiji delovalo približno ducat podjetij s približno šestdesetimi različnimi koncesijami. Med tamkajšnjimi družbami je bilo sedem večjih podjetij in francoska paradržavna družba Compagnie Fran & ccedilaaise des P & eacutetroles. Tam je bil tudi Oasis, konzorcij treh podjetij, ki so nova v mednarodnem raziskovanju nafte, Amerada Hess, Conoco in Marathon. Tam je bilo tudi naftno podjetje Bunkerja Hunta, sina ameriškega naftnega magnata H. L. Hunta.

Leta 1957 se je Esso odločil, da bo vrtal na območju čez mejo, od koder je prišla alžirska naftna vrtina. Izvrtal je tri vrtine in ena je bila uspešna. Prinesli so ga januarja 1958 s pretokom 500 sodov na dan. Glede na stroške vrtanja to ni bilo veliko.

Leta 1959 je Esso vrtal v regiji Siritica, ki je severni osrednji del države. Prinesel je vodnjak s pretokom 17.500 sodov na dan. Temu je sledil še en dobro pretočen 15.000 sodčkov na dan. Kasneje leta 1959 so pripeljali še druge naftne vrtine v Siritici. Leta 1959 so odkrili skupaj šest večjih naftnih polj v Libiji. Esso in Oasis sta bila vodilna na tem področju.


Energetski viri

Naftno polje Wilmington je tretje največje polje v sosednjih Združenih državah Amerike, katerega končna predelava je ocenjena na tri milijarde sodčkov nafte. Polje se nahaja na 13 milj dolgi in 3 milje široki Wilmingtonovi antiklinali, ki se razteza od obale San Pedro do obale Seal Beach in je razdeljena navpično z napakami, ki ustvarjajo ločene proizvodne entitete, imenovane Fault Blocks. Nafta se pridobiva iz petih velikih peščenih intervalov v globinah od 2000 do 11000 čevljev, kjer je bilo pridobljenih več kot dve milijardi in pol sodov nafte. Nafta in plin se pridobivajo s primarno proizvodnjo, sekundarnim poplavljanjem vode in poplavljanjem s paro. Doslej je bilo izvrtanih 6.150 vrtin.

Naftna območja delovanja

Naftne operacije

Na naftnem polju Wilmington, ki zajema obale plimovanja in hribovja, DOP nadzira delo dveh zasebnih izvajalcev in njunih 300 zaposlenih. Podjetje za proizvodnjo nafte Tidelands je terenski izvajalec za zahodni Wilmington. Od leta 1932 je bilo izvrtanih več kot 3.400 kopenskih vrtin. V petdesetih in šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja se je začelo poplavljanje vode, da bi povečali izkoristek in nadzor nad posedanjem.

California Resources Corporation (CRC) je terenski izvajalec za Long Beach Unit (LBU), vzhodni del polja Wilmington na morju. THUMS Long Beach Company (imenovan po izvirnih izvajalcih na terenu: Texaco, Humble, Union, Mobil in Shell) je agent za CRC. Leta 1964 so bili zgrajeni štirje umetni otoki, poimenovani po astronavtih, ki so izgubili življenje v prvih letih raziskovanja vesolja v ZDA (Grissom, White, Chaffee in Freeman). Pier J je bil razširjen v pristanišče Long Beach za razvoj LBU. Izvrtanih je približno 1450 vrtin. Enota Long Beach je ob zagonu začela poplavljati vodo, da bi preprečila posedanje. Danes je proizvodnja nafte Wilmington Field približno 46.000 sodčkov na dan iz 1.550 aktivnih vrtin.

Shema otoka

Otok Grissom

V Vzponi, je mesto tako avtorski udeleženec kot lastnik delovnega deleža v svojih nepremičninah ob Signal Hillu in drugih nepremičninah po mestu. Enota Signal Hill West (SHWU) in Signal Hill East Unit (SHEU) sta del naftnega polja Long Beach, ki se nahaja tako na Long Beachu kot v Signal Hillu. Površinsko izražena antiklinalna struktura je vidna kilometre in je lokalni mejnik poleg letališča Long Beach. Signal Hill Petroleum Inc. je trenutno rekorder. Rekreacijski park se nahaja na severni strani 7. ulice. Sedaj skupaj 7 vrtin upravlja Breitburn Energy Company LLC, neodvisno naftno podjetje s sedežem v Los Angelesu. City Wasem Community Lease se nahaja v bližini stadiona Marine, ki je podaljšek naftnega polja Seal Beach. Naftni bazen Marine Area je leta 1979 odkril in razvil Elliot & amp Ten Eyck (ET). Trenutno ima 16 aktivnih vrtin v najemu.


Je moja stara naftna zaloga kaj vredna?

Podprite to raziskavo! Prvotne raziskave Ameriškega zgodovinskega društva za nafto in plin in spremljajoče vzdrževanje forumov so odvisne od vaše finančne podpore. AOGHS ni povezan z nobenim naftnim podjetjem, zagovorniškimi skupinami ali organizacijami za lobiranje v industriji.

Vinjeta certifikata o naftnih zalogah je pogosto pomemben del njegove vrednosti za pisanje - nakup in prodaja certifikatov kot zbirateljskih predmetov, potem ko nimajo unovčljive vrednosti kot vrednostni papir.

Zgodovine naftnih družb

Čeprav je pogosto sporno, je treba ohraniti zgodovino raziskovanja, proizvodnje in transporta nafte v ZDA. Od kerozina za svetilke, bencina za avtomobile in plastičnih polimerov za vsakdanje izdelke družbena, gospodarska in tehnološka zgodovina industrije ponuja kontekst za razumevanje sodobnih energetskih razprav.

V naglici k tiskanju založniških certifikatov med razcvetom nafte so se nova podjetja pogosto odločila za tiskanje certifikatov z vinjeto viličarjev!

Zbiralci so odkrili presenetljivo število primerov, ko so hitro ustanovljena raziskovalna podjetja za certifikate delnic izbrala popolnoma isto prizorišče naftnih polj. Morda bi prihranili čas in denar z izbiro skupne vinjete, ki jo danes najdemo na delnicah Centralizirane naftne in plinske družbe Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Gas Company Evangeline Oil Company Texas Production Company Tulsa Producing and Refining Company Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company Oil Prospectors Inc. Craven Oil & amp Rafiniranje Buck Run Oil in rafiniranje domačega olja & amp Gas Hog Creek Carruth Company Buffalo-Texas Oil Company in Champion Oil Company.

Mi lahko poveste kaj o tem starem naftnem podjetju (brezplačno)? Na podstrešju sem našel njegovo zalogo. Ali sem bogat? Verjetno ne. Kot je prikazano v spodnjih podjetjih, je od petdesetih let 20. stoletja ameriška naftna industrija in cikli razcveta in padcev pustila veliko žrtev. Za primer tistega, ki je dejansko prišel na sodišča, glejte Not Millionaire from Old Oil Stock.

Ameriško prvo naftno podjetje in#8211 Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company iz New Yorka – ga je organiziralo leta 1855.

Žal ta majhna zgodovinska družba ne more ugoditi prošnjam prost raziskave v zvezi z zgodovino posameznih podjetij in potencialno vrednostjo delniških certifikatov. Kot ste morda odkrili, so finančne raziskave težke in dolgotrajne. Če imate srečo, je lahko obiskovalec tega spletnega mesta ali prostovoljec društva objavil koristne informacije.

Če vaše potrdilo ni na seznamu in želite deliti nadaljnje raziskovalne izkušnje, vabljeni, da svoje povpraševanje oddate v trenutni obliki Forum Q & ampA Forum o certifikatu zalog.

Spodaj je raziskava vodilnega prostovoljca Ameriškega zgodovinskega društva za nafto in plin. Predstavljene zgodovine podjetja pogosto pripovedujejo fascinantne zgodbe – in so ekskluzivno objav na forumu Q & ampA o založniškem certifikatu tudi na tem spletnem mestu. Več teh redkih zgodovin najdete tukaj.

Najnovejše raziskave – Posodobljeno maja 2021

Podjetje Badger Oil & amp plinski*
Bailey Gaunce Oil & amp Refining Corporation*
Barrington Oil Company
Beaumont Confederated Oil & amp Pipe Line Company
Veliko indijsko podjetje za razvoj nafte in ojačevalcev
Naftna družba Big Six*
Naftno podjetje Black Gold*
Naftna družba Black Hills
Blokiraj sindikat nafte in ojačevalnika plina*
Blue Ridge Natural Gas & amp Oil Corporation*
Združenje Bluebird Oil & Amp Gas Gas*
Boulder Petroleum Company
Podjetje Buck Run Oil and Refining Company
Buffalo Oil Company
Buffalo-Texas Oil Company
Podjetje za vrtanje hroščev*
Naftna družba Burkburnett-Center*
Burkburnett-Claiborne Oil Company*
Burk Imperial Oil Company*
Produkcijsko podjetje Burk-Tex*
Busseyville Oil & amp plin*
Zanimanje Butlerja Perrymana*
* Raziskave v teku

D.M. Simon Oil & amp Gas Company*
Dallas Oil Company iz Teksasa*
Delaware Union Oil Company*
Delhi Oil Company
Denton-Eastland Oil Company*
Desoto Oil Company*
Naftna družba DeSoto*
Detroit Oil & amp Refining Company*
Dominion Oil Company*
Double Standard Oil & amp Gas Company
Doughboy Oil Company
Dysart Oil Company
* Raziskave v teku

Fairchild Petroleum*
Farmers Oil & amp Gas Company Company*
Zvezno konsolidirano naftno podjetje*
Zvezno podjetje za nafto in plin
Petdeset sedem naftnih družb*
Naftna družba Fort Stockton*
Foster Farm Oil Company
Franklin Oil & amp Refining Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Garfield Oil & amp Refining Company*
Gate City-Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Gatex Oil Company*
Galloway Oil Corporation
Podjetje za plin, nafto in razvoj (The)
General Oil Company*
General Resources Corporation*
Gin Site Oil Company*
Gladys City Oil, Gas & amp Manufacturing Company
Naftna družba Gladys
Glenn McCarthy, Inc.
Družba za zemeljski plin Globe*
Oil Medal Oil Company*
Naftna družba Golden Gate
Podjetje Golden Goose Oil and Refining Company
Golden Valley Oil & amp Gas Company
Srečno naftno podjetje*
Goshen Oil & amp plinsko podjetje*
Grand County Oil & amp Refining Company*
Great Basin Oil Company*
Veliki vrednostni papirji za naftne bazene*
Veliko južno združenje za rafiniranje nafte in ojačevalcev*
Great Southwestern Petroleum Company*
Odlična olja sladke trave*
Great Western Oil & amp Gas Company
Naftna družba Greater Great Falls*
Green River Oil & amp Uranium Company*
Gypsy-Burke Oil Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Hamilton Oil & amp Gas Company*
Hale Petroleum Company*
Harris-Fisher Oil Company*
Havana Oil Company
Hayden-Burk Petroleum Company*
Hecla-Wyoming Oil Company*
Hesperian Petroleum Company*
Higgins Wonder Oil Company
Hiram Wilson Oil Company*
Hoffman Oil & amp Refining Corporation
Hog Creek Carruth Oil Company
Holiday Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
Holly Oil Company
Homa Oil & amp plinsko podjetje*
Domače razvojno podjetje Oil & amp
Domača naftna družba*
Homestead Oil Company
Štirideljno rudarstvo in naftna družba za podkve*
Podkovska zahodna naftna družba
Podjetje Humble Oil Ridge*
Huntsville Consolidated Gas Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Imperial Drilling Company*
Indijsko podjetje za nafto in plin*
Industrijsko podjetje za rafiniranje olja in ojačevalnikov*
Intercontinent Petroleum*
Mednarodna korporacija Oil & amp Gas
Meddržavno naftno podjetje*
Iowa in California Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
Naftna družba Iowa-Beaumont
* Raziskave v teku

Kantexo Oil & amp Gas Company*
Keck Oil Company*
Ken-Saw Petroleum Corporation*
Naftna družba King George*
Naftna družba Kokernot
Kutz Canon Oil & amp Gas Company*
* Raziskave v teku

La Lomita Oil Syndicate*
Lewis Oil Corporation
Lewiston-Clarkston Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Lexa Oil Company*
Naftna družba Lincoln-Idaho
Podjetje za proizvodnjo olja Lincoln*
Podjetje za tekoče zlato*
Louisiana Consolidated Petroleum Company*
Love Petroleum Company*
Loy Oil Company*
Lucky Jim Oil Company
Lucky Long Oil Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Kako je ta najbolje prodajana knjiga iz petdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja povezana z neprevidnimi vlagatelji in moškimi v senčnem raziskovalnem podjetju? Preberite Oil Prospectors, Inc.

Mahala Oil & amp Gas Company*
Naftna družba Mary Owens*
Plinsko podjetje McKeesport
McTon Oil Company*
Meridian Petroleum Company
Mehiško podjetje za olje in premog*
Podjetje Mid-Central Oil & amp Minerals*
Middle States Oil Corporation
Midfields Oil Company
Mid-Texas Petroleum Company*
Minnesota-Western Oil Company
Minnesota Victoria Oil Company*
Milwaukee Electra Oil Development Company*
Naftna družba Mississippi*
Monarch Vacuum Petroleum Company*
Monroe Prospect Company*
Montana-Canadian Oil Company*
Družba za plin, nafto in premog Montrose
Sindikat nafte in plina Morris-Van Keuren
Motex Oil Company*
Mountain States Resources Corporation
Multiple Dome Oil Company*
Murdock Oil & amp Gas Company
Muskogee Oil & amp Gas Company*
Vzajemna konsolidirana naftna družba*
Vzajemno razvojno podjetje Oil & amp*
Vzajemno podjetje Oil Union Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Nanticoke Oil Company*
Nacionalna konsolidirana naftna družba*
National Energy Corporation*
Nacionalna naftna družba*
National Oil Company iz New Jerseyja
Nacionalno podjetje za rafiniranje in proizvodnjo nafte*
National Petroleum Company*
National Petroleum Lease Corporation*
National Union Oil & amp Gas Company
New Mexico Oil Properties Association
Neilan Oil & amp Refining Company
New England Petroleum Company*
New England-Texas Oil Refining Syndicate
Newfield Gas & amp Oil Company*
Nordon Corporation*
North Coast Oil & amp Refining Company*
Naftna družba North Counties
Northern Oil Company*
Northwest Petroleum*
Northwestern Oils Inc.
Nova Petroleum Corporation
* Raziskave v teku

Occident Oil Company*
Oktobrska naftna družba*
Ohio Oil Company (maraton)
Ohio-Kansas Oil & amp Gas Company
International Exploration International*
Oil Prospectors Inc.
Podjetje za razvoj najemnine*
Okla-Queen Oil Company*
Oklahoma-Gulf Royalty Corporation*
Podjetje za proizvodnjo in rafiniranje ojačevalnikov Okmulgee*
Old Colony Oil Company
Omaha Oil & amp Refining Company
Naftna družba Omaha-Lusk*
Orange County Petroleum Company*
Oregon in Wyoming Oil & amp Gas Company*
Otter Creek Oil & amp Gas Company
Overland Oil Inc.*
Over the Top Oil Company
Owl Petroleum Company*
Naftna družba Ozena*
* Raziskave v teku

Pacifiška dežela in nafta*
Naftna družba Pacific States*
Pacific States Petroleum Company*
Naftna družba Palmer Union
Paramount Petroleum Company
Naftna družba Pawnee Bill
Naftna družba Pelican
Peoples Oil and Production Company*
Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek Company
Združenje proizvajalcev nafte
Penn Bayless Oil & amp Gas Company*
Penn Royal Oil Company*
Pennsylvania Oil & amp Development Company
Družba za konsolidacijo nafte*
Ameriško podjetje za proizvodnjo nafte*
Naftno in plinsko podjetje Phenix*
Filipinsko podjetje za razvoj nafte*
Phoenix Oil Company*
Naftna družba Pine Valley*
Pioneer Oil & amp Gas Company*
Pittsburgh-Youngstown Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company*
Plateau Oil & amp Gas Company*
Plateau Petroleums Limited*
Pongratz Petroleum Company*
Poštni uslužbenci Oil & amp Gas Company Company*
Power Petroleum Trust Estate*
Powers Manufacturing Company*
Prescott-Peoria Oil Company*
Price River Petroleum Company
Producers and Refiners Corporation
Provident Oil & amp Refining Company*
Podjetje za bonitetno olje in rafiniranje
Družba za pridobivanje surove nafte Puente
Naftno podjetje Puente
* Raziskave v teku

Podjetje Sable Oil & amp plin*
Elco Oil & amp Gas Gas Company*
Naftno in plinsko podjetje St. Martins*
Sammies Oil Corporation (Choate Oil)
Naftno podjetje reke San Jacinto*
Podjetje San Mateo Oil and Refining Company*
Podjetje Sanger Oil & amp Refining Company
Naftna družba Santa Fe Dome
Santa Fe Western Gas & amp Uranium Corporation*
Sawyer Petroleum Company
Sawyer-Adecor International
Scofield, Shurmer & amp Teagle*
Seaboard Oil & Amp Gas Gas Company
Seattle Toledo Oil Company*
Varnostno naftno podjetje*
Sindikat varnostnega olja št. 2*
Sen-Burk Oil Company*
Naftna družba sedmih držav*
Shermanovo bencinsko podjetje*
Shoe & amp Leather Petroleum Company
Naftna družba Shoshone
Podjetje Signal Oil and Gas*
Solar Oil Corporation*
Sound Cities Gas & amp Oil Company
Naftna družba Sour Lake Texas*
Southeastern Limited Oil Company*
Naftna družba Southern Montana*
Southern Rose Oil & amp Gas Company
Vrtalna družba južnih držav*
Naftna družba južnih držav*
Corporation Southwest Oil Corporation*
Southwestern Oil Development Company
Southwestern Petroleum & amp Pipe Line Company*
Podjetje Spear Oil Company
Naftna družba Square Deal*
Standard Consolidated Oil & amp Land Land Company*
Standard Exploration Company*
Star Oil Company
Podjetje za cisterne in brez trdilcev
Steelman Realty Gas & amp Oil Company
Sterling Oil Company iz Oklahome*
Studebaker Oil & amp Refining Company*
Žveplova naftna družba*
Sunset Pacific Oil Company
Sunshine State Oil Oil & amp Refining Company
Seveda naftna družba*
Syndicate Oil Corporation of America*
* Raziskave v teku

Tapo Oil Company*
Podjetje Texas-Bunger Oil and Refining Company*
Texas-Rotan Oil Company*
Texas-Washington Oil Company*
Texas Control Consolidated Oil Company*
Texas Crude Oil Company*
Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation
Texas Independent Pipe Line Company*
Texas Oil & amp Refining Company
Texas Oil Oil, Gas & amp Mineral Products Company*
Texas Oil Products Company
Texas Producers Oil Company*
Teksaško produkcijsko podjetje
Texas United Oil Company
Naftna družba 1919*
Tideland Oil & amp Gas Corporation*
Toltec Oil Company*
Trans-World Oil Company
Treasure State Oil & amp Gas Company
Triangle Petroleum Company*
Tridržavno vrtalno podjetje*
Podjetje za proizvodnjo in rafiniranje Tulsa
Družba za olje in plin dvajsetega stoletja*
Twentymile Oil & amp Gas Company*
* Raziskave v teku

Stric Sam Oil Company*
Union Oil & amp plinsko podjetje*
Union Oil Oil, Gas & amp Refining Company*
United Cuban Oil Inc.
United Plains Oil Company*
United Southern Oil Company*
Naftno in plinsko podjetje ZDA
United Sulphur & amp Oil Company*
United Texas Petroleum Company*
Urano-Petroleum Company*
Naftna družba ZDA*
Ute Oil Company – pionir oljnih skrilavcev
* Raziskave v teku

Podjetje za razvoj nafte Ventura*
Vernon Winner Oil Company*
Vista Petroleum*
Prostovoljno naftno podjetje*
* Raziskave v teku

Wallace Oil Company Warren Oil & amp Uranium Mining Company*
Washington-Montana Oil Company*
Wellington Oil Company
Wellmington Oil Corporation*
West Coast Pipeline Company
Western Giant Oil Company*
Western Natural Gas Company*
Western Nebraska Oil Company*
Naftna družba zahodnih držav*
Wichita Oil & amp Gas Company
Winona Oil Corporation
Wolf Butte Oil & amp Gas Company*
Ženska zvezna ameriška naftna družba
Žensko nacionalno razvojno podjetje za olje in ojačevalce
Svetovna naftna družba
Wyoming Chief Oil Refining Company*
Konsolidirano naftno podjetje Wyoming*
Naftna družba Wyoming-Dakota
Wyoming Oil & amp Coal Company*
Wyoming Peerless Oil Company
Wyoming Prairie Oil & amp Gas Company
Drugo standardno naftno podjetje Wyoming*
* Raziskave v teku


Kurilno olje - zgodovina

Približno leta 1847 je prebivalec Pittsburga Samuel Keir zasnoval način destiliranja nafte v gorivo za svetilko, ki ga je imenoval "ogljikovo olje". Izum kerozinske svetilke sredi 1850 -ih je privedel do ustanovitve prve ameriške naftne družbe, Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Ameriška naftna industrija se je rodila v bližini Titusvillea na severozahodu Pensilvanije leta 1859. Tam je Edwin L. Drake izvrtal prvo komercialno uspešno naftno vrtino v ZDA. Vendar je bila prva velika naftna družba Standard Oil Company, ki jo je leta 1870 ustanovil John D. Rockefeller. Standard Oil je v Pensilvaniji zgradil svojo prvo rafinerijo nafte, nato pa je razširil svoje obsežne operacije po vsej državi.

Od prve uvedbe nafte kot razsvetljevalca in njene kasnejše obilice in posledične cenenosti so bili različni pripombe uporabljeni za gorivo kot nadomestek za premog, zlasti za proizvodnjo pare. Prednosti in slabosti sta bila zlahka razumljiva. Med prvimi je bil manjši prostor, ki ga zaseda, z manjšo težo in enostavnost, s katero je mogoče z njim upravljati brez rešetk, brez pepela, brez grabljenja itd. Namesto gasilcev, ki so potrebni za ravnanje s trdnimi grudicami premoga, njegovo zgorevanje in vzdrževanje peči v ustreznem stanju z razgrevanjem ognja, čiščenjem pepela itd., zgorevanje tekočega goriva, ki je kot nafta, je mogoče preprosto upravljati s spreminjanjem oskrbe z ustreznimi zapornimi pipami, preprosto občasno opazovanje in uravnavanje zaloge zadostuje, kar približuje velikemu desideratumu vse dobre izume, ki vodijo do: ukinitve vsakega težkega mehanskega dela s strani ljudi, ki jim vsa bogata narava ni dala tako velike količine možganov nič, da bi ga zapravljali pri delu, ki ga lahko opravijo živali ali stroji brez mozga, če ne celo bolje.

Pomanjkljivosti univerzalne uporabe nafte kot goriva so bile najprej težave in delovna sila, povezana z njegovim transportom in skladiščenjem, medtem ko je trden premog mogoče naložiti v odprte avtomobile in zložiti v kupe, tekoče nafto pa je treba shraniti in transportirati v zrakotesna plovila, ki vključujejo veliko več stroškov in naložb kapitala, kot je to pri prevozu in skladiščenju premoga. Druga pomanjkljivost je njegova velika vnetljivost in posledična nevarnost, povezana s skladiščenjem v količini, medtem ko je premog v tem pogledu popolnoma varen, tako varen, da lahko gorečo vžigalico ali celo gorečo palico ali kos lesa varno vržemo na kup premoga in bo zgorel, ne da bi prižgal premog, medtem ko so nafta in včasih tudi njene pare tako vnetljive, da se jim nevarno približati s katerim koli plamenom, ki v mešanici z zrakom tvori eksplozivno zmes. Ko se enkrat vžge, voda ne bo ugasnila petroieja, saj lebdi nad njim.

Prvi poskus je bil narejen približno leta 1864 v enem od mornariških ladjedelnic Združenih držav Amerike, v Brooklynu ali Pidladelphiji, kjer je inženir dojel idejo, da bi pod parni kotel postavili veliko število kerozinskih svetilk. Opazoval je veliko toploto, ki jo oddaja petrolejka, in domneval je, da bi dvignili paro, če bi bilo le to število dovolj veliko, da napolni celotno kurilnico. Spregledal je dejstvo, da velika toplota, ki jo proizvaja takšna svetilka, ne sega daleč čez dimnik in da je za dvig pare dolg tok gorečih ali segretih plinov treba prevesti pod kotel in skozi dimnike ter da je le zadostna masa premoga ali drugega ustreznega materiala mora biti v stanju vžiga, gorenje, ki ga spodbuja prepih, pa sproži dolg tok toplote, ki se razprši tam, kjer je to potrebno, medtem ko svetilke le zmerno segrejejo mesto, pod katerim so neposredno postavljeno. Boljša ideja je bila projicirati neprekinjeno brizganje nafte na koščke opeke, jih vžgati in med njimi razstreliti. To so poskusili, vendar z dvomljivim uspehom.

Naslednje sojenje je bilo v bateriji v New Yorku leta 1865. Izumitelj je zažgal brizganje nafte, ki je izhajala iz perforiranih cevi, medtem ko sta dve eksploziji, ena niz majhnih zračnih piščančkov in ena serija pregretih parnih udarcev, pomagala pri zgorevanju . To je delovalo veliko bolje, saj je lahko poganjalo plamen skozi povratne cevi. Od takrat je bilo opravljenih več poskusov, večina pa je sprejela isto shemo finega brizganja nafte in pihanja zraka ter pregrete pare. Kmalu pa je bilo ugotovljeno, da je parna eksplozija, medtem ko je pomagala pri atomizaciji nafte (torej močno pomagala razdeliti curek v nešteto majhnih kapljic, kot je prah), znižala tudi temperaturo, če ni bila zelo močno pregreta , res tako visoko, da je olje izpraznilo, ko je prišlo v stik z njim. Ugotovljeno je bilo tudi, da je bila za popolno zgorevanje potrebna velika količina zraka, ki ni manjša od 50 volumnov zraka za 1 prostornino naftnih hlapov. Toda to ni cilj, saj zrak ne stane nič.

Kar zadeva metalurgijo, je bil problem precej dobro rešen polirana pločevina in jeklo je bilo uspešno in gospodarno izdelano s pomočjo nafte kot goriva, medtem ko se je za druge metalurške operacije to zdelo jasno, toda želel se je dober parni kotel peč, namenjena uporabi nafte kot goriva. S poskusi izboljšav omenjenih metod je bilo ugotovljeno, da se lahko nafta z veliko prednostjo uporablja namesto premoga za proizvodnjo železa, jekla, stekla itd. In da tudi če stane 10 USD za sod in premog 5 USD na tono, je bila prednost v celoti na strani nafte v višini 50 odstotkov, medtem ko bo pod parnimi kotli 1 kilogram olja izhlapelo skoraj 15, 16 kilogramov ali več vode. Ta zelo ugoden rezultat je nedvomno posledica dejstva, da je zgorevanje premoga naravno in nujno bolj potratno, medtem ko se tekoče gorivo lahko kuri z veliko večjo porabo, če je bila razvita le prava metoda.

Kar zadeva druge konkurenčne metode, je bila ena do konca leta 1878 na mornariškem dvorišču Združenih držav Amerike v Brooklynu in pokazala, da je izum grozno odtrgan, kar dokazujejo nepraktične in surove ideje, na katerih temelji. Do leta 1880 je bila umetnost kurjenja nafte kot goriva, da bi pridobili največjo razpoložljivo toploto, še v povojih.

Do leta 1882 je en opazovalec trdil, da so Rusi pri uporabi nafte kot goriva precej pred Ameriko. Uspešno so ga uporabili pri nekaterih svojih železnicah za vožnjo lokontov, pri tem pa uporabili surovo nafto, ki prihaja iz vodnjakov. Večina parnikov, ki so pluli po Kaspijskem morju, je uporabljala tekoče gorivo, ki je bilo veliko cenejše od premoga. Porabili so ga z injektorji, zgorevanje pa so regulirali z največjo lahkoto. Tekoče gorivo je imelo številne prednosti. Peči trajajo dlje zaradi pomanjkanja žvepla, ni bilo žganja, dima ali isker. Delo obiskovalcev je močno poenostavljeno, ogrevalni učinek goriva pa znatno večji kot pri lesu ali premogu.

Italijanska mornarica je leta 1890 vodila v eksperimentiranju z nafto, do leta 1900 pa je večina njenih torpednih čolnov gorela na olje. V zgodnjih 1890-ih je bilo jasno, da se pomorski um povsod strdi glede vprašanja vzdržljivosti premoga. Do leta 1893 so nekateri menili, da je prihod tekočega goriva na dosegu roke, in ker se ladje lahko napajajo (Adm. PH Colomb iz mornarice Royaal je trdil, da je skoval ta glagol) na morju s tekočim gorivom, ko bi bilo nemogoče sprejeti premoga, na pospešitev tega prihoda je bilo treba računati. With coal, the experience of such ships as the HMS Amphion, with a nominal extreme speed of 17 knots and a nominal coal endurance of 11,000 miles at 10 knots, on a displacement of 4,300 tons, appeared to give more satisfaction to the naval mind as a combination than the HMS Blenheim's 21.6-knot speed with 15,000 miles coal-endurance on a displacement of 9,000 tons. An Amphion would not be justified in running away from a Blenheim, so that the extra speed was not so far called for and while the nominal 4,000 miles greater coal-endurance may be an advantage, it would seem to be much more than balanced by the displacement of the Blenheim. While, therefore, great stress must be laid on coal-endurance so long as coal is the fuel, it may be easy to overdo it in sacrificing other elements.

Oil offered many benefits compared to coal. With twice the thermal content of coal, boilers could be smaller and ships could travel further at greater speed. Oil burned with less smoke, so the location of the fleet would not be so readily compromised. Oil could be stored in tanks anywhere on the ship, allowing more efficient designs. Oil could be transferred through pipes without reliance on stokers, reducing manning. Refueling at sea was feasible, which provided greater operational flexibility. When coal fired boilers are compared with oil fired ones, the biggest differences exist in the combustion equipment. As oil can be combusted in burners of rather simple design, extensive equipment is needed in combustion of coal. In the rest of the boiler, however, there are only a few minor differences in design between boilers fired with solid fuels and those fired with oil. One major difference is that generally more combustion air is needed with solid fuels than with oil, which leads to bigger amounts of flue gases and also to a bigger boiler volume. To turn it the other way round, with a given boiler a bigger output is obtained by oil firing than by coal firing, presuming that combustion of both is possible. The US Navy had conducted significant experiments with oil as fuel almost continuously after 1864. George Wallace Melville, a graduate of Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, worked in the engineering field until July 1861, when he joined the Navy in the rank of Third Assistant Engineer. In August 1887, President Grover Cleveland appointed Commodore Melville as the Navy's First Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering. He rapidly realized the urgent need for the establishment of a test and evaluation station where naval machinery and components could undergo examination and trial for reliability before being placed aboard Navy ships. Submitting a Congressional request for funds to establish an experiment station and test laboratory, Melville's arguments finally convinced Congress to authorize a modest $400,000 for the buildings and equipment which became the US Naval Engineering Experiment Station when it was completed in 1908.

During his administration of over 16 years, Melville superintended the design of 120 ships of the "New Navy" and introduced such widely acclaimed innovations as the water tube boiler, vertical engines, and the repair ship. Promoted to Rear Admiral (RADM) in 1899, Melville was appointed Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900. Melville worked to create an oil-burning fleet.

The mixed-firing method of spraying oil on coal was routine by the early 1900s. By 1900 natural gas still provided a significant amount of illumination and some heating. Coal and fuel oil provided most of the energy for heating of homes and offices in cities. Wood was still the dominant source of heat energy in rural areas.

The Royal Navy laid down [Dec 05], built [Dec 05-Oct 06], and commissioned [Dec 06] the first all big-gun battleship, HMS Dreadnought, which revolutionized naval architecture (in spite of the fact that the US Navy already had the USS South Carolina class approved in 1905, they were not laid down until December 1906, hence, the failure to complete in a timely manner gave Dreadnought the honors). This opened up a frantic naval construction race between all of the great naval powers, since all of their ships were now obsolete. HMS Dreadnought mounted 10x12-inch naval rifles in five dual barbettes, three on the center line and one on each side of the forward structure, giving her an 8-gun broadside she turned 21-knots max. with a radius of operations of 6600 miles at 10 kts and 5000 at 19 kts her power plant was a hybrid in as much as she burned both coal and oil. The transition by the Royal Navy from coal to oil was stimulated by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill and Admiral Sir John (Jacky) Fisher. The Royal Navy had already adopted oil for submarines and destroyers, as had the American Navy. When Churchill went to Whitehall in 1911, coal was still the primary source of power for naval vessels. Ordered in 1912 to outmaneuver and cross the T of the German fleet, the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were built to burn oil only. Once this decision was made, it followed that the rest of the Royal Navy would turn to oil. This technological change was a great success, and every navy soon switched to oil. An extensive investigation of petroleum as fuel by the Liquid Fuel Board in 1902-03 proved tremendously important to the entire naval and commercial world. The Board recommended using oil as a standalone fuel in 1904. The first oil-burning American destroyer, USS Paulding, was commissioned in 1910. The BB-34 New York Class battleships, laid down in 1911, were the first US Navy battleships armed with 14-inch guns, and the last to be built with more than four main battery turrets, intermediate weight side armor and coal-fired boilers. The BB-36 Nevada Class were the last US Navy battleships to have reciprocating engines, and the last to have two propellers. At the same time they were the first of the ships to carry fourteen-inch guns, and the US Navy's first to have oil as their primary fuel. The US Navy began to establish fuel oil depots in 1910 to supply the needs of submarines and destroyers. Its first fuel oil facilities were located on the East Coast at Key West, Charleston, Norfolk, and Narragansett Bay.


Oil is a natural resource formed by the decay of organic matter over millions of years, and like many other natural resources, it can only be extracted from reserves where it already exists. The only difference between oil and every other natural resource is that oil is well and truly the lifeblood of the global economy.

The world derives over a third of its total energy production from oil, more than any other source by far. As a result, the countries that control the world’s oil reserves often have disproportionate geopolitical and economic power.

According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, 14 countries make up 93.5% of the proven oil reserves globally. The countries on this list span five continents and control anywhere from 25.2 billion barrels of oil to 304 billion barrels of oil.


Oil and Gas Industry in Alabama

Mobile Bay Gas Platforms Alabama is among the top 17 producers of oil and among the top 16 producers of natural gas in the United States. Oil and gas are found in many counties as well as in Mobile Bay. The state has developed some of the most stringent environmental regulations regarding drilling in its offshore waters. Alabama's oil production has steadily increased from an average of just over five million barrels in 2009 to nine million barrels in 2015. Alabama's natural gas production has steadily declined since 2005 but has leveled since 2012 at about 200 billion cubic feet per year. In 2015, the state the oil and gas industry contributed $11.3 billion to the Alabama economy, which was 6.4% of the state's GDP. Alabama Oil and Gas Regions Oil in Alabama generally occurs in the state's two sedimentary basins, the Interior Salt Basin in the southwest and the Black Warrior Basin in the northwest, both of which extend westward into Mississippi. Geologists use the term "basin" to describe a broad area where layered sedimentary rocks sag thousands of feet downward into a "bowl" shape, although there is often no evidence of this at the surface. The Interior Salt Basin consists of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, which date back 200 million years. The Black Warrior Basin is composed of Paleozoic rocks, some of which date back 580 million years. This region is also famous for its vast coal reserves, such as the Warrior Coal Field. Oil Rig Petroleum forms in the microscopic pores of rocks such as sandstone and limestone and slowly makes its way to the surface. When the petroleum becomes trapped in its migration, it forms an oil or gas field. Common traps are geologic features known as faults and anticlines. Faults are cracks in layers of rock in which the rocks on either side of the crack move in relation to each other. This can be envisioned by thinking of a knife slicing through a layer cake and seeing one side of the cake slump downward. Anticlines are dome-shaped folds in sections of layered rock. Geologists search for these traps with machines that measure gravity, magnetic, and seismic data, all of which tell them critical properties of buried rock layers. Geologists refer to a likely place for oil or gas as a "prospect." When a prospect is identified, "landmen" are sent in to lease the mineral rights from property owners, who retain a royalty, which is a share of the revenue generated by the oil and gas produced from the owner's property. After the leases are acquired, drilling rigs are brought in to drill and test the prospect. Chesley Pruet and Dudley Hughes Knowing the geology of the state extremely well, Jones became convinced that Alabama would one day become a significant petroleum producer. He continued to lobby the legislature for laws to encourage oil men to come to Alabama with their drilling rigs. But it was not until World War II broke out in 1939 that Jones saw his wishes come true, when demand for oil rose and Alabama's fortunes changed. In 1944, Texas oilman Haroldson "H. L." Hunt drilled beside a fault in Choctaw County and discovered the Gilbertown Field in the Eutaw Sand at a depth of 3,700 feet. That field produced 15 million barrels of oil (1 barrel = 42 gallons), not a lot by modern standards but enough to make "oil fever" spread rapidly. Other companies, many of which were run by independent prospectors popularly known as "wildcatters," followed Hunt's lead, but 11 years passed before they found the next significant discovery. Early Jurassic Landscape Reconstruction As oil drilling boomed in south Alabama in the late 1960s and 1970s, wildcatter Walter Sistrunk struck gas in the Black Warrior Basin in Lamar County, as did engineer William Tucker in Fayette County. Both men, as well as Pruet and Hughes, headed small but aggressive companies called "Independents" that used investment money from various other oil industry sources. These pioneers lured many more companies, which spread natural gas development through the northwest Alabama region. Gas Rig in the Gulf of Mexico In 1978, with protections in place to preserve the bay's ecology, Mobil moved in a huge offshore rig. They drilled more than 21,000 feet into an ancient desert called the Norphlet Sandstone and discovered the largest natural gas field east of the Mississippi, the Lower Mobile Bay–Mary Ann Field. The discovery formed the core of offshore development that eventually located six trillion cubic feet of reserves and as of 2007 has sent $2.1 billion worth of royalties to Alabama's Heritage Trust Fund, which uses the interest from the funds to help pay for the state's education and infrastructure needs. The fund was the first of its kind in U.S. history. Oil and gas activity in Mobile Bay and the nearby Gulf of Mexico waters stands today as a global environmental standard for offshore drilling and production operations. Choctaw Ridge Oil Field Walter B. Jones's vision for Alabama has come true. Alabama now ranks 10th among the states in natural gas production and 15th in liquid petroleum. Since the first meager gas discovery at Hazel Green, thousands of wells have been drilled across the state. Most have produced nothing, but by 2007 the successful ones were producing nearly $2.5 billion worth of oil and gas annually, $500 million of which goes to Alabama's citizens in the form of taxes, royalties, and trusts. Alabama's several locally owned and operated companies join many others from across the nation and abroad to employ thousands of local workers in finding, extracting, refining, and transporting the state's petroleum resources.

Oil and gas is still being found in Alabama, and geologists believe new opportunities exist in the hard shales of the deep Black Warrior Basin beneath Pickens and Tuscaloosa Counties and in the thick fractured shales of St. Clair and neighboring counties.

Cockrell, Alan. Drilling Ahead: The Quest for Oil in the Deep South, 1945-2005. Oxford: University Press of Mississippi, 2005.


Our history

Today we operate in most of the world's countries and are best-known by our familiar brand names: Exxon, Esso and Mobil. We make the products that drive modern transportation, power cities, lubricate industry and provide petrochemical building blocks that lead to thousands of consumer goods.

Colonel Edwin Drake and Uncle Billy Smith drill the first successful oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The colonel's discovery triggers an oil boom that parallels the gold rush of a decade earlier.

Rockefeller and his associates form the Standard Oil Company (Ohio), with combined facilities constituting the largest refining capacity of any single firm in the world. The name Standard is chosen to signify high, uniform quality.

Standard Oil Co. purchases a three-quarters interest in Vacuum Oil Company for $200,000. As a lubricants pioneer, Vacuum Oil introduces a number of popular products, including the revolutionary Gargoyle 600-W Steam Cylinder Oil.

Standard Oil lubricates Thomas Edison's first central generating system. Also in this year, Standard Oil Trust forms to include the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey (Jersey Standard) and the Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony).

The Standard Oil Trust moves its headquarters to 26 Broadway, New York City. The nine-story office building becomes a landmark. The same year, Vacuum develops Gargoyle Arctic engine oils for newly designed generators and motors that operate at speeds of up to 1,000 rpm.

The Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, use both Jersey Standard fuel and Mobiloil (Vacuum) lubricants for their historic first flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

Socony gains a strong foothold in the vast market for kerosene in China by developing small lamps that burned kerosene efficiently. The lamps become known as Mei-Foo, from the Chinese symbols for Socony, meaning "beautiful confidence."

Following a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Standard Oil breaks up into 34 unrelated companies, including Jersey Standard, Socony and Vacuum Oil. The year also marks the first time Jersey Standard's sales of kerosene are surpassed by gasoline, a product that in the early days had often been discarded as a nuisance.

Ralph De Palma, winner of the Indianapolis 500, is the first of many Indy winners to use Mobil products. His average speed: 89.84 mph.

Jersey Standard acquires a 50-percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Company of Texas. It was during this year that Humble, led by its pioneering Chief Geologist Wallace Pratt, employed micropaleontology, the study of microscopic fossils contained in cuttings and core samples from drilling, as an aid in finding oil.

Jersey Standard researchers produce rubbing alcohol, or isopropyl alcohol &mdash the first commercial petrochemical.

Embodying the phonetic rendition of the initials &lsquoS&rsquo and &lsquoO&rsquo in Standard Oil, Jersey Standard brings out a new blend of fuel under the trade name Esso.

Humble geophysicists use a refraction seismograph and discover an oil field in Sugarland, Texas.

Amelia Earhart uses Mobiloil to protect Friendship when she makes her historic solo flight across the Atlantic. The previous year, Charles Lindbergh used Mobiloil in the Spirit of St. Louis on the first solo flight across the Atlantic.

First commercial unit in a cat-cracking refinery begins operation at Socony-Vacuum&rsquos Paulsboro, New Jersey, refinery. The unit used a process developed by French scientist Eugene P. Houdry with the financial backing of Socony-Vacuum. The process added a clay-like catalyst to the cracking process to boost gasoline yields and octane rating.

Harlem postman Victor Green creates the Green Book. Often referred to as the &ldquoBible of Black travel,&rdquo the Green Book listed service stations, hotels, restaurants and other establishments where Black travelers would be welcomed. Jersey Standard was the only major retail distributor of the Green Book through its network of Esso service stations, which welcomed Black motorists and also provided business opportunities for Black franchisees. The Green Book was published and distributed nationwide until 1967.

Jersey Standard researchers produce an artificial rubber, butyl. Today, butyl is used in the creation of tires, surgical tapes, protective coatings and more.

The world's first commercial production of alkylate begins at a Humble plant in Baytown, Texas. Alkylation made possible the manufacturing of iso-octane, used as a blending agent to produce 100-octane aviation gasoline.

The world&rsquos first fluid catalytic cracker goes onstream at Louisiana Standard&rsquos Baton Rouge refinery. The process, developed by four Jersey Standard researchers known as the &ldquofour horsemen,&rdquo improved on the Houdry method for cat cracking and eventually became the industry standard for producing gasoline. Fortune magazine called it &ldquothe most revolutionary chemical-engineering achievement of the last 50 years.&rdquo

Jersey Standard introduces Uniflo motor oil, the first multigrade motor oil recommended for both summer and winter use.

Jersey Standard establishes the Esso Education Foundation, a program that gives financial aid to private colleges and universities.

Pan American Airways flies its first trans-Atlantic Boeing 707 flight from New York to London. The flight is fueled by Mobil aviation fuel.

An advertising copywriter in Chicago comes up with the advertising slogan &ldquoPut a tiger in your tank.&rdquo

Humble invents 3-D seismic technology, a revolution that completely changes the way the industry searches for oil and gas resources. (This breakthrough technology, coupled with the use of massive parallel computers in seismic imaging, has helped our geologists sharply reduce finding costs since the 1980s while increasing new field resource additions.)

Mobil celebrates 100 years since the founding of the Vacuum Oil Company in 1866 and changes its name to Mobil Oil Corporation. The company launches a wide-reaching identity program to emphasize the Mobil trade name.

Jersey Standard officially changes its name to Exxon Corporation. The name change is approved by Jersey Standard shareholders in a special shareholders&rsquo meeting.

Mobil introduces a synthetic automotive engine lubricant &mdash Mobil 1. Today, Mobil 1 is the world&rsquos leading synthetic motor oil.

Mobil participates in completion of Beryl A, the world's first concrete production platform. The 50-story-high structure was the prototype for other concrete deepwater facilities operating in the North Sea.

Mobil invents a process for converting methanol into high-octane gasoline through the use of the company&rsquos versatile ZSM-5 catalyst.

Exxon opens its own facility for environmental health research at East Millstone, New Jersey. Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc. conducts research to further assure the safety of Exxon operations and products.

Exxon celebrates 100 years since the formation of the Standard Oil Trust in 1882. In its first 100 years, the company evolved from a domestic refiner and distributor of kerosene to a large multinational corporation, involved at every level of oil and gas exploration, production, refining and marketing, and petrochemicals manufacturing.

Exxon Research and Engineering invents a powerful new imaging technique called 3-D microtomography to study the internal structure of opaque objects without damaging them.

On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound in Alaska. The Valdez oil spill was a tragic accident that ExxonMobil deeply regrets. The company took immediate responsibility for the spill, cleaned it up and voluntarily compensated those who claimed direct damages. Learn more about the Exxon Valdez.

Exxon introduces Exxpol, a single-site metallocene catalyst used to produce consistent, controllable molecular structures that make plastic and rubber products tougher and impact-resistant, with less haze and with excellent organoleptics (low off-taste and odor).

Exxon establishes the Save The Tiger Fund in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. The Save The Tiger Fund is dedicated to supporting the conservation of Asia&rsquos remaining wild tigers. Since its establishment, ExxonMobil has provided $1 million annually in support of the Save The Tiger Fund.

Mobil introduces Speedpass, an electronic system which automatically activates the pump and charges purchases to a credit card. Speedpass is similar to the electronic toll technology successfully used on subway, bus and highway systems around the world.

On November 30, 1999, Exxon and Mobil join to form Exxon Mobil Corporation. &ldquoThis merger will enhance our ability to be an effective global competitor in a volatile world economy and in an industry that is more and more competitive,&rdquo said Lee Raymond and Lou Noto, chairmen and chief executive officers of Exxon and Mobil, respectively.

ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Company (EMRE) develops the SCANfining process, which uses a new proprietary catalyst to selectively remove more than 95 percent of the sulfur from gasoline while minimizing octane loss.

ExxonMobil, joined by other sponsors, initiates the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) at Stanford University &mdash a pioneering research effort to identify technologies that can meet energy demand with dramatically lower greenhouse gas emissions.

ExxonMobil partners with professional golfer Phil Mickelson and his wife, Amy, to launch the Mickelson ExxonMobil Teachers Academy. The academy is designed to provide third- through fifth-grade teachers with the knowledge and skills necessary to motivate kids to pursue careers in science and math.

ExxonMobil and Qatar Petroleum, with other joint-venture partners, expand development of the giant North Field offshore Qatar, the largest nonassociated gas field in the world.

Exxon Neftegas Limited (a subsidiary of Exxon Mobil Corporation) completes the drilling of the Z-11 well, the longest measured depth extended-reach drilling (ERD) well in the world. (Located on Sakhalin Island offshore eastern Russia, the record-setting Z-11 achieved a total measured depth of 37,016 feet [11,282 meters], or more than seven miles.)

ExxonMobil's donation through &ldquoIdol Gives Back&rdquo enables the distribution of hundreds of thousands of bed nets throughout disease-stricken communities in Angola.

Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE:XOM) and Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI) announced the opening of a greenhouse facility enabling the next level of research and testing in their algae biofuels program. In 2017, these efforts will yield a breakthrough involving modification of an algae strain that more than doubles its oil content without significantly inhibiting the strain&rsquos growth.

ExxonMobil finalizes its agreement with XTO Energy Inc., creating a new organization to focus on global development and production of unconventional resources. A plan to build and deploy a rapid response system that will be available to capture and contain oil in the event of a potential future underwater well blowout in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico is announced by Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell. ExxonMobil leads the containment system efforts on behalf of the sponsor companies.

Exxon Mobil Corporation announced two major oil discoveries and a gas discovery in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico after drilling the company's first post-moratorium deep-water exploration well. This is one of the largest discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico in the last decade.


The Complete History Of Oil Markets

Like most other commodities in the markets, crude oil prices have routinely experienced wild price swings alternating between times of great shortages, high demand and high prices and periods of oversupply, low demand and depressed prices. These so-called crude oil &ldquoPrice Cycles&rdquo tend to last several years, depending on variables such as oil demand, volume of oil drilled, processed and sold by the major producers.

Since the early days of commercial production in Baku, Azerbaijan, these price swings have been triggered by economic and political events, technological advancements and changes within the petroleum industry, and continue to influence prices in the present day.

Crude Oil Price History: 1861-Present


Source: IG Group

1800-1869: Early black gold rush

The modern oil industry traces back its roots to Baku where the first commercial refinery was established in 1837 to distil oil into paraffin for heating and lighting purposes.

The first modern oil well was sunk in Baku in 1846 and reached a depth of 21 meters. The single oil field accounted for more than 90% of global production, with most of the oil finding its way to Persia (present-day Iran).

Several commercial oil wells soon followed:

Pennsylvania was the epicenter of the first black gold rush, producing nearly 50% of the world&rsquos oil. Prices shot up rapidly from .49 per barrel in 1861 to $6.59 a barrel in 1865, representing a massive 1,245% climb in the space of just four years.

1870-1913: The auto revolution

Whereas some economists contend that the modern oil industry only took off after WWII with the creation of the Marshall Plan - part of which was an agreement for a Free On Board price for all players - others argue that the incorporation of Standard Oil Co by John D. Rockefeller in 1870 in Ohio was the true launchpad for the industry. Related: EIA Sharply Cuts Oil Price Forecast

Standard Oil quickly rose to prominence over the next two decades, driving down prices and buying up the competition. The company was so successful that it controlled nearly 90% of refined oil in the United States by 1890. As production continued to expand both in the US and in Russia, global oil prices fell from an average of $2.56 a barrel in 1876 to just .56 in 1892. This was further accelerated with the launch of the first commercial cars in Germany and the US in 1896, a technological revolution that would fuel unprecedented growth for the industry.

1901-1911: Rise of the oil majors

Many of the modern oil majors can trace their origins to the early 20th century.

- The discovery of oil at Spindletop, Texas, led to the creation of Texaco and Gulf Oil in 1901

- Increasing competitive pressure led to Shell and Royal Dutch merging in 1907 to form Royal Dutch/Shell

- BP, formerly known as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, was incorporated in 1908 following the discovery of oil in Iran

- Chevron, Exxon and Mobil (now Exxon Mobil) came into being in 1911 after the split of Standard Oil Co following an antitrust ruling by the US Supreme Court

The seven oil majors went on to control 85% of the world&rsquos oil reserves during their golden years in the 1970s.

1914-1949: Oil discoveries, wars, crises

The discovery of oil in Cushing, Oklahoma, in 1912 is considered an important milestone for the US oil industry because the region grew to become one of the most important oil fields in the country. Notably, it also became the settlement point for the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) oil price, a leading global oil price benchmark.

The next four and a half decades were a turbulent period marked by a series of major wars and economic crises, all of which would have an important bearing on oil prices.

First was WWI (1914-1918) which drove up global demand for oil that more than doubled oil prices from .81 per barrel in 1914 to $1.98 by the end of the war. Demand continued to grow even after the war ended mainly fueled by the ever-increasing popularity of the automobile and a gasoline shortage in the US west coast. At first, prices surged to $3.07 per barrel before retreating and stabilizing around $1.61 as production increased.

Around this time, oil companies started researching other applications for the commodity including commercial production of plastics. However, prices remained relatively low despite the extra demand created by these applications mainly due to a combination of stiff competition and plentiful supply. Meanwhile, major oil discoveries elsewhere continued to keep the markets awash with the commodity including Venezuela, Iraq, the USSR, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf of Mexico.

The discovery of oil in East Texas in 1930 was one of the major highlights of this period because it helped create an oil glut that happened to coincide with the Great Depression that consequently depressed prices from $1.19 in 1930 to .65 in 1931. It took the intervention of the Texas Railroad Commission which enforced production quotas to stabilize prices and prevent further declines.

Just like WWI, the beginning of WWII in 1939 also helped drive demand and goose prices. However, the effect was less pronounced this time around due to bountiful global supply. Nevertheless, the war made governments acutely aware of the need to control reserves, and it would clearly show in their actions over the next couple of decades.

1950-2003: Battle to control production

The ending of the second world war would usher in a period whereby many countries made concerted efforts to hold sway in global oil production, with several governments nationalizing their oil infrastructure.

Between 1950 and1960, Iran, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia all partly nationalized their oil industries. The Suez crisis of 1956-57 saw Egypt seize the Suez Canal through which nearly five percent of the world&rsquos oil flowed.

However, it was the US and USSR that would emerge as the biggest heavyweights in terms of production control. In the late 1950s, the USSR started to flood the market with cheap oil leading to price cuts by the majors in a bid to remain competitive. In response to these developments, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Venezuela teamed up and formed OPEC as a means to lower competition between their countries and also as a means to have a bigger impact in controlling supply.

OPEC went on to expand its membership over the next two decades with UAE, Libya, Indonesia, Qatar, Nigeria, Algeria, Gabon and Ecuador joining the organization. Between 1960 and 1976, most of these countries took control of their oil reserves by buying out or forcibly taking shares from the oil majors.

The US and the USSR continued to throw their weight around but soon the influence shifted to OPEC. In 1973, OPEC members embargoed countries supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur war. Consequently, oil prices shot up to levels never witnessed before, from $2.48 per barrel in 1972 to $11.58 by 1974 and even higher in parts of the US. Related: Is The U.S. Gas Boom Already Over?

It was around this time when oil was discovered in the North Sea in a region controlled by the UK and Norway. Oil from this area is referred to as Brent crude and is used alongside WTI to benchmark prices.

Iran sharply cut production during the Iranian revolution (1970-1980) and also during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988 leading to a spike in prices to $36.83. However, prices fell again due to demand shocks as well as increased production by the USSR, which became the world&rsquos largest producer in 1988. Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Gulf War. This created a major supply shock that led to prices shooting up from $14.98 per barrel before the war to $41.00 in September 1991.

The 1990s witnessed wild price fluctuations. The Soviet Union fell in 1991, precipitating the collapse of the Russian oil sector with production halving over the next decade mainly due to reduced investments. However, global demand also tumbled in 1997 due to the Asian financial crisis but managed to recover by the turn of the century after the region&rsquos economic outlook improved.

2003-Present: Hydraulic fracturing and a changing landscape

This next decade witnessed some of the most spectacular explosions in oil prices.

The US invaded Iraq in 2003 leading to supply uncertainties. This was further compounded by massive demand growth by Asia and China. Consequently, prices jumped from $28.38 per barrel in July 2000 to $146.02 in July 2008.

From here prices fell due to the global financial crisis of 2008 before staging a comeback. The Arab Spring of 2011 created supply shortages and helped push prices to $126.48 per barrel.

Technological advancements in recent times have significantly altered the global oil landscape. Hydraulic fracturing has pushed the US to the top of the pack once again, reducing the influence of OPEC and depressing prices. Flooding of the market by US shale has led to a sharp drop in global oil prices, from $114.84 per barrel in June 2014 to $28.47 in January 2016. OPEC has tried to ameliorate the glut by teaming up with non-OPEC countries such as Russia to implement production cuts. Consequently, prices have recovered somewhat but have never approached levels seen in the past decade.

With the US now acting as the new &lsquoswing producer&rsquo OPEC&rsquos influence and ability to control prices is likely to remain diminished. The unresolved trade war between the US and China as well as geopolitical uncertainty in Iran, Syria and other countries has helped goose prices from their 2016 lows of below $30 per barrel to $54.70 in October 2019. But with continued high levels of shale production and a weakening global economy, prices are expected to remain subdued with prices projected to average $66 a barrel in 2019 and $65 a barrel in 2020.


Poglej si posnetek: Vibecheck 2020 - Olje u0026 Tore Oellingrath


Komentarji:

  1. Ivar

    You, maybe, were mistaken?

  2. Beckham

    Zdi se mi izjemno misel

  3. Phelps

    Sorry for offtopic, who-thread watched videos on youtube about the end of the world? Well, about the hadron colider. It's scary!

  4. Narcissus

    Kakšen odličen stavek



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