Robert Lowe

Robert Lowe


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Robert Lowe se je rodil v Binghamu v Nottinghamshireu leta 1811. Izobražen je bil na Winchester in University College v Oxfordu, leta 1842 pa so ga poklicali v odvetniško zbornico.

Lowe je emigriral v Avstralijo, a se je po razvoju uspešne odvetniške prakse leta 1850 vrnil v Anglijo. Dve leti kasneje je prevzel funkcijo pri lordu Aberdeenu. Leta 1859 je Lord Palmerston imenoval Roberta Loweja za podpredsednika izobraževalnega odbora.

Kraljevska komisija, ki ji je predsedoval vojvoda Newcastle, je raziskala naraščajočo raven javnih izdatkov za izobraževanje. Newcastlovo poročilo, objavljeno leta 1861, je priporočalo nadaljevanje javnega denarja za izobraževanje, vendar je predlagalo, da bi morala biti takšna podpora odvisna od sistema "plačila po rezultatih".

Lowe je sprejel glavne točke komisije Newcastle in leta 1862 objavil revidirani izobraževalni kodeks. V prihodnosti bi lahko šole zahtevale 4 -krat na leto za vsakega učenca z zadovoljivim rekordom obiskov. Če je učenec opravil izpite iz branja, pisanja in računanja, so bile plačane dodatne 8. Lowe je poudaril, da bi ta sistem pomagal zaščititi javni denar, porabljen za izobraževanje. Kot je dejal v spodnjem domu: "Če ni poceni, bo učinkovit, če ni učinkovit, bo poceni."

Vsako leto so inšpektorji njenega veličanstva (HMI) obiskali vsako šolo, da bi učence preizkusili v branju, pisanju in računanju. Učitelje, katerih plače so bile običajno odvisne od višine štipendije, je zamikalo, da bi spremenili svoj pristop k izobraževanju. V mnogih šolah so se učitelji osredotočali izključno na pripravo otrok na letni obisk HMI.

Po splošnih volitvah leta 1868 je premier William Gladstone imenoval Roberta Loweja za kanclerja državne blagajne. Leta 1873 je Gladstone Loweja preselil na mesto notranjega ministra.

Leta 1880 je bil Lowe ustanovljen vikont Sherbrooke in je služil Liberalni stranki v Domu lordov. Robert Lowe je umrl leta 1892.


Robert Lowe

Ne pevec gospela, ta Robert Lowe je jazz kitarist, ki igra s palcem in spominja na Wesa Montgomeryja in Georgea Bensona z dovolj izvirnosti v mešanici, da ustvari edinstveno, jedrnato in jasno samopodobo. …
Preberite celotno biografijo

Biografija umetnika Andrewa Hamiltona

Ne pevec evangelija, ta Robert Lowe je jazz kitarist, ki igra s palcem in spominja na Wesa Montgomeryja in Georgea Bensona z dovolj izvirnosti v mešanici, da ustvari edinstveno, jedrnato in jasno samopodobo. Njegov prvi javni nastop se je zgodil, ko je bil star sedem let s kopico podobno starih mladostnikov pred čevljarskim salonom v Detroitu in od takrat nastopa, vključno z nastopi z Lymanom Woodardom, Lonnie Liston Smith, Charlesom Earlandom in številnimi jazzovskimi največji umetniki.

Robert Lowe Jr. se je 2. julija 1948 v bolnišnici Henry Ford rodil Robertu in Velmi Lowe. Velma je zbrala plošče in glasbo vseh uglednih R&B izvajalcev dneva: Fats Domino, Little Richard, Dinah Washington, Della Reese in Little Sonny so z zvoki napolnili gospodinjstvo Lowe. Lowe je bil navdušen nad kitaro, ko jo je prvič videl od blizu v hiši očetovih prijateljev. Občudoval ga je vsakič, ko ga je oče peljal s seboj v hišo tega prijatelja, ki ga je nekega dne držal na steni ob kaminu, Robert pa je dobil živce, da se ga je dotaknil, in kot da je podrgnil Genieno svetilko, ga je preplavil sijaj in od tega trenutka je kitara postala obsedenost.

Napaka je ugriznila v trajni čep, ko ga je mama odpeljala na otroško zabavo za štiri do sedemletnike in prijatelj otrokove matere, ki se je zabave udeležila, ki se je Robert spominja le kot Willie, se je ustavil in zaigral na kitaro, precej belo s črno gredico in vložki iz slonovine. Zabava je postala sekundarna zaradi Willijevega očarljivega igranja kitare, ki je videl močno zanimanje mladeniča. Willie je vprašal Velmo, če bi mu lahko dal nekaj lekcij, in nikakor ni mogla reči ne. Hitro se je dvignil in kmalu prosil starše, naj mu kupijo kitaro, ki so jo privolili, pri čemer so znižali 26 dolarjev in 50 centov-petino urne plače Roberta starejšega za instrument za svojega sedemletnega sina.

Od igranja s skupino sedem do deset let pred Smiley's Parlorom je nadaljeval z oblikovanjem jazz skupin v srednji in srednji šoli, tj. Royal Crusaders (poimenovan po Jazz Crusaders) in Bellhops igrali so se med vikendi in denar mu je priskrbel dovolj sredstev za kritje šolskih potrebščin in oblačil. V 11. razredu se je pridružil skupini, ki je podpirala Stereophonics, priljubljeno lokalno žensko vokalno skupino, ki je igrala hmelj in nekoč v slavnem New Yorku Apollo Theatre. Po srednji šoli (1966) se je pridružil skupini, ki je štiri noči na teden igrala v nočnih klubih, s čimer je še povečala obzorje Loweja. Približno v tem času je odkril lirično, melodično lepoto Wesa Montgomeryja in začel poslušati in igrati še več jazza. Nato je odkril Jack McDuff Group, podobno pa ga je pometel tudi McDuffov kitarist George Benson.

Njegov razvoj jazza je skoraj pet let nazadoval, ko je postal glasbeni direktor skupine Precisions, ki je sodeloval pri njihovih priznanih straneh Drew Record in kot soavtor sodeloval pri filmu "Instant Heartbreak (Just Add Tears)", ki je zadnja pomembna plošča. To so bili zabavni časi sejanja divjega ovsa, ko so gledali DC's Howard Theatre, Harlem's Apollo in obiskali smešno damo Moms Mabley, ki je nastopala na predstavah, kot so Solomon Burke, Patti Labelle & the Blue Belles, Johnny Taylor, JJ Jackson, in druge svetilke duše.

Sledil je neprekinjen odnos z zasedbo Lyman Woodard Band, ki je bil s skupino za njihov album Don't Stop the Groove. Igral je na albumu v živo v mozambiškem klubu v Detroitu z naslovom The Real Thing, ki je bil pripisan Houstonu Pearsonu pri Eastbound Records. Nabor je vključeval vrsto priznanih glasbenikov, med drugim odličnega basista Motowna Jamesa Jamersona, Marcusa Belgravea, Elija Fountaina, Ette Jonesa, Jacka McDuffa, Grant Green in še veliko več.

Preselil se je v Big Apple, da bi igral z Lonnie Smith Band, ki je nastopil na albumu organistke Mama Wailer pri Kudo Records. Ko se je to odvilo, se je vrnil v Detroit in postal glasbeni inštruktor za Metro Arts James Blood Ulmer je bil drugi inštruktor kitare, ki sta oba igrala s palcem, Lowe je igral nekoliko hitreje kot Ulmer, zato je učil Ulmerja hitrost, medtem ko ga je Ulmer naučil, kako tehnika za premikanje navzgor in navzdol. Nekateri najboljši in prihajajoči jazzovski glasbeniki v Detroitu so na žalost prišli prek Metro Artsa, program pa se je končal, ko je vlada zmanjšala proračun za umetnost.

Vrnil se je v New York kot del skupine Charlesa Earlanda, da bi skupaj z njimi popestril album Odyssey (1976) na albumu Mercury Records. Domači golob se je vrnil v Detroit, ustanovil drugo skupino in izvedel jazz in soul. Stari prijatelj major Reynolds, za katerega je Lowe delal v letih 1965–1966 v Reynoldsovem studiu Tri-Sound, mu je ponudil delo v svojem novem studiu, za katerega je Lowe sprejel, da je delal na številnih projektih za producenta/pisatelja Michaela Stokesa za Enchantment in druge umetnike, med drugim štiri skladbe na albumu Enchantment's Journey to Enchantment. Iz študija je pridobil tudi častni magisterij iz studijske tehnike in posnel poslovno znanost.

Robert je v zgodnjih osemdesetih sodeloval z rolodexom lokalnih in nacionalnih snemalcev, med njimi Ronn Matlock, Marlena Shaw, Mary Wilson & the Supremes, Kim Weston, Richard Groove Homes in Spanky Wilson. In posnet kot izvajalec na Westboundu, skupaj z nastopi na sejah, izdanih pri CTI in Fantasy Records. Leta 1985 je izdal Double Dip pri svoji založbi Lowe Down, ki je naslovno skladbo prenesla na Top 20 uspešnico na območju Detroita.

Leta 1997 je opravil avdicijo za tekmovanje BET On Jazz, kjer so morali tekmovalci predložiti video posnetek nastopa v živo. Lowe je imel na izbiro in izbral posnetek televizijskega programa, posnetega nekaj let prej. Glej, sesalec se je lotil treh sodniških zborov in si prislužil Lowejevo prvo mesto v kategoriji instrumenta Jazz Discoveryja. BET je poslal skupini, da naredi posnetek v živo (štiri pesmi), vsi plačani stroški - povratne vozovnice za skupino, hotel, storitev limuzine, zajtrk v garderobi, dela.

44 let po igranju pred Smiley's Shoe Palace je bil Robert Lowe na Jazz Discoveryju - ironično, a to je glasbeni posel. Drama je navdihnila drugi album, In My Life (1999), pri založbi Lowe Down Records, s številnimi drugimi za tekočega kitarista, ki je v tako nežni starosti spoznal njegov klic.


Lowe, Robert

Lowe, Robert (1811 �). Liberalni politik. Albino in ostro sarkastičen razpravljavec je Lowe odrezal izrazito politično osebnost. Iz anglikanske klerikalne družine, izobražen v Winchesterju in Oxfordu, je odšel v Novi Južni Wales in se v zakonodajnem svetu z denarjem uveljavil s pravno prakso in premoženjem. Že kot liberalni poslanec (pozneje prvi član londonske univerze) je pridobil sloves svobodnega trga in protidemokratičnih pogledov, ki so jih očitno izostrili avstralski izkušnje. Kot podpredsednik tajnega sveta in odgovoren za ljudsko izobraževanje je predstavil revidirani kodeks 1862 ‘ ’, ki povezuje državne štipendije z rezultati izpitov iz osnovnih predmetov, ter nasprotoval verskim konfesijam in učiteljem. Lowe je izstopil iz upornikov Whig in Adullamite ’ proti zakonu o reformi iz leta 1866, ki je podrl Russellovo vlado in postavil konservativce. Ko so opravili primerljivo �mokratično ’ merilo, je Lowe ugotovil, da je treba ‘ prisiliti naše bodoče mojstre, da se naučijo njihovih črk ’. Kancler državne blagajne v vladi Gladstone iz leta 1868, Lowe, je moral po zgodnjem uspehu umakniti svoj proračun za leto 1871 in bil leta 1873 pod oblakom slabega vodstva odseljen v ministrstvo za notranje zadeve. Javni govor, ki je kritiziral kraljico leta 1876, je privedel do umika in opravičila v Commonsu, vendar sta slab vid in osebna nepriljubljenost oslabila tudi položaj Loweja. Leta 1880 je bil ustanovljen za vikonta Sherbrookea. Lowe, ugleden upravni in izobraževalni reformator, trpi zaradi ostrine svojega protiljudskega jezika.

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& aposSt. Elmo & aposs Fire, & apos & aposO sinoči & apos

Lowe je na velikem platnu zaslovel v zgodnjih osemdesetih letih kot član skupine Brat Pack skupaj z drugimi mladimi igralci, kot so Emilio Estevez, Molly Ringwald in Judd Nelson. Igral je v Tujci in Razred leta 1983, Elmo & aposs Fire leta 1985 in O sinoči. leta 1986. Zaradi teh vlog je bil eden najbolj vročih mladih srčnih udarcev osemdesetih let.

& aposWayne & aposs World, & apos & aposAustin Powers & apos in & aposZahodno krilo & apos

Ko se je vrnil v oči javnosti, se je Lowe pojavil v celovečercih  Wayne & aposs World  (1992), Stik  (1997), Austin Powers: Vohun, ki me je pretresel  (1999) in Posebne ponudbe  (2000). Vendar pa se je njegov igralec in zvezda vrnil leta 1999, ko se je vrnil na mali zaslon, da bi skupaj z Martinom Sheenom nastopil v dobro pregledani televizijski dramski seriji Zahodno krilo. Lowe je bil v vlogi Sam Seaborna, namestnika direktorja za komunikacije. Leta 2002 je napovedal, da zapušča uspešnico zaradi zastalih pogajanj o plačah.

Leta 2003 je Lowe podpisal vlogo v kratkotrajni drami  Lyon in aposs Den, igra prihajajočega odvetnika, ki se trudi distancirati od svojega znanega očeta senatorja. Njegova naslednja naslovna vloga v Dr. Vegas, o zdravniku igralnice sredi skušnjav mesta greha, prav tako hitro izpadel.

& aposBratje & amp; sestre & apos in & aposParki in rekreacija & apos

Igralec je ponovno vzpostavil položaj kot  Senator Robert  McCallister v drami  Bratje in sestre, ki je med petimi sezonami napredoval od honorarnega do najpomembnejšega. V podobnem teku je užival, medtem ko je na sitcomu   upogibal komične kotleteParki in rekreacija,  se je leta 2010 najprej pojavil kot gost, preden je postal redni igralec.

Medtem je napisal dva spomina  Zgodbe, ki jih povem samo svojim prijateljem: avtobiografija (2011) in Ljubiti življenje (2014).

& apos Grinder & apos

Po njegovem nastopu v finalu leta Parki in rekreacija leta 2015 je Lowe začel novo poglavje svoje kariere z glavno vlogo Brusilnik. Njegov nastop kot 򠷪n Sanderson, igralec, ki izkorišča družinsko usmerjenega mlajšega brata, ki ga igra Fred Savage, je bil hit kritikov in mu je prinesel nominacijo za zlati globus. Vendar pa ni nikoli odmeval pri gledalcih televizije in je bil leta 2016 preklican.

& aposKoda Črna & apos

Lowe se je jeseni 2016 vrnil na male zaslone z drugo sezono Koda črna, ki je medicinski drami vbrizgal drugo dimenzijo kot vojaško presaditev, ki je na novo prišla z bojišča. Istega leta je prevzel vlogo  voice  Simbe v animirani seriji Levja straža, ki se je predvajala do konca leta 2019.  

& apos Datoteke Lowe & apos

Leta 2017 sta se Lowe in njegovi sinovi v seriji A+E potopili v svet resničnostne televizije Datoteke Lowe, ki beleži njihova tekaška potovanja in raziskovanja v nerazrešene skrivnosti. Igralec se je naslednje leto še naprej premikal na novo ozemlje, tokrat je prvič prevzel mesto režiserja in apossa v televizijskem remakeu filma iz leta 1956 Slabo seme.

& aposMentalni samuraj, & apos & apos9-1-1: Lone Star & apos

Zaseden v letu 2019 je Lowe vodil predstavo Mentalni samuraj in zaigrala v kratkotrajnem Divji Bill, kot ameriški presaditelj, najet kot glavni policist mesta v Lincolnshireju v Angliji. Leto je zaključil s sodelovanjem s Kristin Davis v romantični komediji Netflix Počitnice v divjini, pred odprtjem leta 2020 z glavno vlogo v postopkovni seriji Fox 9-1-1: Osamljena zvezda.  


Vsebina

Sheree se je s kolesom odpeljala v bližnji mlečni bar, kjer jo je ugrabil Robert Lowe, učitelj nedeljske šole, cerkveni starešina in potujoči prodajalec. [5] [6]

Lowe je očitno ciljal na Sheree, ker jo je že večkrat videl samo. Možna razlaga za pomanjkanje nadzora je bila, da je bila Sheree večkrat premeščena med skrbništvo nad materjo in skrbništvo nad starši in materami po očetu. [3]

Po ugrabitvi je več prič povedalo, da so videle moškega srednjih let, ki je vozil avto z "otrokom v stiski". [4] [1]

Lowe je imel v preteklosti zločine z otroki. Pred Shereejevim umorom je imel več kaznivih dejanj zaradi nedostojne izpostavljenosti, namenjenih mladim dekletom. [4]

Mesece po umoru je obiskal psihoterapevta, ker je imel zakonske težave. Njegova terapevtka Margaret Hobbs je sčasoma začela sumiti, da je vpleten v umor Sheree. Lowe je dal sumljive izjave in dejal, da se ne spomni, kje je bil na dan, ko je Sheree umrla, in da se mu zdi, da se mu približuje policija.

Policija je po ugrabitvi opravila razgovor z Lowejem, kasneje pa so posneli nekaj njegovih sej s Hobbsom (sprva brez njene vednosti). Po obvestilu o posnetku ji je Hobbs dal dovoljenje za več snemanja, saj so jo motile Lowejeve izjave. [4]

Tisti, ki so zastopali Loweja med njegovim sojenjem, so nasprotovali načinu pridobivanja posnetih dokazov na njegovih terapevtskih sejah s Hobbsom. Zatrdili so, da so posnetki kršili politiko zaupnosti. Sodišče je to zavrnilo in prišlo do soglasja, da so dokazi ustrezni za zaščito javnosti. [4]

Hobbs je izjavil, da je Lowe razpravljal o več sumljivih podrobnostih, povezanih s Shereejevim umorom. Takšne izjave so se nanašale na željo po "izgradnji alibija" in na posledice priznanja krivde za umor. Lowe je aprila 1992 nazadnje izjavil, da je Sheree peljal v svojem avtomobilu in jo ročno zadavil. [4] Med sojenjem je priznal svojo krivdo. Rekel je, da je "zadušil dekle". [5] Lowe je bil nato obsojen zaradi ugrabitve in umora ter obsojen na dosmrtni zapor in 15 let brez pogojnega izpusta. [7] [8]

Potem ko je bil Lowe poslan v zapor zaradi umora Sheree, je izjavil, da je nedolžen. Avgusta 2014 je zapisal, da verjame, da ga organi pregona uporabljajo kot grešnega kozla, ker niso našli tistih, ki so odgovorni za zločin. Policija in družina žrtev tega nista verjela in sta rekla, da sta "trpela" zaradi njegovih trditev. [5] [9]

Po obsodbi Loweja je njegova psihoterapevtka Margaret Hobbs začela pisati knjigo na podlagi svojih izkušenj. Umrla je v prometni nesreči leta 1996, njeno knjigo je kasneje dokončal in izdal Andrew Rule. [3] [10]

Lowe naj bi bil vpleten v veliko otroško pornografijo, ki je bila tihotapljena v zapor, v katerem je bil zaprt. Menijo, da so bile osebe, ki so obiskale zapornike, vir tega gradiva. [11]


Rob Lowe razmišlja o zloglasnem škandalu, ki mu je spremenil življenje: 'Treznilo me je '

Škandal s snemalnimi posnetki Roba Loweja iz leta 1988 je skoraj končal njegovo kariero, vendar ga še vedno imenuje "najboljša stvar, ki se mi je kdaj zgodila." ZDA ZDA DANES

Rob Lowe je v svojem karierno ogroženem škandalu iz poznih 80-ih našel srebrno podlogo.

Posneto spolno srečanje med Demokratično državno konvencijo leta 1988 je bilo predstavljeno med nastopom 55-letne zvezde v oddaji SiriusXM "The Jess Cagle Show". Leta 1989 se je igralec filma "St. Lowe je zanikal, da bi vedel, da je deklica mladoletna, poročata CBS News in Yahoo.

Danes Lowe o incidentu govori z lahkotnim tonom.

"Težava je bila v tem, da od tega nisem zaslužil tako kot vsi zdaj. Bil sem preveč neumen," je rekel z nasmehom.

Kim Kardashian se je prvič poročila in posnela seks trak na ekstazi

Rob Lowe na fotoklicu za televizijsko oddajo & quotWild Bill & quot na televizijskem festivalu v Monte-Carlu 17. junija 2019. (Foto: VALERY HACHE, AFP/Getty Images)

Lowe pravi, da svoje življenje delno dolguje preizkušnjam.

"To je eden od razlogov, zakaj sem se treznil," je dejal. "Nekega dne sem se zbudil in si rekel: 'Kaj počnem s svojim življenjem?'

"Ljudje govorijo o tem, jaz pa rečem:" Mislim, da je to najboljše, kar se mi je kdaj zgodilo, "je nadaljeval. "Iskreno, imam, ker me je to streznilo. Trezen me je poročil. Poročen sem bil 29 let in imam dva odlična sinova. Mislim, da se nič od tega ne zgodi, ne da bi šel skozi ta škandal. Resnično ne. "

Lowe se je leta 1990 treznil, maja pa je na Instagramu praznoval 29 let.

"Hvala vsem tistim, ki ste me navdihnili na tej čudoviti, zahtevni in življenjsko spreminjajoči se poti," je napisal fotografijo svojega mlajšega sebe. "Če se vi ali nekdo, ki ga poznate, spopadate z alkoholom ali zasvojenostjo, je MOŽDA prihodnost upanja, zdravja in sreče. In to pride vsak dan naenkrat. #Recovery #ItWorks."

Ko je razmišljal o svojih zgodnjih zmagah, je Lowe za Cagle povedal: "Ni odličen recept za uspeh, če bi 18-letnemu moškemu dal slavo, denar, droge in pričakoval, da ne bo kaj narobe."

Sinova Roba Loweja 'živita, da bi ga trolovala' na Instagramu in to jemlje kot "oče"

Rob Lowe izpadanje las princa Williama imenuje "travmatična izkušnja" dobi velik odziv


Zgodovina Lowe's Companies, Inc.

Lowe's Companies, Inc., je drugi največji trgovec na drobno v Združenih državah (zaostaja za The Home Depot, Inc.), ki ima približno 6 odstotkov trga za izboljšanje doma v vrednosti 700 milijard dolarjev, prav tako pa je sedmi največji trgovec na drobno v ZDA. Več kot 1.250 Lowejevih trgovin v 49 državah (z izjemo Vermonta) služi strankam, ki jih naredijo sami, tako imenovanim naročnikom, ki uporabljajo storitve namestitve v trgovinah, in komercialnim strankam, vključno s poklicnimi izvajalci, električarji, krajinarji, slikarji in vodovodarji. Lowe's se opira na dve prototipni trgovini, različico s 117.000 kvadratnimi čevlji, namenjeno večjim metropolitanskim trgom, in model s 94.000 kvadratnimi čevlji, primeren za majhne in srednje velike trge. Povprečni Lowe's nosi 40.000 izdelkov za okrasitev doma, vzdrževanje, popravila, preoblikovanje in gradnjo. Na stotine tisoč jih je na voljo prek posebnih naročil. Lowe's ponuja storitve namestitve v več kot 40 kategorijah izdelkov, največ prodajo pa tla, mlinarstvo ter kuhinjske omare in pulti. Takšne storitve ustvarijo približno 6 odstotkov vseh prihodkov družbe.

Leta 1921 je L. S. Lowe odprl trgovino s strojno opremo v mestecu North Wilkesboro, Severna Karolina, pod imenom Hardware North L. Wilkesboro, g. L. S. Lowe. Po njegovi smrti je posel prevzel njegov sin James Lowe. James Lowe in njegov svak Carl Buchan sta med drugo svetovno vojno služila v ameriški vojski, v tem obdobju pa sta podjetje vodila Lowejeva sestra in mati.

Ko je bil Buchan leta 1943 ranjen in odpuščen iz vojske, se je vrnil v North Wilkesboro, da bi pomagal upravljati podjetje Lowe s strojno opremo. Leta 1946 je Buchan v trgovini imel 50 -odstotni delež. Buchan je hitro razprodal velik del zaloge v trgovini. Nato je reorganiziral trgovino, ki je postala prodajalka strojne opreme in gradbenega materiala na debelo.

Ko je bil Lowe odpuščen iz vojske, se je vrnil, da bi Buchanu pomagal pri poslovanju. Odprla sta drugo trgovino in z dobičkom kupila avtomobilsko trgovino in živinsko farmo. Leta 1952 je Buchan svoje interese v teh dveh podjetjih zamenjal za Lowejevo zanimanje za njuni trgovini. Tri mesece kasneje je Buchan odprl tretjo trgovino v Ashevilleu v Severni Karolini. Tudi leta 1952 je bilo podjetje ustanovljeno kot podjetje Lowe's North Wilkesboro Hardware, Inc. Od leta 1952 do 1959 je Buchan razširil poslovanje, prodaja pa se je povečala s 4,1 milijona dolarjev na 27 milijonov dolarjev. Gradbeni razcvet po drugi svetovni vojni je bil posel s strojno opremo zelo donosen. Noro povpraševanje po zalogah je pomenilo, da so pogosto prodajali neposredno iz tovornega vagona na železniški progi, ki je vodila ob trgovini. Z nakupom zalog neposredno od proizvajalca se je Lowe's izognil plačilu višjih cen, ki so jih določili veletrgovci, kar je pomenilo nižje cene za kupce. Do leta 1960 je imel Buchan 15 trgovin.

Velik pritisk, da postane glavna sila na trgu gradnje domov, je prišel leta 1960, ko je Buchan umrl in je bil ustanovljen urad predsednika. Družba je leta 1961 postala javna in se je preimenovala v Lowe's Companies, Inc. Čeprav je podjetje raslo in so bile dodane nove lokacije, je bila postavitev trgovin v bistvu enaka: majhno maloprodajno nadstropje z omejenimi zalogami in lesa v bližini železnice skladbe. Večina strank Loweja so bili izvajalci in gradbena podjetja. Do poznih šestdesetih let je imel Lowe's več kot 50 trgovin, prodajne številke pa so se gibale okrog 100 milijonov dolarjev.

Približno v tem času se je rastoči trg z lastnimi rokami začel spreminjati obraz gradbene industrije. Naraščajoči stroški nakupa hiše ali prenove hiše s strani strokovnjaka so pripeljali več lastnikov stanovanj, da so se sami lotili gradbenih projektov. Domači centri so postajali sodobna različica sosedske trgovine s strojno opremo. Hkrati je na trgu stanovanjske gradnje prihajalo do občasnih padcev, vodstvo Lowe pa je začelo opažati, da se njihove prodajne številke gibljejo navzgor in navzdol v skladu s stanovanjskimi trendi.

Kljub nihanjem na stanovanjskem trgu pa so se prihodki Loweja povečali s 170 milijonov dolarjev leta 1971 na več kot 900 milijonov dolarjev do leta 1979 (ko je bilo v verigi več kot 200 trgovin). To je v veliki meri posledica Lowejevega programa financiranja, ki je lokalnim gradbenikom pomagal pri pridobivanju posojil, usklajeval načrte gradnje z zvezno stanovanjsko upravo (FHA), nato pa je izvajalcem pomagal izpolniti vladne obrazce in usposobil gradbena podjetja za gradnjo hiš, odobrenih s strani FHA.

Ko se je pozneje v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja novogradnja skoraj ustavila, se je Lowe's odločil, da bo ciljal na potrošnike. Vodstvena skupina je menila, da bi povečanje prodaje potrošnikom zmanjšalo ranljivost podjetja v času gospodarske in sezonske krize. Leta 1980 se je število stanovanj zmanjšalo, čisti dobiček Lowe pa se je zmanjšal za 24 odstotkov. Med preučevanjem zgodovine trgovin, ki so bile narejene sami, ki so se prodajale izključno potrošnikom, je Lowejeva ugotovila, da so te trgovine beležile močno prodajo tudi v času padcev pri gradnji hiš.

Robert Strickland je k Loweju prišel svež s poslovne šole Harvard. Vztrajno se je vzpenjal med vrstami, Strickland je leta 1978 prišel na mesto predsednika upravnega odbora in z novoimenovanim predsednikom Lowea Leonardom Herringom močno spodbudil odločitev o privabljanju potrošnikov. Z zlahka prepoznavno kratico RSVP (pomeni maloprodajo, količino in dobiček) se je Lowe lotil nove trženjske strategije. Za preoblikovanje razstavnih prostorov je bil najet svetovalec, rezultat pa je bil podoben kot v supermarketu. Sezonske izdelke, na primer kosilnice, so postavili pred trgovino. Vzorec prometa je kupce pritegnil v oddelek za notranjo opremo, nato pa se premaknil v zadnji del trgovine, kjer so bili razstavljeni tradicionalni materiali strojne opreme. Teorija tega vzorca prometa pravi, da se večina potrošnikov lahko osredotoči na osnove, vendar s sprehodom po drugih oddelkih na koncu kupi več. Trgovina v Morgantonu v Severni Karolini je bila prva lokacija, prenovljena po načrtu RVSP.

V drugem vidiku preoblikovanja so bile fotografije v velikosti plakata, ki prikazujejo Lowejevo blago, kot bi bilo videti v potrošnikovem domu, uporabljene za identifikacijo oddelkov in ne oznak z črkami. Posodobljene so bile linije izdelkov, podaljšane ure in povečano oglaševanje. Strategija, ki je delovala do leta 1982, je dosegla milijardo dolarjev, in ko je leta 1983 ta številka dosegla 1,43 milijarde dolarjev, je to pomenilo, da je Lowe prvič zaslužil več denarja s prodajo potrošnikom kot izvajalcem.

Eden od vidikov načrta RSVP, ki ni deloval, je bil Wood World, razširitev prodajnega prostora v en dolg zaliv skladišča lesa. Protipožarni predpisi so zahtevali namestitev dragih požarnih sten in vrat, ideja pa je bila kmalu odpravljena. Plošče in druge lesne izdelke so nato razprodali v prodajnem prostoru z ostalim blagom.

Premik v skladišča v slogu skladišča

Do poznih osemdesetih se je maloprodajna scena v Združenih državah znova spremenila in začela se je doba skladišč "velikih škatel". Home Depot, Inc. je vodil v sektorju za izboljšanje doma in njegova agresivna širitev svojih 105.000 kvadratnih metrov velikih trgovin za izboljšanje doma je hitro preselila napredovalca mimo Loweja in drugih konkurentov na prvo mesto. Lowe's je medtem v proračunskem letu 1989 presegel mejo 300 trgovin, vendar so bile te trgovine v povprečju komaj več kot 20.000 kvadratnih čevljev. Podjetje je leta 1988 odprlo nekaj večjih enot, med drugim trgovino s 60.000 kvadratnimi čevlji v Knoxvilleu v Tennesseeju, enoto s 40.320 kvadratnimi čevlji v Booneju v Severni Karolini in trgovino s 60.480 kvadratnimi čevlji v North Chattanoogi v Tennesseeju, vendar se nobeden ni približal velikosti domačega skladišča. Lowe je tudi nekoliko prilagodil svoje linije izdelkov, saj so se razširila področja osnovnih potrošniških dobrin-strojna oprema, orodje, barve, vodovodne instalacije, oprema za dom in stereo oprema, medtem ko so bili obrobni predmeti, kot so oprema za vadbo, kolesa in kopalno perilo, ki so imeli v zadnjem desetletju postopoma odpravili.

Leta 1989 se je Lowe's uradno preusmeril iz verige malih trgovin v verigo velikih trgovin v slogu skladišča, pri čemer se je podjetje v celoti zavezalo tej spremembi leta 1991. V tem letu je podjetje prevzelo stroške za prestrukturiranje v višini 71,3 milijona dolarjev. za pospešitev verižne pretvorbe. Dajatev je pokrila stroške zaprtja, selitve in prenove približno polovice trgovin družbe v obdobju od leta 1991 do 1995. V štiriletnem prestrukturiranju se je velikost novih ali prenovljenih trgovin povečala za 45.000 kvadratnih metrov. stopala do 85.000 do 115.000. Največja velikost naj bi bila rezervirana za Lowejeve prodajalne, zgrajene na večjih trgih, kot je Greensboro, Severna Karolina, medtem ko je na manjših trgih podjetje tradicionalno služilo Lowejevim, ki so sčasoma želeli zgraditi enote s 100.000 kvadratnimi čevlji. Vse večje trgovine so imele ogromne vrtne centre, velike do 30.000 kvadratnih čevljev. Na splošno naj bi Lowe ustvaril večjo prodajo od potrošnikov, hkrati pa še naprej služil izvajalcem. Prav tako je še naprej prodajala glavne aparate in elektroniko za dom (vključno z opremo za pisarno v domu, ki je bila mešanici dodana leta 1994), dve kategoriji običajno nista na voljo v trgovinah Home Depot.

Od leta 1991 do 1993 se je podjetje skoraj izključno osredotočilo na prestrukturiranje in naredilo le skromne korake širitve, pri čemer so se prvič uveljavili v Marylandu, Indiani in Illinoisu. Čeprav je v tem obdobju veriga dodala le pet trgovin, se je skupna površina zemljišča povečala z 8,02 milijona v letu 1991 na 14,17 milijona v letu 1993, kar se je povečalo s 26.000 povprečnih kvadratnih metrov na 45.500. V letih 1994 in 1995 je Lowe's dodal še 54 trgovin, s čimer se je skupno povečalo na 365, na svoje ozemlje pa so dodale zvezne države Iowa, Michigan in Oklahoma. Tudi leta 1995 se je podjetje začelo agresivno širiti v Teksasu, od dveh trgovin leta 1994 do 23 trgovin leta 1996. Lowe's se je razširil tudi v zvezno državo New York leta 1996 in v Kansas leta 1997. Medtem se je avgusta 1996 Herring upokojil in kot predsednik in izvršni direktor je nasledil Robert L. Tillman, ki je bil glavni operativni direktor. Tillman je bil januarja 1998 imenovan tudi za predsednika.

Do leta 1996 je bilo več kot 400 trgovin Lowe v povprečju več kot 75.000 kvadratnih čevljev na enoto. Od objave prestrukturiranja leta 1991 se je prodaja skoraj potrojila in se je s 3,1 milijarde USD povečala na 8,6 milijarde USD. Čisti zaslužek je leta 1996 dosegel rekordnih 292,2 milijona dolarjev. Z več kot 70 odstotki svojih trgovin, ki so zdaj "velike škatle", se je sredi devetdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja Lowe's začel bolj osredotočati na širitev na novo ozemlje, s ciljem doseči mejo 600 trgovin do stoletja. -konec. V letu 1997 je Lowe's odprl še 42 trgovin. Med njimi je Lowe's vključil preizkus svojih prvih trgovin na mestnem trgu, Dallas, na katerem je bil Home Depot že utrjen. Kljub konkurenci so trgovine v Dallasu presegle začetna pričakovanja za 20 odstotkov, od takrat pa je Lowe's začel rasti tako na velikih metropolitanskih območjih kot na bolj tradicionalnih malih in srednje velikih trgih.

Da bi pripomogli k širitvi, je Lowe zgradil šest novih distribucijskih centrov velikosti milijon kvadratnih metrov po vsej državi. Ti centri so podprli nadaljnjo geografsko širitev, vključno z načrtom za 1,5 milijarde dolarjev, ki je bil uveden leta 1998 za izgradnjo več kot 100 novih trgovin v zahodnih ZDA. Med začetnimi trgi so bili Los Angeles, San Diego, Las Vegas, Phoenix in Tucson, Arizona. Lowejeva zahodna širitev se je pospešila z nakupom družbe Eagle Hardware & Garden, Inc. aprila 1999 v zamenjavi delnic v vrednosti približno 1,34 milijarde dolarjev. Eagle s sedežem v Rentonu v Washingtonu je upravljal 38 velikih trgovin za pohištvo v desetih zahodnih državah in imel prihodke v višini skoraj milijardo dolarjev. Trgovine Eagle so postopoma preimenovali pod ime Lowe.

By the end of 1999 the Lowe's store count had reached 550, and its revenues of $15.45 billion made it the 15th largest retailer in the country. In 2000 another 75 stores were added, and the company revamped its web site into a major e-commerce site. Early the following year, Lowe's rolled out its first national television advertising campaign, using the tag line, "Improving Home Improvement," and touting itself as cleaner, better organized, and better lit than the warehouse competition (implying, without naming, Home Depot). The campaign's themes were consistent with Lowe's push to attract female consumers, a strategy that a number of analysts considered a key to the company's success Lowe's catered to women because company research found that females made the vast majority of home improvement decisions. The drive to create a nationwide chain also continued with the launch of a $1.3 billion, five-year move into the Northeast, where Lowe's aimed to open more than 75 stores ranging from Philadelphia to Maine, with 25 alone in the Boston area. The first New York City store opened in the spring of 2001. Late in 2002 Lowe's announced further plans to open more than 60 stores in the New York metropolitan area and northern New Jersey. In 2003 the company introduced a smaller prototype format measuring 94,000 square feet that was designed for smaller, mainly rural markets. A 116,000-square-foot store continued to be the prototype for larger markets.

During the fiscal year ending in January 2005, Lowe's store count passed the 1,000 mark. At the end of the fiscal year, Tillman stepped down from his position as chairman and CEO, having led the company through an amazing period of growth. Between 1996 and 2004, revenues quadrupled, from $9.06 billion to $36.46 billion, while profits jumped sevenfold, from $310 million to $2.18 billion. Lowe's was the 11th largest retailer in the country. Taking on the daunting task of filling Tillman's shoes was Robert Niblock, who had joined Lowe's in 1993 and served as company president since 2003.

Rather than slowing, growth accelerated under the new leader, as no fewer than 150 new Lowe's opened during fiscal 2005, including the first stores in New Hampshire, the 49th state to join the company ranks. A like number or slightly more units were planned to be added over the next two years, toward an eventual total of between 1,800 and 2,000. At the same time, Lowe's was seeking to spur growth by increasing revenues derived from three areas: special orders, installation services, and commercial customers such as contractors, professional tradespeople, and property management professionals. In June 2005 the company announced plans to move into the Canadian market, aiming to open as many as ten stores in the Toronto area during 2007. Expansion into other international markets was under study. As Lowe's posted another record year in fiscal 2005, profits of $2.77 billion on revenues of $43.24 billion, one possible cloud on the horizon was a cooling of what had been a red-hot housing market, which had the potential to precipitate a concomitant downturn in the home improvement industry.

Lowe's Home Centers, Inc. Lowe's HIW, Inc.

The Home Depot, Inc. Menard, Inc. True Value Company Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Ace Hardware Corporation Sears, Roebuck and Co.


Ahead of tonight’s IHR Parliaments, Politics and People seminar we hear from Professor Jon Parry of Cambridge University who spoke at our special Parliaments, Politics and People seminar marking UK Parliament Week (‘One person, multiple votes: university constituencies and the electoral system, 1868-1950’). He discusses the history of the University of London and its first MP, Robert Lowe, who represented the constituency between 1868 and 1880.

150 years ago, at the general election of 1868, the graduates of the University of London were grouped into a parliamentary constituency and elected their first MP, Robert Lowe. This University seat had been created by the 1867 Reform Act. The main aim of that Act was to enfranchise the bulk of urban working men it more than doubled the number of people able to vote in Great Britain, and heightened fears of democracy. The creation of an additional seat to represent one of the major Universities of the country was a small measure to offset this democratic trend. It was a gesture to signify that graduates – men of learning and wisdom – should have a specific voice in the House of Commons. The Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin had returned their own MPs since the seventeenth century, but they all had close links to the Established Church. The University of London was much more in tune with the spirit of the mid-Victorian age.

The University had been set up by the government in 1836 as a degree-giving body. It was funded by the state through an annual parliamentary grant, and run by a Senate appointed by the Home Office. For the improvement-minded whigs and utilitarians who ran the governments of the 1830s, it was a model for how higher education might develop in the future. It had three great principles:

  • Intellectual excellence and breadth
  • A lack of religious exclusions and distinctions
  • National and potentially global reach

Intellectual excellence was to be achieved through rigorous exams. The University ran bachelors’ degrees in Arts, Law, Medicine and, starting in 1860, Science, plus higher degrees in Law and Medicine. However it was not a teaching body at all it was an examining board of ‘persons eminent in literature and science’. Colleges outside of London could also apply for affiliation so that their students could take its degrees, and from 1858 students (except in medicine) could enter for degrees without being at an approved college at all. Degree exams were deliberately designed to set a high intellectual bar that would raise the standards of all the institutions that taught the students, many of which were provincial colleges run by Dissenters and Roman Catholics.

The examinations were open to anyone, irrespective of religion. This marked London out from its three rivals in England, Oxford, Cambridge and Durham their degrees were only open to those willing to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England. The exclusiveness, expense and complacency of Oxbridge was widely criticised by reformers in the 1830s, and though the government did not feel able to tamper with it, it hoped by example to create a new norm for higher education. In its petition of 1853 to be granted a seat in parliament, the Senate of the University boasted of its connections with vse the theological, medical and general collegiate institutions in the country, razen those associated with the Established Church. It also claimed that its tough exams had had the effect of broadening the narrow theological curricula of the Dissenting and Catholic colleges affiliated to it, implying that the same had not necessarily happened at Oxbridge.

The London based University College, King’s College, and Highbury College, and Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, were some of the many institutions affiliated with the University of London (University of London Almanac, 1846, from N. Harte, The University of London, 1836-1986: An Illustrated History (1986))

Many of these affiliated colleges eventually developed into the civic universities of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, such as Manchester, Nottingham and Leicester. Moreover in 1865, 1866 and 1867 the University started to offer its degree courses to candidates sitting them abroad, in Mauritius, Gibraltar and Canada. In addition, the idea of one central and tough examining board, setting standards for affiliated colleges of all types and religious persuasions, seemed an attractive liberal model for other pluralistic societies. It was exported to Ireland in 1850, with the foundation of the Queen’s University, and to India in 1857 when Universities were established on this basis in each of the old Presidencies of Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. In the House of Commons in 1867 Robert Lowe, its future MP, pointed out that London was ‘metropolitan and cosmopolitan, extending its influence more and more every day all over the world’.

Lowe was elected unopposed as the first representative of the University at the 1868 election. Though some others had originally sought the nomination, including the journalist Walter Bagehot (a London graduate), Lowe emerged as the clear front-runner because he was a politician of national standing, known for his defence of intellectual excellence, and of the value of examinations. He appealed to Liberals for his anti-clerical views, and to the more conservative elements of the constituency (mainly the medical graduates) for his high-profile opposition to democracy. Through his outspoken speeches in the Commons in 1866 and 1867 opposing the extension of the franchise to working-men, Lowe had become a celebrity – and had also made himself unelectable for a populous constituency. He and the new University seat were thus made for each other.

Robert Lowe, ‘Statesmen, No. 4’, by Carlo Pellegrini, Vanity Fair, 27 February 1869, (c) NPG

Lowe was committed to all the defining principles of the University, particularly the lack of tests and the separation of teaching from examining. After he graduated from Oxford and made an impulsive marriage he could not get a college fellowship and became very critical of its complacent culture. His most famous policy initiatives featured examinations. In 1862 as education minister, in what was seen as an attack on Church schools, he brought in the rule that examinations in the ‘3 Rs’ (reading, writing and arithmetic) should be used to measure the quality of teaching in elementary schools for funding purposes. In 1870 he was responsible for the introduction of competitive examinations into most of the civil service. In 1873 he was among the strongest advocates of the principle of a national examining board in Ireland, as created by the Gladstone government’s ill-fated Irish University bill, believing that it would improve and liberalise the teaching obtained by the Catholic middle classes.

Lowe was one of the major advocates of the idea of an enlightened, disinterested civil service. ‘The cause of true progress’, he wrote, could only be promoted ‘by pure and clear intelligence’. In his acceptance speech as the University’s MP in 1868 he urged the introduction into newly democratised Britain of some constitutional ‘safety valves’ – including allowing some civil servants the right to be life senators with seats in the House of Lords. One other reason why he was such a strong candidate for the University constituency was because of his popularity in the London medical colleges. This was the result of his work as health minister after 1859 in strengthening the powers of the medical department of the Privy Council and its secretary John Simon, who then built up a powerful and subsidised vaccination inspectorate.

For all his dislike of popular pressure on government, Lowe remained a Liberal throughout the twelve years that he represented the University – before getting a peerage in 1880. At the 1874 election the Conservative leader Benjamin Disraeli criticised Lowe and his fellow cabinet ministers in Gladstone’s retiring government for ‘harassing’ the country, which he claimed wanted peace and rest, not endless reforming legislation. Lowe responded by declaring his support for ‘harassing’ legislation: it had created the University of London and had attacked vested interests like Oxbridge and all other ‘persons and institutions which held privileges adverse to the general welfare’. He prophesied that the institution that he represented, which had ‘had to fight so hard a battle against obstruction, custom, and prejudice’, would never approve of Disraeli’s ‘inert and sluggish principles’. This was a safe bet – he was re-elected unopposed.

Our next seminar takes place at the IHR on 27 November at 17:15 in N202, when Dr Glen McKee, University of Buckingham, will be speaking on Standing orders and precedents in the Irish House of Commons in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries


Lowe, Robert (1811–1892)

Ta članek je bil objavljen leta Avstralski slovar biografije, Volume 2, (MUP), 1967

Robert Lowe (1811-1892), politician, was born on 4 December 1811 at Bingham, Nottinghamshire, England, the second son of Rev. Robert Lowe, prebendary of Southwell and rector of Bingham, and his wife Ellen, née Pyndar. An albino with defective vision, he led a sheltered childhood. When at 14 he was sent to Winchester, he suffered deeply from boyish ridicule of his physical peculiarities. In June 1829 he matriculated at University College, Oxford (B.A., 1833 M.A., 1836), where he made a name for himself as a scholar and as a speaker in Union debates. In 1835 he was awarded a fellowship at Magdalen, and enrolled at Lincoln's Inn. On 26 March 1836 he married Georgiana, second daughter of George Orred of Tranmere, Cheshire, and Aigburth Hall, Lancashire, and relinquished both his fellowship and plans for a legal career. In the years that followed he became one of Oxford's most successful private tutors, but he willingly left the drudgery of teaching in 1840 to return to Lincoln's Inn. In January 1842, when at the Bar, his eyesight had become so poor that doctors warned he would go blind within seven years. He resolved thereupon that in the seven allotted years of light he would seek his fortune in Australia.

Lowe arrived in Sydney on 8 October 1842 and nine days later was admitted to practise in the New South Wales Supreme Court. During the court recess in December and January severe headaches and a painful nervous tic of the eyes caused him again to seek the advice of doctors, who told him to give his eyes absolute rest otherwise he might not only go blind but endanger his life. For the next nine months Lowe restlessly toured country districts with his wife. In October 1843 he decided to risk his eyes by resuming practice, but in those days of deep economic depression briefs were few. Governor Sir George Gipps lent a sympathetic ear and early in November, when he needed support in the Legislative Council, named Lowe as an unofficial nominee. From that vantage point Lowe was able to defend the government's position by voicing his deepest convictions: his belief in a policy of laissez faire and his faith in the utilitarian tenet that the only innovations desirable were those that would bring about better government. His first speeches electrified the chamber as he attacked radical measures which Richard Windeyer and William Charles Wentworth had proposed to meet the economic crisis. Lowe himself proposed that imprisonment for debt be abolished, a suggestion that was adopted by the council in diluted form in December 1843.

His brief success in the council bore fruit and, although the depression had worsened, his voice was heard regularly in the courts. In February 1844 he undertook the defence of John Knatchbull, a convict who had senselessly murdered a young woman shopkeeper. Lowe's plea was novel for his time: that insanity of the will could exist apart from insanity of the intellect. He argued that Knatchbull had yielded to an irresistible impulse and could not be held responsible for his crime. The court, however, ruled otherwise. The Lowes subsequently adopted the murdered woman's two young children, Bobby and Polly Jamieson.

In March 1844 Gipps, confronted with large expenses for immigration, presented the Executive Council with a draft of squatting regulations that would raise the needed revenue. To Lowe, Gipps's move seemed incompatible with constitutional government. 'The power over the purse vested in the Legislature was perfectly useless', he was to declare, 'if the Government had at its entire command another resource derivable from the people, which it could raise without limit, and without reference to the assent or dissent of their representatives'. Simultaneous with his first major difference with the governor on public policy, there sprang up between them a private misunderstanding over the guest list at Government House, a dispute that contributed to the rupture of their friendship. In mid-March Lowe cast about for a constituency in Port Phillip, only to be rebuffed because, ironically, he was considered likely to support Gipps even from an elective seat.

Towards the end of April Lowe joined the Pastoral Association of New South Wales, which had been formed to combat the new squatting regulations. Gipps, angered by Lowe's desertion, sought to remove him from the council, but Lowe refused to relinquish his seat until he had completed a report on popular education, which recommended a state-supported, non-denominational system of schools. The council agreed to this suggestion, but Gipps, influenced by the strong protests of the Anglican bishop, by increasing ill health, and by personal bitterness towards his recalcitrant council, refused to carry out the council's recommendations. In the years that followed Lowe pursued the matter until, in 1847, Governor Sir Charles FitzRoy sanctioned the beginnings of a National school system.

After his resignation from the council in August 1844 Lowe, with the backing of the Pastoral Association, launched on 30 November a weekly journal, the Atlas, the declared purpose of which was to lobby for responsible government and for colonial control of colonial waste lands. 'This is the colony', Lowe wrote, 'that's under the Governor, that's under the Clerk, that's under the Lord, that's under the Commons, who are under the people, who know and care nothing about it'. During the first half year of publication he filled the pages of the Atlas with scathing articles and poems as public duties came to occupy more of his time, he gradually relinquished control of the paper, until in 1847 he severed all connexion with it.

In April 1845 he returned to the Legislative Council. When news of the new land orders arrived in 1847, Lowe delivered five major speeches in which, with passionate sincerity, he disparaged the squatters' aims. In 1847 and 1849 he produced two masterful committee reports refuting the Wakefieldian theory of a high minimum price of land and advocating colonial control of colonial waste lands.

During his philippics on the land question in 1847 Lowe made his first direct appeal for popular support. In January 1848 when a Constitution involving indirect elections was proposed, he enhanced his popularity by an eloquent plea at a public meeting for passive resistance to any departure from the time-honoured principles of the British Constitution. At the general elections in June 1848 he was nominated by a committee of tradesmen for one of Sydney's two seats in the Legislative Council, and on 30 July was returned a close second to Wentworth in what the secretary of his election committee, (Sir) Henry Parkes, termed 'the birthday of Australian democracy'. In the following year, having come to believe that without convict labour the squatters could not succeed in their designs for land aggrandizement, Lowe was one of the leaders of popular resistance to an attempt of the British government to renew transportation. In June 1849, standing on the roof of an omnibus at Circular Quay, with the convict ship Hashemy anchored near by, he told the crowd: 'The injustice forced upon the Americans is not half so great as that forced upon this colony'. The British government made no further attempt to renew transportation to Sydney.

At the hustings in 1848 Lowe had expressed faith in the common people, provided they were educated, but he remained inalterably opposed either to class legislation or to manhood suffrage. He refused to join the Constitutional Association, a working class political organization which had grown out of the committee that had engineered his election. He also refused to help Sydney's unemployed to obtain relief from the government. But perhaps his crowning apostasy in the eyes of the working class was his support of the bounty immigration bill, which would have required assisted immigrants who subsequently left the colony to repay to the government the cost of their passage from Britain. When Lowe in November 1849, on account of his wife's increasing homesickness and ill health, unexpectedly announced his intended departure for England, there were few regrets, although his political supporters expressed annoyance at having to undergo the expense of another election. On 27 January 1850 the Lowes and the two Jamieson children sailed for home.

After a brief tour of the northern circuit Lowe, in August 1850, accepted an offer from a former pupil of his at Oxford, John Delane, editor of Časi, to join the paper's staff as a leader writer. For the next seventeen years, Lowe contributed an average of three leading articles a week, his last appearing in January 1868.

In July 1852 he entered parliament for the borough of Kidderminster. A series of appointments of increasing importance followed: joint secretary of the Board of Control, December 1852–January 1855 vice-president of the Board of Trade and paymaster-general August 1855–March 1858 vice-president of the committee of the Council on Education, June 1859–April 1864 chancellor of the Exchequer, December 1869–August 1873 Home secretary, August 1873–February 1874. While out of office in 1855, he strongly opposed the passing of the Australian Constitution bills as measures designed to help the squatters keep their monopoly of land. At the Board of Trade he brought in legislation that allowed joint stock companies to adopt the principle of limited liability. On the Education Committee, he introduced the revised code regulations in 1862 which provided for 'payment by results'. In 1864 he resigned office after charges that inspectors' reports had been unduly censored, charges of which the House subsequently exonerated him. Again out of office, in 1865 he led the opposition to extension of the borough franchise and next year to Lord John Russell's mild reform bill over which he managed to split his party and cause the fall of the government. As leader of what Bright called the political 'cave of Adullam', he was offered a post in the new Derby ministry, but refused. In 1867 he fought desperately to defeat the Tories' far-reaching reform bill. Although he failed, he so dominated the House of Commons by force of intellect, eloquence and conviction that he was spoken of as a future prime minister. After the passage of the 1867 Reform Act, he urged that greater attention be paid to the question of popular education. 'We must educate our masters' is a phrase attributed to him at this time. In 1868 he gave strenuous support towards the disestablishment of the Irish Church, and on 9 December 1868 entered Gladstone's cabinet as chancellor of the Exchequer. His first budgets were considered brilliant in four years he took £12,000,000 off taxation and removed the last vestige of duty on corn, but after 1871 his finance came increasingly under criticism. In 1873 he was transferred to the Home Office where he remained until the Gladstone ministry fell in 1874. In 1876 in a speech at East Retford attacking the royal titles bill, Lowe tactlessly intimated that the Queen herself had been responsible for the bill's introduction. When the Liberals returned to power in 1880, Victoria made it clear that any ministry that included Lowe would be unacceptable to her. Lowe's active political life ended with his elevation to the House of Lords as Viscount Sherbrooke on 25 May 1880. Failing memory and near-blindness contributed to his political eclipse.

Georgiana Lowe, who had been ill for many years, died in November 1884 in February 1885, Lowe married Caroline, daughter of Thomas Sneyd of Ashcombe Park, Staffordshire. There were no children of either marriage. Lowe died at Warlingham, Surrey, on 27 July 1892. Among the honours he received were: Hon. LL.D. Edinburgh, 1867 Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1870 member of the senate of London University trustee of the British Museum fellow of the Royal Society G.C.B., 30 June 1885.

A man of great intellect and integrity with a commanding power of eloquence, he was impatient of the lack of these qualities in others. Arrogant and inflexible, he did not bend to meet changing circumstances nor would he compromise with principle conciliation was a word unknown to him. The effect of his efforts on the course of Australian political development was to broaden the base of its democracy, whereas in England he strove to maintain the narrow base of the reformed parliament of 1832. The seeming contradiction lay not in his attitude but in the differences in circumstances in the colony and the mother country. In the crucial decade of the 1840s in New South Wales no other single figure stands out more vividly both as antagonist to Gipps and the British government and as protagonist in the struggle for responsible government.

Izberite Bibliografija

  • R. Lowe (Viscount Sherbrooke), Speeches and Letters on Reform (Lond, 1867)
  • A. P. Martin, Life and Letters of the Right Honourable Robert Lowe, Viscount Sherbrooke, vols 1-2 (Lond, 1892)
  • W. A. Gardner (Baroness Burghclere) ed., A Great Lady's Friendships (Lond, 1933)
  • Zgodovina časa, vol 2 (Lond, 1939)
  • A. Briggs, Victorian People (Lond, 1954)
  • R. L. Knight, Illiberal Liberal: Robert Lowe in New South Wales, 1842-1850 (Melb, 1966).

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