Douglas predstavlja DC -8 - zgodovina

Douglas predstavlja DC -8 - zgodovina


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(30. 5. 58) 30. maja je prvi prototip DC-8 opravil prvi let. Letalo, ki ga poganjajo 4 Pratt & Whitney Turbojets, je letelo 2 uri in 7 minut. DC-8 je začel s komercialno uporabo 18. septembra 1959, leto kasneje, ko je 707 šel v komercialno uporabo. Prodaja DC-8 je precej zaostajala za prodajo 707, predvsem zaradi dejstva, da je bil prodan v eni velikosti (do sredine šestdesetih let), medtem ko je Boeing ponudil številne različice modela 707. Douglas je izdelal 556 DC- 8 letal.

Zgodovinski posnetek

DC-8 je bil prvi Douglasov motor na letalo. V uporabo je prišel hkrati z družbo United Airlines in Delta Air Lines 18. septembra 1959. DC-8 je z močjo štirih reaktivnih turbinskih motorjev zmogel hitrost več kot 966 km/h. Pri poskusnem potopu je postal prvi tovrstni komercialni prevoz, ki je prebil zvočno oviro. V svojem 14-letnem proizvodnem ciklu je DC-8 šel skozi sedem glavnih različic, za skupaj 556 letal.

Osnovna domača različica, DC-8 serije 10, je imela povečano zmogljivost goriva za medcelinske lete, serije 30 in 40 pa sta prvi uporabili turboreaktivne motorje s 17 500 kilogrami potiska (7938 kilogramov potiska).

DC-8 Series 50 so bili prvi DC-8, ki jih poganjajo novi, učinkovitejši turboventilni reaktivni motorji s potiskom 18.000 funtov (8165 kilogramov) in daljšim dosegom. Serija 50 je bila tudi prva, ki je bila kupcem ponujena v različici s kabrioletom za potniški tovor ali različici za vse tovor brez oken.

DC-8 serija 60 je podaljšala dolžino trupa. Skoraj 11 čevljev (11 metrov) daljši od prvotnega modela, v konfiguraciji za vse ekonomične potnike bi lahko DC-8-61 prevažal 259 ljudi. Njegova konfiguracija kabrioletnega tovornjaka je imela tovorni prostor 12 535 kubičnih metrov (3820 kubičnih metrov). DC-8-62, za zelo dolge proge, je imel trup raztegnjen 6 metrov 8 centimetrov (2 metra) dlje od prvotnega modela in 3-metrske (91-centimetrske) konice krila.

Vse izboljšave zasnove DC-8-61 in -62 so bile vključene v DC-8-63. Model -63 bi lahko letel več kot 7242 kilometrov neprekinjeno in prevažal 259 potnikov zaradi razširjenih aerodinamičnih izboljšav trupa trupov, gonil in stebrov ter povečanega razpona kril in kapacitete goriva.

DC-8 Series 70 je bila prenovljena različica priljubljene serije Super 60, ki je nadomestila motorje CFM56 za slednje motorje & rsquos Pratt & amp Whitney. Rezultat je bilo letalo, ki je ohranilo delovno težo Super 60, vendar z daljšim dosegom zaradi novejših, bolj varčnih turboventilnikov. Serija 70 je lahko izpolnila tudi poznejše, strožje predpise o hrupu, ki so se začeli izvajati v osemdesetih letih.

Leta 1995 je ostalo v uporabi več kot 300 DC-8, kar pomeni več kot 340 rednih letov na dan. Januarja 2013 je Letalski teden Baza podatkov flote Intelligence Network & rsquos Fleet je poročala, da je po vsem svetu v uporabi 36 DC-8.


Zgodovina letal DC-8

Douglas DC-8 je bil prvotno zasnovan kot letalska cisterna za ameriško vojsko. DC-8, ki je bil rojen iz konkurence z Boeingom 707, je zamudil na letalskem trgu, a je v enem pogledu še vedno prehitel Boeing 707. DC-8 je zdržal preizkus časa.

DC 8 Zgodovina

Tako kot pri večini letal je bil DC-8 ustvarjen v upanju, da bo pridobil pogodbo z ameriško vojsko. Skupaj s šestimi drugimi letalskimi podjetji je Douglas sodeloval pri pogodbeni ponudbi vojske za izdelavo naslednje generacije letalskih tankerjev. Boeing je od leta 1949. delal na izdelavi čistega letalskega letala. Ena prednost, ki jo je imel Boeing pred Douglasom, je bilo dejstvo, da je imel Boeing že tesne odnose z ameriškimi letalskimi silami. Z B-47 Stratojet in B-52 Stratofortress, ki sta že zelo priljubljena pri ZDA. in drugih vojaških vej, Douglas je imel veliko dohiteti. Ustvarjanje čistega reaktivnega letala za Douglasa ni bilo vedno glavna prioriteta. Medtem ko je Douglas verjel, da bodo turboreaktivi motor prihodnosti, je podjetje menilo, da bo to postopen prehod s turbopropelerskih motorjev na turboreaktorje.

Vendar Douglas ni pričakoval, da bo Boeingu uspelo. Le štiri mesece po objavi pogodbenih pogojev je U.S.A.F. je pri Boeingu naročil prvih 29 letal. Donald Douglas je sam šel v Washington, da bi protestiral proti odločitvi, češ da je bila sprejeta, še preden so imela konkurenčna podjetja sploh čas, da v celoti izpolnijo svoje ponudbe. Na žalost so njegovi protesti naleteli na gluha ušesa. Ker so se dela na DC-8 že začela, se je Douglas odločil, da bi bilo bolje nadaljevati z ustvarjanjem letala in ne ustaviti proizvodnje.

DC-8 Spremembe

Oblikovanje DC-8 je doživelo veliko sprememb, potem ko se je Douglas posvetoval z glavnimi letalskimi prevozniki, da bi ugotovil, kakšno je trenutno povpraševanje. Ta posvetovanja so privedla do tega, da je DC-8 dobil širši trup, ki omogoča šest sedežev. Zaradi tega je letalo dobilo tudi večja krila in daljši trup. DC-8 je bil uradno objavljen julija 1955 in je bil na voljo v štirih različicah, od katerih vsaka temelji na istem trupu trupa, vendar se razlikujejo po motorjih in prostornini goriva. Ker je Douglas vedel, da zaostajajo za Boeingom 707, je imel decembra 1957 prvi let DC-8, leta 1959 pa je letalo potisnil v uporabo.

Glavno tekmovanje DC-8 je bil Boeing 707, vendar sta bili obe letali v težavah. Velike letalske družbe so se bale, da bi se zavezale velikemu finančnemu in tehničnemu izzivu reaktivnega letala, vendar si nihče ni mogel privoščiti, da ne bi kupil letal, če bi to storili njihovi konkurenti. S tem sta bila DC-8 in 707 v zastoju do oktobra 1955. Pan American je brez primere naredil naročilo za oba letala. Drugi letalski prevozniki so hiteli oddajati naročila za nakup, vendar je Douglas do začetka leta 1958 prodal le 133 DC-8 v primerjavi z Boeingovimi 150 707. Douglas je poskušal zapolniti vrzel med DC-8 in 707, vendar se je njihova zavrnitev menjave trupa DC-8 v različnih modelih izkazala le za tržno izgubo. Po odličnem začetku se je zgodnje šestdeseto leto izkazalo le za izgubo za DC-8.

Super šestdeseta

Ravno ko so bile za DC-8 stvari videti mračne, je Douglas leta 1962 leta 1965 vdihnil novo življenje, ko je izdal Super Sixties. S podaljšanim trupom so trije modeli, ki so sestavljali Super Sixties, lahko sedeli 269 ljudi. potnikov in so bili znani kot največji letalski prevozniki na trgu, dokler Boeing leta 1970 ni izdal letala 747. Vendar so se pozna šestdeseta leta Douglasa izkazala za ostra zaradi dejstva, da je morala industrija zdaj ugotoviti, kako nadzorovati zmanjšanje hrupa pri teh nova letala. S spremembo reaktivnih motorjev se je DC-8 razvil iz super šestdesetih v super sedemdeseta. Opremljeni s francosko-ameriškim motorjem CFM56 so bili modeli Super Seventies DC-8 velik uspeh. Izkazalo se je, da so za 70% tišji od Super šestdesetih in takrat najtišje štirimotorno letalo na svetu.


Douglas DC8

Douglas DC8, ki je pozneje v svojem življenju postal znan tudi kot McDonnell Douglas DC8, je bil glamurozno medcelinsko letalo svojega časa. To letalo je prvič letelo 30. maja 1958 in je bilo proizvedeno med letoma 1958 in 1972 s skupno 556 izdelanimi.

To je bil prvi napad podjetja Douglas Aircraft Company v prostor letalskih letal, ki je bil zelo uspešen. Prehod na mlazna letala iz starih batov in celo turbopropelerskih letal za Douglasa v poznih štiridesetih in zgodnjih petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja ni bila visoka prioriteta. Uživali so kot vodilni v prostoru letala z batnim motorjem z modeli, kot so DC2, DC3, DC4, DC5, DC6 in DC7. Leta 1949, ko je de Haviland izstrelil svoje letalo Comet, letala Douglas še vedno ni videl potrebe po spremembi. Morda so odločitev v njihovih očeh dodatno potrdili z več smrtnimi trki kometa, za katere je bilo pozneje ugotovljeno, da jih povzroča utrujenost kovin. Če ste najuspešnejši proizvajalec letalskih prevoznikov s 300 naročili za svoj najnovejši model DC6, zakaj bi to spremenili? Njihovo odpornost je dodatno spodbudil prihod turbopropelerjev v obliki Vickers Viscount, Bristol Britannia in Lockheed Electra.

Air Spain Douglas DC8-21 o pristopu na kopno.

Medtem so v Boeingu razmišljali o ustvarjanju novega reaktivnega letala. Približno leta 1949 so zbirali svoje izkušnje z vojaškimi bombniki in polnilci goriva v zraku, da bi ugotovili, kako bi jim to lahko omogočilo izdelavo reaktivnega letala. Ko je leta 1950 Boeing zamisel predstavil letalskim prevoznikom, so ugotovili, da je sprejem zelo neprijeten. Ne glede na to so pritiskali.

Douglas je končno videl napis na steni in vedel je, da morajo resne jetre vzeti resno. Leta 1952 so začeli tajne študije in do sredine leta#8211 1953 so pripravili zasnovo, ki je bila zelo blizu končnemu modelu proizvodnje DC8. Ta zasnova je imela 80 sedežev s 5 sedeži. Poganjali bi ga štirje motorji Pratt in Whitney JT3C, tehtali bi 86.000 kg (190.000 lb) in doseg 4.800-6.400 km (2.592-3.456 NM). Trg je Douglasa nemudoma pritisnil, da razširi trup na 6 sedežev. To je privedlo do podaljšanja trupa in povečanja površine kril.

DC8-62 tovornega letalskega prevoznika MK Airlines iz Gane pri končnem priletu, ki prikazuje svojo konfiguracijo lopute.

Julija 1955 je Douglas objavil, da bo izdeloval 4 različice DC8. Razlike med različicami bi bile izključno glede na prostornino goriva in izbiro motorjev. Dolžina trupa, razpon kril in površina bi bili za vse popolnoma enaki. Trg je pritiskal na Douglasa, da bi ustvaril različne dolžine trupa, vendar jih niso premaknili. To je skoraj povzročilo, da je Douglas zamudil spoznanje celotnega obsega uspeha DC8 ’.

Doba čistega letala je prinesla povsem nov način razmišljanja o potovanju z letalom. Sprva letalski prevozniki niso želeli skočiti z novo tehnologijo. Letala so bila veliko dražja za nakup in vzdrževanje. Kot vedno pa je bil pritisk konkurence velik dejavnik. Ko vaša konkurenca sprejme novo tehnologijo, si je ne morete privoščiti.

Oktobra 1955 je Pan American World Airways prekinil tradicijo in naročil tako DC8 kot Boeing 707. Naročilo je obsegalo 25 DC8 in 20 707. Leta 1956 so jim hitro sledila naročila za DC8 United Airlines, National Airlines, KLM, Eastern Air Lines, Japan Air Lines in Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). Do začetka leta 1958 sta knjigi naročil Douglas ’ in Boeing#8217 stali na 133 DC8 in 150 707s. Takrat so stroški domače različice DC8 znašali 5,46 milijona ameriških dolarjev.

Douglas DC-8-32 družbe Pan-American World Airways, registracija N801PA, sedi na predpasniku na londonskem letališču Heathrow 14. septembra 1964.

Ker je imel knjig dovolj naročil za zagotovitev uspešnega izida, je Douglas predlagal izgradnjo DC8 v njihovi tovarni na letališču Santa Monica. Zahtevali so podaljšanje vzletno -pristajalne steze in vse se je zdelo kot zmagovalna situacija z možnostjo novih zaposlitev na tem območju. Sosednji prebivalci pa so bili zaskrbljeni, da bi iz njihove soseske prihajali in odhajali letali, njihove pritožbe pa so povzročile zavrnitev Douglasovih prošenj. Rešitev je bila selitev na letališče Long Beach.

Prvi DC8 z registracijo N8008D je bil iz tovarne uveden 9. aprila 1958. Prvič je letela 30. maja 1958 ob 14:07 z pilotom v poveljstvu C.A.G. Heimerdinger. Douglas je imel pozno začetek v primerjavi z Boeingom s svojimi 707. Za zapolnitev vrzeli je Douglas uporabil 10 letal za pridobitev certifikata FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), ki je bil podeljen avgusta 1959. Zaradi strogih preskusov je bilo izvedenih več prilagoditev. . Ti so vključevali odstranitev neučinkovitih zračnih zavor, ki so jih nadomestili z vzvratnimi potisniki motorja, ki so bili pravkar na voljo, dodajanje letvic prednjih kril za izboljšanje dviga pri nizkih hitrostih in razvoj večje konice krila za zmanjšanje upora.

Eastern Airlines Douglas Super DC-8 Oglas Newsweek, 26. september 1966.

Proizvodnja se je začela resno in do marca 1960 je Douglas dosegel cilj proizvodnje 8 DC8 -jev na mesec, ki so izstopili iz tovarne. 18. septembra 1959 sta DC8 istočasno izstrelila United Airlines in Delta Air Lines. Delta trdi, da so bili prvi.

21. avgusta 1961 je Douglas v okviru preizkusa nove zasnove vodilnega roba krila vzel DC8 na 41.000 čevljev in ga dal v nadzorovan potop. Ta DC8-43, ki je letel za Canadian Pacific Air Lines, registracija CF-CPG, je postal prvo civilno letalo in prvo reaktivno letalo, ki je prebili zvočno oviro. Ko je 16 sekund dosegel hitrost 1,012 maha / 1,062 km / h, jo je v senci F104 Starfighter zasenčil Chuck Yeager.

Douglas je začel čutiti rezultate njihove odločitve, da se DC8 ne raztegne preko prvotne dolžine trupa. Prodaja je začela upadati, saj so letalske družbe iskale večjo prilagodljivost. Leta 1962 je bilo sprejetih le 26 naročil, leta 1963 21 in leta 1964 14. Večina teh naročil ni veljala niti za potniško različico, ampak za tovorno različico Jet Trader. Leta 1965, ko so naročila zastala pri skupno 300 naročenih DC8, se je zdelo, da je DC8 opravil svoje. Aprila istega leta je Douglas končno popustil in napovedal uvedbo Super 60 -ih. To je programu DC8 vdihnilo novo življenje. Super 60 so sestavljali 3 različice, DC8-61, -62 in -63. V času njihove predstavitve sta bila letala -61 in -63 najvišja potniška letala na svetu, ki so jih sedeli šele z uvedbo Boeinga 747 leta 1970. DC8-62 je bil krajši od svojih stabilnih partnerjev, saj je bil zasnovan za daljši doseg.

Maja 1985 je letalo Douglas DC-8-63 iz Balaira pristalo na letališču v Zürichu.

Proti koncu šestdesetih let je zaskrbljenost zaradi hrupa letal postajala vse glasnejša. Čista letala tistega časa so bila veliko glasnejša od sodobnejših učinkovitejših motorjev danes in še glasnejša od letal, ki so jih zamenjali s propelerji. Odnos se je spreminjal, mesta in letališča pa so začeli razbijati hrupne curke. DC8 je bil glasen, serija DC8-60 pa še glasnejša. Letališča so začela uvajati nove predpise o hrupu, na primer omejitve so bile take, da so morali DC8-60 delovati z manjšo težo, da bi zmanjšali potrebno moč in s tem hrup. Letalske družbe so se za rešitev obrnile na Douglasa, vendar se je Douglas zadržal pri ukrepanju. Končno so prišli na zabavo in v sodelovanju z družbo General Electric izdali serijo DC8-70, ki jo poganja francosko-ameriški motor CFM56 tega podjetja.

Serija DC8-70 je dosegla velik uspeh. Ker so bili za 70% tišji od Super 60 -ih, so bili DC8 Super 70 v času predstavitve najtišji štirje motorni letali na trgu. Poleg tega so bili novi motorji za 23% učinkovitejši od starih JT3D, kar je prineslo veliko korist pri znižanju stroškov in podaljšalo doseg letala.

S 556 proizvedenimi DC8-ji je letalo prenehalo s proizvodnjo leta 1972. Starost širokotrupnega letala se je začela pojavljati v obliki Boeinga 747, Douglasa DC10 in Lockheeda L1011. Ekonomija se je spremenila. Letala s širokim karoserijo so ponujala nižje stroške prevoženih kilometrov in so kmalu prehitela ozka letala s karoserijo#8211. Mnogi DC8 so še naprej ponujali dobre storitve, zlasti za tiste letalske prevoznike, ki niso mogli upravičiti kapitalskih izdatkov, povezanih z večjimi letali.

Air New Zealand Douglas DC-8-52 obdavčuje na letališču Sydney.

Kot vedno pri starejših letalskih prevoznikih so mnogi našli pot v službo tovornih letalskih prevoznikov. Ker je bilo 556 DC8 proizvedenih proti 1.032 Boeingom 707/720, je zanimivo omeniti, da je bilo do leta 2002 200 DC8 še v aktivni komercialni uporabi proti 80 707/720. Do januarja 2013 je bilo ocenjenih, da jih je 36 še vedno v uporabi.

Osebno je to letalo eno mojih najljubših. To je bil moj prvi let z letalom, ki je prišel takoj po mojem prvem letu, ki je bil DC3 iz Faleola, Zahodna Samoa v Pago Pago. Marca 1966 sem letel z DC8, ki pripada družbi TEAL (Tasman Empire Air Lines, zdaj Air New Zealand) iz Paga Paga, Ameriške Samoe do Aucklanda, Nova Zelandija, s postankom pri Nadiju na Fidžiju.


Danes v letalstvu: prvi let Douglasa DC-8

MIAMI – Danes v Letalstvu praznujemo obletnico legendarnega prvega leta DC-8 ’s z letališča Long Beach (LBG) 30. maja 1958, v katerem smo podrobneje analizirali to veličastno letalo od njegovega začetka do prvega leta.

Družba Douglas Aircraft Company iz Santa Monice v Kaliforniji je bila najuspešnejši proizvajalec civilnih letalskih prevozov v obdobju proplinerjev. Proizvedlo je več kot 16.000 enot DC-3, ki je bil trden v tridesetih in štiridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, sledilo pa mu je tudi zelo uspešno štiri-motorno letalo DC-4, DC-6 in DC-7.

Leta 1948 je Douglas začel izdelovati uspešen reaktivni lovec, F3D Skyknight, ki bi ga za ameriško vojsko naredil 265, preden ga je leta 1951 zamenjal z nadzvočnim F4D Skyray.

Pri tem modelu so bile prodajne vrednosti še višje (422 enot) in je bilo prvo letalo na letalu, ki je doseglo absolutni svetovni rekord v hitrosti in doseglo 1211,74 km / h.

Zgodnji DC-8-10 v Douglasovih barvah, 1959. DC-8 je bil certificiran avgusta 1959. Fotografija: Jon Proctor, prek Wikipedije

Douglas ’ Ambition: Letalo na reaktivni pogon

Douglas je nato v tovarni v Kaliforniji ustanovil pisarno, da bi uresničil novo ambicijo: letalo z reaktivnim motorjem-nekaj, kar je bilo že zgrajeno v Veliki Britaniji, kjer je britanska korporacija Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) začela leteti iz Londona v Johannesburg s petimi postanki. na poti leta 1952. BOAC je v naslednjem letu razširil letalo na Tokio, Singapur in Cejlon.

Douglasov veliki tekmec Boeing je leta 1952 začel izdelovati prototip komercialnega letala, model 367-80 (registracija ND70700). Ko je 15. julija 1954 "Dash-80" vzletel nad zvezno državo Washington, je Amerika naredila velik skok proti dobi leta.

Družba ni smela preseči. Glavni projektni inženir Ivor Shogrun je oblikovalce vodil skozi stotine konfiguracij jetlinerjev, vključno z delta krilom. Do sredine leta 1953 so se odločili za zasnovo krila s štirimi podkrilnimi motorji.

Do septembra 1954 je Douglas projektu DC-8 namenil več kot 3 milijone ameriških dolarjev in 250.000 delovnih ur. Upali so, da bodo nekatera predvidena letala prodali ameriškim letalskim silam kot tankerje ali transport.

Končno odločitev, da nadaljuje s čistim letalskim letalom, je ostal sam Donald Douglas starejši, ki je 7. junija 1955. dal svojo OK. Zaradi proračuna v višini 450 milijonov ameriških dolarjev je to najdražje zasebno financirano podjetje doslej.

DC-8 je začel delovati pri družbi Delta Air Lines 18. septembra 1959. Foto: Wikimedia

Naročila DC-8 se začnejo

Čeprav je Boeing Douglasa dobesedno premagal z letalskimi silami, se je Douglas oktobra 1955 maščeval tako, da je prevzel levji delež naročila Pan Am: 25 DC-8B s postavitvijo v šestih vrstah Economy, v nasprotju z 20 petimi. Boeing 707.

25. oktobra 1955, ko so bili v Santa Monici na voljo uradniki 20 največjih letalskih prevoznikov na svetu, sta Donald Douglas starejši in predsednik United Airlines Pat Patterson skupaj objavila naročilo za 30 DC-8A po ceni 175 milijonov dolarjev. Maja 1959. To je bilo največje posamično naročilo za komercialna letala.

Junija 1956 je Douglas objavil, da bo DC-8 zgrajen v tovarni Long Beach, kjer je bilo med drugo svetovno vojno sestavljenih 4.285 C-47 (in več kot 3.000 B-17 po licenci Boeinga).

Nazadnje, 26. marca 1958, so bili na ladjo 1 priključeni štirje motorji Pratt & amp Whitney JT3, prvo letalo pa se je pred povabljenim občinstvom, ki so ga sestavljali predstavniki vseh 17 letalskih prevoznikov strank, odkotalilo sredi belega dne.

Douglas DC-8-11 N8008D vzleti z letališča Long Beach, 10. maja, 10. 10, 10. 10. 1957 Močan dim izpušnih plinov je posledica vbrizgavanja vode. Foto: Javna knjižnica Los Angelesa

DC-8 se dvigne v zrak

30. maj 1958 je bil velik dan. Ladja ena (N8008D) je prvič vzletela iz LBG ob 10:10 po lokalnem času.

Množica gledalcev, ocenjena na kar 50.000 ljudi, je obkrožala letališče. Zvezna uprava za letalstvo je za ta prvi poskusni let potrebovala vsaj pet milj vidljivosti. Tipična obala južne Kalifornije je nizko oblačnost in meglo povzročila 10-minutno zamudo.

Arnold G. 'Heimie' Heimerdinger je bil pri upravljanju, William 'Bill' Magruder na desnem sedežu in Paul Patten na plošči inženirja letenja. Na krovu je bil tudi inženir preizkusa letenja Bob Rizer, ki je spremljal zapisovalnike podatkov o letu v glavni kabini.

Heimerdinger je letalo odpeljal proti severu v letalsko bazo Edwards v visoki puščavi v južni Kaliforniji, kjer bi bil zaključen celoten program preizkusa letenja. Skupno trajanje prvega leta je bilo 2 uri in sedem minut.

V primeru, da bo posadka morala hitro skočiti s padalom, je bil pripravljen evakuacijski žleb, nameščen v spodnjem trupu trupa. Toda dvourni, sedemminutni let se je brez težav dvignil do 21.000 čevljev in do 350 vozlov in nazaj ter tako označil začetek uspešne zapuščine letala.

Douglas DC-8 N8008D v spremstvu letala ameriškega letalstva Cessna T-37 med poskusnim letom v bližini letalske baze Edwards v Kaliforniji. (Douglas Aircraft Company). Foto: Wikipedia, javna domena

Začetna storitev, konec proizvodnje

18. septembra 1959 je DC-8 začel delovati pri družbah Delta Air Lines (DL) in United Airlines (UA), pri čemer je DL prvi upravljal DC-8 v rednem potniškem prometu. DC-8 so proizvajali do leta 1972 s skupno 556 izdelanimi letali.

Objavljeno v naši številki januarja 2016 je bolj poglobljena zgodba fantastičnega članka Geoffreya Thomasa o legendarnem DC-8 (Airways, junij 2005), ki ponuja panoramski pogled na to vrhunsko letalo.

JANUAR 2016


Cargolux praznuje 45 let letenja z logotipom “Imenujte ga, letemo z njim ” z letalom na novo dostavljenem Boeingu 747-8R7F LX-VCM

Cargolux Airlines International (Luksemburg) je 28. septembra prevzel povsem nov Boeing 747-8R7F LX-VCM (msn 61169). Nova dostava je letela v Luksemburg (zgoraj) in je v uporabi med Luksemburgom in Los Angelesom prek Prestwicka.

Novi tovornjak Jumbo je naslikan v muhasti “Vi ime, mi ga vozimo ” poseben okras, ki ga je ustvaril belgijski risar Philippe Cruyt. Z logotipom Cargolux praznuje 45 let letenja. Logotip prikazuje nekaj nenavadnih stvari, ki jih je letalska družba letela v svoji zgodovini.

Letalski prevoznik je včeraj izdal to izjavo in fotografije:

Cargolux Airlines, največji evropski letalski prevoznik za vse tovore, praznuje svojo 45. obletnico s posebno letalsko vprego, ki jo je ustvaril belgijski karikaturist Philippe Cruyt, ki je bila uporabljena za 13. dostavljenega tovornjaka 747-8. Letalo LX-VCM, imenovano „mesto Redange-sur-Attert“, je bilo 28. septembra predano v tovarni Boeing v Seattlu, 29. septembra pa je s polnim tovorom prispelo v Luksemburg.

Kot nesporni vodja letalskega tovora Cargolux ponuja obsežno paleto izdelkov, ki zajema vse od vsakodnevnega tovora do pošiljk, ki zahtevajo podrobno pozornost, posebno obravnavo in strokovno ravnanje.

Podprte s 45 -letnimi izkušnjami, lahko visoko specializirane ekipe Cargoluxa zadovoljijo najzahtevnejše zahteve, ki jih imajo stranke.

Ta sposobnost je primerno prikazana v obletnici obletnice na LX -VCM, ki na šaljiv način prikazuje številne vidike letalskih tovornih pošiljk, ki jih Cargolux vsak dan obravnava.

Nalepka na novem tovornem vozilu Cargolux je največja nalepka, ki jo je Boeing kdaj uporabil na letalu, sestavljena je iz 460 posameznih delov.

Phillippe Cruyt se je rodil v Bruslju v Belgiji leta 1962. Ilustriral je že vrsto uspešnih izobraževalnih knjig o letalskih tovornih in okoljskih temah, ki jih je izdala Cargolux v začetku leta 2000, pa tudi oglaševalske in varnostne akcije, koledarje in plakate letalska družba.

Poleg tega je ilustriral vrsto knjig in objavil svoje risanke na različnih razstavah po Evropi.

Trenutno gospod Cruyt deli svoj poklicni čas in energijo med risankami za otroške in izobraževalne knjige ali oblikovanjem komunikacijskih sporočil s kančkom humorja. Ko ne riše, g. Cruyt igra klarinet in tenor saksofon v svoji jazz skupini The Creole Shakers Trio.

V zadnjih 45 letih je Cargolux postal največji evropski letalski prevoznik za vse tovore, ki je leta 2014 preletel 828 658 ton tovora in floto 25 747 tovornih vozil.

4. marca 1970 so Luxair, Loftleiðir, Salén in nekateri zasebni interesi ustanovili Cargolux in začeli delovati na novo ustanovljeni domači bazi na luksemburškem letališču s peščico tovornjakov Canadair CL-44. Prvi polet mladega prevoznika 10. marca 1970 je preusmeril Luksemburg in#8211 Stockholm - New York ter prevažal tovor jagod in solate iz ledene gore.

Letalski prevoznik je bil ustvarjen za opravljanje ad hoc in sub-charter letov za vse tovore, prva leta delovanja pa so pokazala, da obstaja potreba po vrsti storitev, ki jih Cargolux ponuja svojim strankam.

Avtorska fotografija: Christian Volpati/AirlinersGallery.com. Douglas DC-8-63 (CF) LX-ACV (msn 45989) je viden v Parizu (CDG).

CL-44 so kmalu odstopili od večjih tovornjakov DC-8 (zgoraj), pozneje pa je Cargolux med veliko skepticizmom v Luksemburgu in v industriji v svojo floto uvedel širokokrilni tovornjak Boeing 747. Vendar se je uspeh operacije na koncu izkazal za napačnega. V poznejših letih je Cargolux postal prvi operater in začetni kupec 747-400F in 747-8F. Cargolux z več kot 85 pisarnami v več kot 50 državah danes leti na več kot 70 destinacij po vsem svetu in zaposluje več kot 1700 ljudi.

1970: Cargolux Airlines International so ustanovili Luxair, Loftleiðir Icelandic, Salén Shipping Group in zasebni luksemburški interesi.

1974: Oddelek za vzdrževanje podjetja Loftleiðir Icelandic je integriran v Cargolux, katerega osebje se je čez noč povečalo z 80 na 180.

1978: Končni CL-44 je postopoma umaknjen. Cargolux zdaj upravlja floto vseh mlaznih motorjev.

1979: Boeing dobavi prvi Boeing 747-200F Cargoluxa, drugi pride leto kasneje.

1983: Predstavljen je Cargoluxov računalniški sistem CHAMP (Cargo Handling And Management Planning).

1984: Zadnji tovornjak DC-8 je prodan, leta 1986 pa je floti dodan tretji 747-200F.

1988: Cargolux se uvršča med 15 največjih tovornih prevoznikov na svetu, merjeno v prevoženih tonskih kilometrih tovora.

1990: Cargolux praznuje 20. obletnico naročila treh novih tovornjakov Boeing 747-400.

1993: Z dobavo prvih dveh tovornjakov Boeing 747-400 Cargolux postane prvi letalski prevoznik na svetu, ki upravlja to najsodobnejše letalo.

1995: Cargolux praznuje 25 -letnico delovanja. Flota sodobnih tovornjakov 747-400 se v prihodnjih letih nenehno širi, 16. in zadnja enota pa bo predana leta 2008.

2005: Cargolux in Boeing napovedujeta razvoj nove, napredne različice tovornjaka 747, ki bo kasneje postala serija 747-8. Cargolux je začetni kupec tega novega tipa 747 z začetnim naročilom za 10 letal. Družba je kasneje naročila še pet 747-8F.

2009: Oddelek za vzdrževanje Cargolux se preseli v svoj novi hangar za vzdrževanje, ki ponuja sodobne zmogljivosti in prostor za dva letala velikosti 747/A380. Cargolux sklene strateško partnerstvo v Italiji za ustvarjanje Cargolux Italia za medcelinske tovorne tovorne storitve z milanskega letališča Malpensa.

2011: Qatar Airways prevzema 35 -odstotni lastniški delež v Cargoluxu, vendar se je novembra 2012 odločil prodati svoj delež. Država Luksemburg začasno pridobi te delnice. Približno šest let po podpisu prvotnega naročila Cargolux 19. in 21. septembra prevzame svoja prva dva tovornjaka Boeing 747‑8.

2014: Cargolux dosega številne ključne cilje, vključno s sklenitvijo pogodbe o komercialnem sodelovanju s HNCA, ki pridobijo 35% delnic Cargoluxa, in uspešnim uvajanjem storitev v novo središče Cargoluxa na Kitajskem, Zhengzhou.

2015: Cargolux praznuje 45 -letnico delovanja. Letalski prevoznik upravlja največjo floto v svoji zgodovini in rutinsko beleži eno najvišjih dnevnih stopenj uporabe letal v industriji. Cargolux zdaj upravlja sedem tedenskih frekvenc med Luksemburgom in Zhengzhoujem ter uvaja svojo prvo namensko transpacifično storitev med Zhengzhouom in Chicagom.

S sprejemom 747-8F LX-VCM Cargolux upravlja eno najmlajših in najučinkovitejših tovornih flot v industriji.

"Ponosen sem, da se to letalo s prav posebno shemo barv pridružuje floti," pravi Dirk Reich, predsednik in izvršni direktor Cargoluxa. "Tovornjak 747-8 popolnoma ustreza naši svetovni mreži, njegove sposobnosti nakladanja in prenašanja tovora pa nam pomagajo ohraniti vodilni položaj v letalski industriji. Izjemna livreja Philippe Cruyt je primeren dodatek k našemu 13. 747-8F in ne poudarja le strokovnega znanja in izkušenj, ki jih je Cargolux pridobil pri ravnanju z najrazličnejšimi običajnimi in posebnimi tovori, ampak tudi slavi dolgo in barvito zgodovino našega podjetja. To letalo je ambasador strasti in duha Cargoluxa. "

Vse fotografije Cargoluxa (razen spodaj).

Diaprojekcija letal Cargolux:

Spodnja avtorska fotografija: Joe G. Walker. LX-VCM prispe v Seattle/Tacoma, da odpelje poln tovor v Luksemburg.


Variante [uredi | uredi vir]

Zgodnji modeli [uredi | uredi vir]

  • DC-8 serija 10 Za domačo uporabo v ZDA, ki jih poganjajo turboreaktivi Pratt & amp Whitney JT3C-6 60,5 kN. Začetni DC-8-11 model je imel izvirne konice kril z visokim uporom, vsi primerki pa so bili kasneje pretvorjeni v standard DC-8-12. The DC-8-12 so imeli na vsakem stebru nove konice kril in reže na vrhu. Te edinstvene naprave so se aktivirale z vrati na zgornji in spodnji površini, ki so se odprla za let z nizko hitrostjo in zaprla za križarjenje. Največja teža se je povečala s 120 ton na 123 ton. Proizvedenih je bilo 28 DC-8-10. Ta model se je prvotno imenoval "DC-8A", dokler ni bila predstavljena serija 30. Ώ ]
  • DC-8 serija 20 Turboreakti Pratt & amp Whitney JT4A-3 z večjo močjo 70,8 kN so omogočili povečanje teže na 125 ton. Izdelanih je bilo 34 DC-8-20. Ta model je bil prvotno imenovan "DC-8B", vendar je bil preimenovan ob predstavitvi serije 30. Ώ ]
  • DC-8 serija 30 Za medcelinske poti so tri različice serije 30 združile motorje JT4A z eno tretjino povečanja prostornine goriva ter okrepljenim trupom in podvozjem. The DC-8-31 je bil marca 1960 certificiran z motorji JT4A-9 75,2 kN za največ 136 ton teže. The DC-8-32 je bil podoben, vendar je dovolil težo 140 ton. The DC-8-33 novembra 1960 zamenjal turboreaktorje JT4A-11 78,4 kN, spremembo povezave lopute, ki omogoča nastavitev 1,5 stopinje za učinkovitejše križarjenje, močnejše podvozje in največjo težo 143 ton. Mnogi -31 in -32 DC -8 so bili nadgrajeni na ta standard. Skupaj je bilo proizvedenih 57 DC-8-30.
  • DC-8 serija 40 The first turbofan-powered airliner in the world, the -40 was essentially the same as the -30 but with 78.4 kN Rolls-Royce Conway turbofans for better efficiency, less noise and less smoke. The Conway was a significant improvement over the turbojets that preceded it, but the Series 40 sold poorly both because of the traditional reluctance of U.S. airlines to buy a foreign product and because the still more advanced Pratt & Whitney JT3D turbofan was due in early 1961. The DC-8-41 in DC-8-42 had weights of 136 and 140 tonnes, the 143 tonne DC-8-43 had the 1.5 degree flap setting of the -33 and introduced a new 4% leading edge wing extension to allow a small fuel capacity increase and a significant drag reduction — the new wing design improved range by 8%, lifting capacity by 3 tonnes, and cruising speed by better than 10 knots (19 km/h). It would be included in all future DC-8s. A total of 32 DC-8-40s were manufactured.
  • DC-8 Series 50 The definitive short-fuselage DC-8 with the same engine that powered the vast majority of 707s, the JT3D. Many earlier DC-8s were converted to this standard. All bar the -55 were certified in 1961. The DC-8-51, DC-8-52 in DC-8-53 all had 76.1 kN JT3D-1 or 80.6 kN JT3D-3B engines, varying mainly in their weights: 126, 138 and 142 tonnes respectively. The DC-8-55 arrived in June 1964, retaining the JT3D-3B engines but with strengthened structure from the freighter versions and 147 tonne maximum weight. 88 DC-8-50s were manufactured.
  • DC-8 Jet Trader Douglas approved development of specialized freighter versions of the DC-8 in May 1961, based on the Series 50. An original plan to fit a fixed bulkhead separating the forward two-thirds of the cabin for freight, leaving the rear cabin for 54 passenger seats was soon replaced by a more practical one to use a movable bulkhead and allow anywhere between 25 and 114 seats with the remainder set aside for cargo. A large cargo door was fitted into the forward fuselage, the cabin floor was reinforced and the rear pressure bulkhead was moved by nearly 2 m to make more space. Airlines were offered the option of a windowless cabin, though only one, United, took this up, with an order for 15 in 1964. The DC-8F-54 had a maximum takeoff weight of 143 tonnes and the DC-8F-55 147 tonnes. Both used 80.6 kN JT3D-3B powerplants.

Super sixties [ edit | uredi vir]

  • The DC-8 Series 61 was designed for high capacity and medium range. It had the same wings, engines and pylons as the -53, and sacrificed range to gain capacity. Having decided to stretch the DC-8, Douglas inserted a 6 m plug in the forward fuselage and a 5 m plug aft, taking overall length to 57 m and giving the aircraft a very long, lean look that was (and is still) unique. Bending forces required strengthening of the structure, but the basic DC-8 design already had sufficient ground clearance to permit the one-third increase in cabin size without requiring longer landing gear. It was certificated in September 1966 and typically carried 210 passengers, or 269 in high-density configuration. A total of 88 were sold.
  • The long-range DC-8 Series 62 followed in April 1967. It had a much more modest stretch of just 2 m (with 1 m plugs fore and aft), the same JT3D engines as the -53 and -61, and a number of modifications to provide greater range. One-meter wingtip extensions reduced drag and added fuel capacity, and Douglas redesigned the engine pods, extending the pylons and substituting new shorter and neater nacelles, all in the cause of drag reduction. Slightly heavier than the -53 or -61 at 151 tonnes, and able to seat 159 passengers, the -62 had a range with full payload of about 5200 nautical miles (9,600 km), or about the same as the -53 but with 40 extra passengers. A total of 67 were built.
  • The DC-8 Series 63 was the final new build variant and entered service in June 1968. It combined the aerodynamic refinements and increased fuel capacity of the -62 with the very long fuselage of the -61, and added 85 kN JT3D-7 turbofans, giving a maximum take off weight of almost 159 tonnes and a range with full payload of 4,110 nautical miles (7,600 km). A total of 107 were built, a little over half of them convertibles or dedicated freighters.

Super seventies [ edit | uredi vir]

  • The DC-8-72 in DC-8-73 were straightforward conversions of the -62 and -63, replacing the JT3D engines with 98.5 kN CFM56-2 high-bypass turbofans in new housings built by Grumman. The DC-8-71 achieved the same end but required considerably more modification because the -61 did not already have the improved wings and relocated engines of the -62 and -63. Maximum takeoff weights remained the same but there was a slight reduction in payload because of the heavier engines. All three models were certified in 1982 and a total of 110 60-Series DC-8s were converted by the time the program ended in 1988.

Autobiography/Aviation History: Douglas DC-8 – The Trip of a Lifetime

I awoke before dawn on August 27, 1960, bursting with nervous anticipation. This was to be the most exciting and longest day of my childhood, if not my whole life. Given how wound up I was, I’m surprised I slept at all, and that my parents didn’t gag and tie me up in a suitcase. This day started in Innsbruck, Austria, and ended in New York City, some 24 hours later. It was a one-way trip, and several modes of transportation were involved, the most important and memorable one being this Swissair DC-8. Prior to that day, I had never even seen a jet transport plane, and now my family and I would be flying in one, to a new life in America.

Swissair had just taken delivery of their first two DC-8-32s, one in April (HB-IDA above) and another in June (HB-IDB). The years 1959 and 1960 were the grand take-off of the jet age every major international airline was receiving their first true intercontinental jets, either the Boeing 707 or the Douglas DC-8. The two makers were fighting for supremacy of the skies, a battle that took several decades to play out. It didn’t really matter to me which one we were going to take, but it has left me with a soft spot for the DC-8 ever since.

Leaving aside the sad story of the DeHavilland Comet, the ill-fated (and considerably smaller) first commercial passenger jet, the jet transport era was ushered in by Boeing’s bold gamble to build a four-engine prototype, the 367-80, that would serve both to secure an order from the Air Force for tankers (KC-135 Stratotanker) and transports (C-35 Stratolifter), as well being the basis for a new commercial jetliner (Boeing 707). The 367-80 was announced in 1952, and first flew in 1954.

Thanks to the -80, Boeing had a head start on developing the 707, although a number of changes were required. The most significant one was widening the fuselage, since the -80 was designed for only five-abreast seating, as was the initial proposal for the DC-8. But with jet engines growing quickly more powerful, Douglas settled on a 147″ fuselage for six-abreast seating. Boeing followed suit, and American Airlines President C.R Smith insisted that the 707’s fuselage be one inch wider than the DC-8’s.The re-tooling for the wider 707 cabin cost Boeing a huge amount of money.

The 707 went into commercial service on October 26, 1958 by Pan Am. This shot, taken in Reykjavík, Iceland, in late 1958, shows one of these early 707-120s being refueled, as the first generation 707s and DC-8s were not not true intercontinental jets. The slim Pratt and Whitney pure-turbojet JT3C-6 engines are also a distinguishing feature of many of the earliest series of both of these transports. The JT3 even required water injection to develop enough take-off power.

This article is about the DC-8, so we’ll leave the 707 for another time, but I will say that it is the somewhat more handsome airplane of the two, owing in part to Boeing’s decision to use many small windows, which makes the 707 look bigger in comparison, as well as sleeker.

If we had flown a few months earlier, it would have been on this DC-7C, the final plane in Douglas’s long line of piston-engined propeller transports that started with the seminal DC2 in 1934. Douglas was the dominant producer in the post-war years, and was not in a rush to jump into the jet age, as it assumed the transition would be over a longer period of time, with turbo-props in between. The Boeing -80 changed all that, especially when the tanker jet contract went completely to Boeing, Douglas having assumed that it would be split with them. So Douglas scrambled to design a competitive jet.

The DC-8 was announced in July of 1955, in four version, all of them with the same 150′ fuselage length. Seating capacity varied from 124 in a mixed-classes configuration to 176 in all-coach. The first DC-8 rolled out of the new Long Beach, CA factory in April of 1958. Douglas dedicated the first ten planes to certification, in order to speed up the lengthy process. The first commercial flight was by Delta on Sept.8, 1959, or almost one year behind the 707.

The first order for both the 707 and DC-8 was by Pan Am, which boldly ordered 25 DC-8s and 20 707s in 1955, so as to encourage both makers, and allow it to hedge its bets. As it turned out, Pan AM soon sold its DC-8s and became an all-Boeing airline. But initial sales for the DC-8 were good, and by early 1958, Douglas had 133 orders to Boeing’s 150.

But Boeing was more flexible in creating different fuselage length versions of the 707, while Douglas stuck to just one. Boeing offered to build a short a 10′ shorter 707-138 for Quantas. And an 8′ shorter 707-020 with lighter weight designed for medium haul flights became the very popular 720. An 80″ stretch was employed in the definitive intercontinental 707-320 series, making a total of four fuselage lengths. This alone allowed Boeing to move ahead in sales, especially after DC-8 sales started to drop off after 1962.

Back to August 27, 1960. We had to catch a train to Zurich, and I can’t remember if we walked to the train station or took a taxi. Probably the latter, since we had suitcases, but given my father (on right), I wouldn’t bet on it. Here we are at the train platform, along with some of the friends and relatives that came to see us off. This was a very emotional day for everyone. Back then, there were no assumptions about ever coming back for visits it had the air of finality to it. My grandmother was too upset to come to the station, and my mother (second from left) was not looking forward to it at all. My father had been recruited to the University of Iowa Hospital’s EEG Lab, and he had been to the US as a POW and loved it, but she was very resistant to leaving her hometown and family.

My older sister (holding my 16 month old younger brother) as well as my older brother (front row right) were old enough to realize that the social transition was likely to be difficult. Only my father and I (front center) were truly gung-ho about this move. America, yes!

It was hard to even imagine what America would be like, but I knew that the cars were going to be very different. Here’s what the streets of Innsbruck looked like in 1959: VWs were “standard sized” cars, and Fiat 600s were a “compact”.

We didn’t have a car , nor did anyone in my large extended family. We walked, or took the street cars and trains. If we wanted to go somewhere by car for a special occasion, like this confirmation outing for my sister and cousin, we hired this 1949 or 1950 Olds taxi, and we ALL piled in, somehow. I’m thinking...can we just get going already?

There were a few American cars to be seen from time to time, driven by tourists. This Studebaker coupe, flanked by two Fiat Topolinos, undoubtedly falls into that category, especially since it is in the Alt Stadt (old city).

I had an encounter with a 󈧿 Cadillac on the street (re-enacted here thanks to PS), just a few months before we left, that created the expectation that America would be wall-to-wall with these winged wonders, or comparable. That encounter whetted my appetite no wonder I was eager to go.

And so we did. This shot was taken by my father from the train as it pulled away from the station and our relatives and friends. Would I ever see them again? Not until 1969, by which time my enthusiastically-waving aunt in front and one of my uncles would both have died, quite young.

I’m not sure how long the trip to Zurich was maybe three or four hours. We took a taxi to the airport, where there was not one, but two DC-8s on the ramp. That turns out to have been their whole fleet at the time. This picture was taken by my father from the airport’s viewing deck.

I had never seen a jet transport before the biggest plane that had ever landed at the Innsbruck Airport back then was a DC-4, and my brother and I rode our bikes out to see it, at my father’s urging. Seeing that DC-8 out there, and knowing we were going to fly it to America was almost too much for my seven-year old synapses.

We were several hours early, and while we waited, the other DC-8 took off, in what seemed a radically steep ascent (photo not from that day). Smoke billowed out of the engines, which was typical of these old pure-jet designs. Pure turbo-jet engines derive all of their thrust from the rapidly expanding burned gases, which made them inefficient at low altitudes and short flight durations.

Already by 1959, a new generation of bypass turbofan engines such as the Rolls Royce Conway and the definitive P&W JT3D were coming on line, where a substantial part of the thrust was derived from a ducted fan that usually sat at the front of the engine. This DC8-53 has JTD3s, as can be seen by the larger engine intake, and the gap for the fan output to exit alongside the actual jet engine, whose turbine drives the fan. Turbofans were quieter, more powerful as well as more efficient, and, some airlines converted their “straight pipe” turbojets to turbofans, depending on their usage. On long flights, the difference in efficiency was not that as substantial as it was on shorter hauls.

I’m not 100% sure, but I’m inclined to think that Swissair used a 2+3 seating on those early DC-8s in coach. Swissair always had a rep for superb service and comfort, and they only used nine seats across even on their 747s, instead of the normal ten. But I could be wrong.

I do know that my father and brother and I sat on three seats on one side of the aisle, and my mother and sister and baby brother on the other side, in their laps. In any case, the unusually large windows in the DC-8 were a boon, as long as the original 40″ seat pitch was maintained. Most domestic flights soon changed that to 34″ or so, which meant that the windows didn’t line up anymore, and every fifth seat had no window at all. In retrospect, that was a mistake, and a substantial advantage of the 707, unless you got a window where it belonged. The views were stellar, and I remember the three of us fighting for turns at the window. And the leg room with 40″ seat pitch is something I can only dream about nowadays on regular coach.

Even though Swissair’s DC8-32 was technically an intercontinental jet, with the more powerful JT4A engines and a range of 5300 miles, our flight stopped in Shannon, Ireland to refuel. This was quite common then, especially on westbound flights, which usually had strong headwinds. Gander, Newfoundland was another popular refueling stopover.

I found a few pictures of that day, and I know there was also one of us on the airstair of our DC-8 in Shannon, but I couldn’t find it. This one one is from the web, taken there in 1961, with folks getting back into their Constellation. I vividly remember seeing a Conny or two in Shannon when we were there, as well as a DC-7. Old meets new.

We arrived at Idlewilde Airport (now JFK) late that evening, after dark. The tropical warmth and especially the humidity of an August evening was a shock, having never experienced that before. It added to the surreal quality of arriving at this giant airport, with jets and planes from all over the globe. After some delays going through Immigration, we were met by some distant relatives of my mother’s who had long lived in New York.

The first car I saw as we exited the terminal was a big 1960 Pontiac. There was a psychedelic quality to the whole experience, a result of the sensory overload the smell of kerosene from the jets, the heat and humidity, the giant airport and giant cars everywhere. I’m not in Innsbruck anymore.

I wrote about our arrival to NYC and the three days we spent there with our relatives here. It was a quick and deep immersion into all things American. And I started assuming all of America was going to be one endless New York City.

We took a United DC-6 to Chicago, and then transferred to a Convair (340, presumably), a twin engined prop plane designed to replace the venerable DC-3 on shorter hauls. This picture of my sister, baby brother and mother deplaning in Cedar Rapids was taken by the folks who picked us up, my dad’s boss to-be. They drove both of their cars to pick us up he in his 1956 DeSoto, she in her 1949-ish Plymouth station wagon. Naturally, I had to ride in the old wagon.

Thus ended the trip of a lifetime for me. Iowa was hardly like New York, but at least there were cars. The new 1961 models were just coming out, and I quickly become inducted into the cult of GM.

Douglas did eventually stretch the DC-8, by almost 37 feet, for the Series 61 and 63, but that wasn’t until 1967, by which time Boeing was finalizing their jumbo 747. Seating was up to 259 in a high-density configuration, and these airliners had a long life, not only with United, who used them extensively, as well as with freight haulers. Some are still at work today.

My next DC-8 flight was on one of these Super -61s, in the summer of 1968. I was fifteen, and managed to talk my parents into letting me fly back to Iowa by myself to visit friends from grade school, having moved to Baltimore in 1965. I took an early morning flight from Baltimore to Chicago on one of these DC-8-61s, and there were no more than twenty passengers that day. It was bizarre, sitting in such a long plane, and only a few heads to be seen anywhere. Such were the days before de-regulation.

That trip was memorable too, as you might imagine. I had just written my friends I was coming on about a certain day. I hitched a ride from the Cedar Rapids airport to Iowa City, with a congressman coming home for the recess, no less, whom I had seen on both of my flights. And when I got into town, I just walked to my old friend’s house, knocked on the door, and said…here I am!

After a couple of weeks hanging out and getting into a bit of trouble, I took a Trailways bus down along the Mississippi to St. Louis, to visit another friend who’d moved there from Baltimore. I learned to enjoy my freedom at an early age.

And then I flew home on a TWA 707.

I was flying student stand-by, which meant I boarded last. As soon as I got in, I saw that the front first-class lounge was empty, so I just plopped myself there. The young (and hot) stewardesses didn’t care less in fact, they all sat there chewing gum and reading paperbacks once they were done serving the excellent lunch. And I stared at their long legs. I tried to get them to give me a beer, but that’s where they drew the line. O dobro.

The next trip on a jet was back to Europe for an extended summer vacation in 1969. But it was a charter, and the plane was stuffed to the gunnels . By now I was spoiled, and have mostly blocked out the memories of that crowded, hot flight, including sitting on the runway at JFK for over two hours because of an air traffic controller’s work slow-down. The golden days of jet travel were already over, for me anyway.

In the early eighties, many of the remaining DC-8-61s and -63s were re-powered with hi-bypass CFM56-2 engines, which made them significantly more efficient. In 1989, we were headed to Baltimore again, this time from San Jose, and somewhat surprisingly, United flew us to Chicago on one of these, in the final year or two before they were sold off, many to UPS. Its interior was a bit ratty, and it felt old, but it was a great flight down memory lane.

The last revenue flight of a DC8 in the US was on May 12, 2009, by a UPS freighter. UPS had had planned to keep flying them until 2015, but to the recession at the time, the fleet was cut back, and the old DC-8s were the first to go. As of 2013, there were still 14 of them flying in the more obscure corners of the world, although all are freighters. The DC-8’s passenger-hauling days are over, and even its freight hauling days might be over soon. It will be missed.

Related reading/image sources:

Jon Proctor’s vintage airport pictures through the years: New York LAX Chicago San Diego


NASA’s DC-8 Returns to Flight

DC-8 lifts off from Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, Calif., at sunset.

The flying science laboratory takes to the skies after major maintenance and will soon prepare for the Convective Processes Experiment – Aerosols & Wind campaign.

NASA’s DC-8 aircraft returned to the skies on Jan. 6 after more than a year of heavy maintenance, which included an overhaul to all four engines.

NASA operates the highly-modified Douglas DC-8 as a flying science laboratory in support of the agency’s Airborne Science program. On Monday, Jan. 18, the aircraft departed for San Antonio, Texas, where it will remain for planned periodic depot maintenance over several months.

Following its stay in Texas, the DC-8 will begin instrument upload in preparation for the Convective Processes Experiment – Aerosols & Winds campaign, or CPEX-AW for short. The CPEX-AW campaign, a joint effort between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency), includes a 45-day deployment, targeted for July.

NASA’s DC-8, based at the agency’s Armstrong Flight Research Center Building 703 in Palmdale, California, is flown to collect data for experiments in support of projects serving the world’s scientific community.


First Colors Ceremony Introduces America's New World War I Memorial

WASHINGTON , March 17, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- The United States World War I Centennial Commission in cooperation with the Doughboy Foundation, the National Park Service and the American Battle Monuments Commission is sponsoring a major event to celebrate the inaugural raising of the American flag over the nation's soon to open World War I Memorial in Washington, DC on Friday, April 16 at 10:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 a.m. PDT .

The FIRST COLORS Ceremony will be an emotionally powerful, live-broadcast program that commemorates the generation of Americans who fought, with our allies, in the trenches and on the home front to bring an end to one of the most consequential wars in history.

Hosted by award-winning actor and humanitarian Gary Sinise , the 75-minute program will pay tribute to America's role in WWI and highlight our national unity with military fanfare, musical performances, and guest appearances by notable participants from across the country. Viewers will hear insights from high-profile elected officials, military leaders, and the dedicated team who has enriched the nation's understanding of World War I and created a lasting tribute in our nation's capital to engage Americans for generations to come.

"A century ago, 4.7 million Americans sent their sons and daughters off to fight a war that would change the world. They traveled to a country they had never visited, to fight in a war they didn't start, to achieve peace and liberty for a people they didn't know. FIRST COLORS takes a look at the how and why of the Memorial that honors their service," said Daniel Dayton , Executive Director, US World War I Centennial Commission.

The FIRST COLORS Ceremony is designed to "bring our history home." It marks the final leg of a journey that began with an American flag that first flew over our nation's capital on April 6, 2017 , commemorating the Centennial Day that the United States went to war in 1917. This Commemorative Flag has since flown over American battlefield cemeteries in Europe , honoring the Doughboys who gave their all during the war. The colors will now return home to their final destination, forever flying above the new National World War I Memorial.

"The extraordinary sacrifice made by Americans to conclusively end a world war is more than worthy of this recognition one that is long overdue. I'm proud to participate in this landmark event honoring their sacrifices, and to renew our pledge: To protect our future by remembering our past," said Sinise.

All are invited to be a part of American history and watch the free live-broadcast event. To register to watch and learn more about the Memorial and the FIRST COLORS Ceremony, please visit www.ww1cc.org/firstcolors. The live broadcast will be available for public viewing at www.ww1cc.org/firstcolors.

A complete media resource kit can be accessed at www.ww1cc.org/presskit.

Media may request site tours and interviews by contacting Abigail Kelly at [email  protected] , or 314-520-9505

About the WWICC
The U.S. World War I Centennial Commission established by Public Law 112-272, passed by the 112th Congress on January 14, 2013 and signed by the President on January 16, 2013 , and further refined by Public Law 113-291, Subtitle J, Section 3091. The Commission's responsibilities included: planning, developing, and executing programs, projects, and activities to commemorate the centennial of World War I encouraging private organizations and State and local governments to organize and participate in activities commemorating the centennial of World War I facilitating and coordinating activities throughout the United States relating to the centennial of World War I serving as a clearinghouse for the collection and dissemination of information about events and plans for the centennial of World War I and developing recommendations for Congress and the President for commemorating the centennial of World War I. The Commission is building the National World War I Memorial in Washington, DC with private donations, in partnership with the Doughboy Foundation. The Commission will sunset after the Memorial is dedicated.

About the Doughboy Foundation
The Doughboy Foundation, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, supports and encourages planning and execution of programs, projects, and activities commemorating and educating the public on America's role in World War I, "The War that Changed the World." The Foundation encourages private & educational organizations, Federal, State, and local governments, and all individual Americans to Keep Faith with the American Doughboys and every American who served in WWI. The Foundation's three-fold mission: Commemorate the experience of those Americans who served Čast the 4.7 million Americans who put on the uniform to answer the call of their country Navdihujte 21st-century Americans and all future generations to learn about, remember, and understand how WWI transformed our country and the world. The Doughboy Foundation has worked in partnership with the U.S. WWI Centennial Commission to build the new National World War I Memorial in Washington, DC. When the Centennial Commission sunsets after the Memorial is dedicated, the Doughboy Foundation will continue its mission of stewardship for the National WWI Memorial, and the remembrance of all those who served and sacrificed in WWI.

About Gary Sinise
For 40 years, award-winning actor and humanitarian Gary Sinise has stood as an advocate on behalf of America's defenders. He began in the early '80s, supporting local Vietnam veterans' groups in the Chicago area, and continued into the '90s, when his portrayal of "Lt. Dan" in Forrest Gump formed an enduring connection with service members throughout the military community. Following the attacks of September 11, 2001 , Sinise's dedication to our nation's active-duty service members, veterans, first-responders and their families who sacrificed alongside them, became a tireless crusade of support and gratitude for all those who protect our freedom and serve our country.


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