19. december 1943

19. december 1943


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

19. december 1943

Decembra 1943

1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031
> Januar

Vzhodna fronta

Nemški protinapad je sovjetsko 2. ukrajinsko fronto potisnil 12 milj nazaj



19. december 1943 - Zgodovina

Prva svetovna vojna
Zahodna fronta
Rovovski boj: 1914-1916

Zavezniška ofenziva: 1916

Zavezniške ofenzive: 1917

Nemška ofenziva: 1918

Napredek do zmage: 1918

The Italijanska kampanja je bila ena večjih kampanj, ki so jih Kanadčani vodili med drugo svetovno vojno. Kanadski vojaki so služili v Italiji od 10. julija 1943 do pomladi 1945.

Italijanska kampanja je vključevala kanadsko udeležbo v več pomembnih obdobjih delovanja

Italijanska kampanja

Sicilija je bila prva akcija, v kateri so Kanadčani prispevali k oblikovanju divizije. Zavezniške operacije na otoku so bile izpostavljene številnim kritikam, ki so trajale 38 dni po prvih izkrcanjih 10. julija 1943, da so otok zavzele, večina nemških sil na otoku pa je v varnem prečkala celino. Kljub temu je bitka omogočila tako moškim kot poveljnikom kanadske vojske, da pridobijo bojne izkušnje, po vseh podatkih pa so se kanadski vojaki (1. kanadske pehotne divizije in 1. tankovske brigade kanadske vojske) odlično odrezali naloge, ki so jim bile dodeljene. Politično je bitka končala uradno zavezništvo Italije z Nemčijo. Italijanski voditelj Benito Mussolini je bil odstavljen konec julija. V začetku septembra, po invaziji na italijansko celino, se je Italija hitro predala, zaradi česar je nemški vdor v državo nadaljeval boj, na severu pa je bila ustanovljena fašistična marionetna država.


18. DECEMBER

2016 Peta harmonija objavlja, da je Camila Cabello zapustila skupino. Kot četverica se povezujejo, ime Cabello pa se obdrži kar dobro, saj je leta 2018 pristalo na prvem mestu s "Havano".

2014 Larry Henley (pevec pop skupine 60 -ih The Newbeats) umre v starosti 77 let po Alzheimerjevi in ​​Parkinsonovi bolezni. Scenarist leta 1989 je napisal uspešnico "The Wind Beneath My Wings".

Pisec pesmi 2012 Earl Shuman vloži tožbo zaradi kršitve avtorskih pravic proti pevki Alicii Keys, češ da njen top 20 singel "Girl On Fire" zveni preveč kot Shumanova pesem iz leta 1970 "Lonely Boy", ki jo je Eddie Holman posnel kot "Hey There Lonely Girl" . " Obleka je glede podrobnosti nekoliko nejasna, očitno pa gre za nekaj zapiskov, ki sta se kasneje odločila Keys in Shuman.

2011 One Direction so odigrali svojo prvo predstavo, ki je nastopila v Watford Colosseumu v Londonu. Ne gre dobro. "Bili smo samo šala," pravi Niall Horan.

2011 Ralph MacDonald, tolkalist in tekstopisec, ki je sestavil uspešnice "Where Is the Love" (Roberta Flack/Donny Hathaway) in "Just The Two Of Us" (Bill Withers/Grover Washington Jr.), je v starosti umrl zaradi pljučnega raka 67.

2004 T.I. je bil aretiran zaradi obdolžitve tretjega leta v treh letih. Oblasti preiščejo njegov dom in najdejo orožje z dušilcem zvoka, več nabojev in fotografije raperja, ki ravna z orožjem. Po objavi obveznice v višini 3 milijone dolarjev je postavljen v hišni pripor.

2001 Billie Eilish se je rodila v Los Angelesu. V sodelovanju z bratom Finneas komponira svoj prvenec, nagrajen z grammyjem, Ko vsi zaspimo, kam gremo?, ki izide leta 2019, ko bo stara 17 let.

2000 Britansko pevko Kirsty MacColl, hčerko Ewana MacColla, pri 41 -letnem potapljanju v Cozumelu v Mehiki ubije propeler čolna.

1980 izide Paul McCartney McCartney III. Na albumu je samostojna zasedba, ki igra na vse inštrumente in piše vse pesmi, kar je delal tudi v predzgodbah, McCartney leta 1970 in McCartney II leta 1980.

1972 DJ Lethal (iz Limp Bizkit, House of Pain) se je rodil Leor Dimant v Rigi v Latviji in se sčasoma naselil v New Yorku.

1972 Začne se snemanje Boba Dylana Pat Garrett in Billy the Kid.

1972 Dokumentarni film T. Rexa, režira Ringo Starr, Rojen pri Boogieju, premiera v Oscarjevem kinu na Brewer Street, Soho (UK). Prisotni so Starr, člani T. Rexa in Elton John.

1970 Rapper DMX se je rodil Earl Simmons v Mount Vernon, New York. Umetniško ime je vzel po bobnarskem stroju Oberheim DMX, instrumentu, ki ga je uporabljal kot najstnik.

Leta 1970 je odšel guverner segregacijske skupine Georgia Lester Maddox Razstava Dick Cavett ko gostitelj misli, da so njegovi podporniki fantje. Randy Newman o tem napiše pesem "Rednecks", ki se začne: Sinoči sem v televizijski oddaji videl Lesterja Maddoxa

1965 štabni narednik Barry Sadler posname "Balado o zelenih baretkah".


Viktorijanski božič - zgodovina božiča

Božič, ki ga danes praznujemo, izvira iz viktorijanske Britanije.

Težko si je predstavljati, a v začetku 19. stoletja se božič skoraj ni praznoval. Mnoga podjetja tega sploh niso smatrala za praznik. Vendar je do konca stoletja postalo največje vsakoletno praznovanje in je dobilo obliko, ki jo poznamo danes.

Preobrazba se je zgodila hitro in je prišla iz vseh družbenih slojev.

Victoria in Albert sta se z otroki zbrala okoli božičnega drevesca.

Mnogi pripisujejo spremembo kraljici Viktoriji, prav poroka z nemško rojenim princem Albertom pa je predstavila nekatere najpomembnejše vidike božiča. Leta 1848 je Ilustrirane londonske novice je objavil risbo kraljeve družine, ki praznuje okoli okrašenega božičnega drevesa, tradicijo, ki je spominjala na otroštvo princa Alberta v Nemčiji. Kmalu je imel vsak dom v Veliki Britaniji drevo s svečami, sladkarijami, sadjem, domačimi okraski in majhnimi darili.

Leta 1843 je Henry Cole naročil umetniku, naj oblikuje voščilnico za božič. Ilustracija prikazuje skupino ljudi okoli jedilne mize in božično sporočilo. Za enega šilinga so bili ti za navadne Viktorije dragi in zato niso bili takoj dostopni. Vendar se je razpoloženje ohranilo in veliko otrok - vključno s kraljico Viktorijo - so spodbudili k izdelavi lastnih božičnih voščilnic. V tem času industrializacije je tehnologija barvnega tiska hitro napredovala, kar je povzročilo znatno znižanje cene proizvodnje kartic. Skupaj z uvedbo polovičnega denarja je porasla industrija božičnih voščilnic. Do osemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja je pošiljanje kartic postalo zelo priljubljeno, kar je ustvarilo donosno industrijo, ki je samo leta 1880 proizvedla 11,5 milijona kartic. Komercializacija božiča je bila na dobri poti.

Tradicionalni viktorijanski krekerji

Drugo komercialno božično industrijo so nosili Viktorijci leta 1848, ko je britanski slaščičar Tom Smith izumil pogumen nov način prodaje sladkarij. Navdihnjen s potovanjem v Pariz, kjer je zagledal bonbone - sladkorne mandlje, zavite v zvitke papirja - se mu je porodila ideja o božičnem krekerju: preprostem paketu, napolnjenem s sladkarijami, ki so se raztrgali, ko so ga raztrgali. Slaščice so v poznem viktorijanskem obdobju nadomestili majhna darila in papirnati klobuki in v tej obliki ostajajo bistveni del sodobnega božiča.

Okrasitev doma ob božiču je postala tudi bolj zapletena zadeva. Srednjeveška tradicija uporabe zimzelenih rastlin se je nadaljevala, vendar sta slog in postavitev teh okraskov postala pomembnejša. Po starem običaju je bilo preprosto pokriti stene in okna z vejicami in vejicami. Spodbujali so se enotnost, red in eleganca. Obstajala so navodila, kako izdelati sintetične okraske za tiste, ki prebivajo v mestih. Leta 1881 Cassellova družinska revija dajala hišnim gospam stroga navodila: "Da bi ustvarili splošen občutek užitka, je veliko odvisno od okolice ... Vredno je dati nekaj težav pri dekoriranju prostorov".

Obdarovanje je bilo tradicionalno v novem letu, a se je premaknilo, ko je božič za Viktorije postal pomembnejši. Sprva so bila darila precej skromna - sadje, oreški, sladkarije in majhne ročno izdelane drobnarije. Te so običajno obesili na božično drevo. Ker pa je obdarovanje postalo vse bolj osrednje za festival, darila pa so postala večja in jih je bilo mogoče kupiti v trgovini, so se preselili pod drevo.

Božični praznik ima korenine že pred srednjim vekom, vendar se je v viktorijanskem obdobju začela oblikovati večerja, ki jo zdaj povezujemo z božičem. Pregled zgodnjih viktorijanskih receptov je pokazal, da so bile mlete pite sprva narejene iz mesa, kar je tradicija iz časov Tudorjev. Vendar pa je v 19. stoletju prišlo do revolucije v sestavi te praznične jedi. Mešanice brez mesa so postale priljubljene v nekaterih višjih slojih družbe in so postale mlete pite, ki jih poznamo danes.

Pečen puran ima svoje začetke tudi v viktorijanski Britaniji. Prej so bile druge oblike pečenega mesa, kot sta govedina in gos, osrednji del božične večerje. Purana so temu dodali bogatejši sloji skupnosti v 19. stoletju, vendar je zaradi svoje popolne velikosti za družinsko srečanje srednjega razreda do začetka 20. stoletja postal prevladujoča jed.

Medtem ko pesmi za Viktorije niso bile nove, so to tradicijo aktivno oživljali in popularizirali. Viktorijci so menili, da so kolednice čudovita oblika glasbene zabave in užitek, ki ga je vredno gojiti. Stare besede so bile prepevane v novo melodijo, prva pomembna zbirka pesmi pa je bila objavljena leta 1833, da so jo lahko vsi uživali.

Viktorijci so tudi zamisel o božiču preoblikovali, tako da se je osredotočil na družino. Priprava in uživanje pogostitve, okraski in obdarovanje, zabava in družabne igre - vse to je bilo bistveno za praznovanje festivala in jih je morala deliti vsa družina.

Čeprav Charles Dickens ni izumil viktorijanskega božiča, je njegova knjiga Božična pesem je zaslužen za pomoč pri popularizaciji in širjenju tradicije festivala. Njegove teme družine, dobrodelnosti, dobre volje, miru in sreče vsebujejo duh viktorijanskega božiča in so zelo del božiča, ki ga praznujemo danes.


V ozračju histerije druge svetovne vojne je predsednik Roosevelt, ki so ga spodbudili uradniki na vseh ravneh zvezne vlade, odobril internacijo več deset tisoč ameriških državljanov japonskega porekla in tujcev z Japonske. Rooseveltov izvršni ukaz 9066 z dne 19. februarja 1942 je vojski podelil široka pooblastila, da vsakemu državljanu prepove obalno območje široko od petdeset do šestdeset milj, ki se razteza od zvezne države Washington do Kalifornije in sega v notranjost do južne Arizone. Ukaz je tudi dovoljeval prevoz teh državljanov v zbirna središča, ki jih je na hitro ustanovila in upravljala vojska v Kaliforniji, Arizoni, zvezni državi Washington in Oregonu. Čeprav ni dobro znano, so isti izvršni ukaz (in drugi ukazi in omejitve v času vojne) veljali tudi za manjše število prebivalcev Združenih držav, ki so bili italijanskega ali nemškega porekla. Na primer, aretiranih je bilo 3200 tujcev rezidentov italijanskega porekla, več kot 300 pa jih je bilo interniranih. Približno 11.000 nemških prebivalcev, vključno z nekaterimi naturaliziranimi državljani, je bilo aretiranih, več kot 5000 pa je bilo interniranih. Kljub temu, da so ti posamezniki (in drugi iz teh skupin) hudo kršili svoje državljanske svoboščine, so bili vojni časi, ki so veljali za japonske Američane, slabši in bolj obsežni, iztrgali so celotne skupnosti in ciljali na državljane in tujce.

Pooblastitev vojnega sekretarja za predpisovanje vojaških območij

Medtem ko uspešno preganjanje vojne zahteva vso možno zaščito pred vohunjenjem in pred sabotažami materiala za nacionalno obrambo, prostorov za nacionalno obrambo in pripomočkov za nacionalno obrambo, kot je opredeljeno v oddelku 4 zakona z dne 20. aprila 1918, 40 Stat. 533, kakor je bil spremenjen z zakonom z dne 30. novembra 1940, 54 Stat. 1220 in zakon z dne 21. avgusta 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (USC, naslov 50, oddelek 104)

Zdaj na podlagi pooblastil, ki sem jih imel kot predsednik Združenih držav in vrhovni poveljnik vojske in mornarice, s tem pooblaščam in usmerjam vojaškega sekretarja in vojaške poveljnike, ki jih občasno lahko kadar koli ali kateri koli imenovani poveljnik meni, da je takšno dejanje potrebno ali zaželeno, določi vojaška območja na takšnih mestih in v takšnem obsegu, kot ga lahko določi on ali ustrezni vojaški poveljnik, iz katerega je mogoče izključiti katero koli ali vse osebe, in glede na ki za pravico katere koli osebe do vstopa, bivanja ali odhoda veljajo kakršne koli omejitve, ki jih lahko po svoji presoji naloži vojni sekretar ali ustrezni vojaški poveljnik. Vojni sekretar je s tem pooblaščen, da po presoji vojnega sekretarja ali omenjenega vojaškega poveljnika zagotovi prebivalcem katerega koli takega območja, ki so od tam izključena, prevoz, hrano, zavetišče in druge nastanitvene objekte, ki bodo morda potrebni dokler se ne sprejmejo drugi dogovori, da se doseže namen tega ukaza. Določitev vojaških območij v kateri koli regiji ali kraju bo nadomestila označbo prepovedanih in omejenih območij s strani generalnega državnega tožilca v skladu z razglasitvami z dne 7. in 8. decembra 1941 ter nadomestila odgovornost in pooblastila generalnega državnega tožilca v skladu z omenjenimi razglasitvami glede prepovedanih in omejenih območij.

S tem dodatno pooblaščam in usmerjam vojnega sekretarja in omenjene vojaške poveljnike, da sprejmejo druge ukrepe, za katere se mu ali njegovemu ustreznemu vojaškemu poveljniku zdi primerno uveljaviti skladnost z omejitvami, ki veljajo za vsako zgoraj pooblaščeno vojaško območje, vključno z uporabo zveznih enot in drugih zveznih agencij, ki so pooblaščene, da sprejmejo pomoč državnih in lokalnih agencij.

S tem dodatno pooblaščam in usmerjam vse izvršilne oddelke, neodvisne ustanove in druge zvezne agencije, da pomagajo vojaškemu sekretarju ali omenjenim vojaškim poveljnikom pri izvajanju tega izvršnega ukaza, vključno z zagotavljanjem medicinske pomoči, hospitalizacijo, hrano, oblačili, prevozom, rabo zemljišč, zavetišč in drugih potrebščin, opreme, komunalnih storitev, objektov in storitev.

Ta odredba se ne sme razlagati kot spreminjanje ali omejevanje pooblastil, ki so bila doslej podeljena v skladu z Izvršno odredbo št. 8972, z dne 12. decembra 1941, niti ne omejuje ali spreminja dolžnosti in odgovornosti Zveznega preiskovalnega urada, glede preiskave domnevnih sabotažnih dejanj ali dolžnosti in odgovornosti generalnega državnega tožilca in pravosodnega ministrstva v skladu z razglasitvami z dne 7. in 8. decembra 1941, ki predpisujejo predpise za ravnanje in nadzor nad tujimi sovražniki, razen kot dolžnost odgovornost pa nadomešča določitev vojaških območij v nadaljevanju.


Srečne stvari za konje:

V primerjavi z drugimi horoskopskimi znaki so ljudje s kitajskim horoskopskim znakom konj bolj živahni, energični, pogumni in navdušeni nad ljudmi in življenjem. Ne skrivajo pa čustev in njihova čustva se bodo zlahka pokazala na obrazu. Toda to ne vpliva na njihovo veliko priljubljenost med ljudmi in ni čudno, da se jih večina rada pridruži družabnim dejavnostim.

  • Prednosti: Navdihnjen, vesel, nadarjen, zaznaven, inteligenten in priljubljen v družabnem krogu
  • Slabosti: Preveč ambiciozen, preveč samozavesten in včasih preveč sofisticiran
  • Moški konji: Živahni konjeniki na ljudi vedno pustijo vtis, da so polni energije. Še več, odločni so in redko oklevajo, zaradi česar pridobijo veliko priložnosti. Z močnim občutkom za pravičnost konjeniki ne prenašajo greha in z veseljem ponujajo pomoč šibkim. Vendar pa zapravljajo denar in radi plačujejo račune za prijatelje.
  • Ženske konji: Ženske konje so med ljudmi izjemne ne le zato, ker imajo lepo postavo, ampak tudi zaradi elegantnega in modnega kodeksa oblačenja. Imajo svoj življenjski slog in so strokovnjaki za upravljanje časa. Posledično lahko dobro uskladijo svojo kariero in družino. Prav tako so ljubitelji narave, ki radi hodijo ven.
  • Osebnost po petih elementih: Katera vrsta konja ste?
    Ljudje, rojeni v različnih letih konja, lahko pokažejo različne osebnosti glede na pet elementov: les, ogenj, zemljo, kovino in vodo. O vašem elementu bodo odločala leta rojstva in preverite spodnjo tabelo, če želite izvedeti vaš tip in lastnosti.
Vrste Leta rojstva Osebnostne lastnosti
Lesni konj 1906, 1966 Domišljijski, opazovalni, zaznavni, rojeni vodja in odločevalec.
Ognjeni konj 1918, 1978 Inteligentna, strastna, energično občutljiva na oblačenje in modo.
Zemeljski konj 1930, 1990 Optimističen, z močnim občutkom za pravičnost, tipičen izvajalec.
Kovinski konj 1910, 1970 Frank po naravi, ki ne prihrani truda, da bi pomagal prijateljem, ima hiter jezik.
Vodni konj 1942, 2002 V službi premišljen, požrtvovan in ambiciozen.
  • Konj in osebnost po krvnih skupinah
    & bull Krvna skupina O: Konji s krvno skupino O so rojeni optimisti, ki radi sklepajo prijateljstva in vodijo živahno življenje. Zaradi strahu pred soočanjem z izzivi in ​​pritiski pa o prihodnosti govorijo ležerno in nimajo jasnih načrtov ali ciljev v življenju.
    & bull bull Krvna skupina A: So aktivni, samozavestni in včasih lahko zelo preprosti. Pri delu so praktični in visoko učinkoviti. Če spoznate nekoga, ki jim ne more slediti, lahko postanejo nestrpni.
    & bull bull Krvna skupina B: Ti ljudje so živahni, odzivni in polni strasti do življenja. Upajo na prihodnost in pogosteje vidijo pozitivne plati stvari. Poleg tega so konje pravi pionirji v modi.
    & bull Krvna skupina AB: S prefinjenim značajem se lahko dobro ujemajo z večino ljudi, drugi pa jih redko marajo. Niso besedni, lahko pa v nekaj besedah ​​podajo zelo praktične informacije. Čeprav so modri in inteligentni, se ne marajo pokazati.
  • Najboljše tekme: Tiger, Ovce, Zajec
    Konj je včasih lahko zelo trmast, vendar lahko upošteva nasvet Tiger & rsquos in lahko postane čudovit par. Zaradi živahnega značaja konja se težko razumejo z razdražljivimi ljudmi, zato lahko vzpostavijo harmoničen odnos z dobro razpoloženo ovco. Za Konj je zajec prijatelj in partner.
  • Slabe tekme: podgana, vol, petelin, konj
    Konj ljubi svobodo in hrepeni po zunanjem svetu, medtem ko je Podgana družinsko usmerjena, zato bodo različne vrednote povzročile veliko nesoglasij. Konj tudi težko sklene kompromis, ko je z Bikom, Petelinom in Konjem, zaradi česar težko postaneta drug drugemu dobra partnerja.

Konji ne marajo dolgočasnega življenja in njihova življenja so polna veselja. Tako jih bodo pritegnili le inovativni in zanimivi ljudje. Ko se družite s konji, je občasno zelo pomembno ustvarjanje romantičnega vzdušja, za krepitev odnosa pa bodo v veliko pomoč tudi nekaj sladkih ljubezenskih besed. Vendar pa je tabu za konja v zvezi laž. Poskusite ostati pristni, saj Konj res sovraži laži, tudi bele.

  • Najboljša delovna mesta: Pustolovci, pisatelji, arhitekti, poslovneži, izvajalci, podjetniki, znanstveniki, umetniki, politiki, kritiki, vodniki.

Na splošno je večina konj v dobrem zdravstvenem stanju. Ko so mladi, so energični, poskočni in dinamični. Dolgoročno vznemirljiv, a nezdrav način življenja lahko prinese nekaj potencialnih tveganj za zdravje. Na primer, da se pozno zadržujejo, lahko oslabi imunski sistem, nepravilna prehrana pa lahko povzroči tudi bolezni prebavil.

Konji bi morali zdaj bolj skrbeti za svoje zdravje. Za mlade konje se držite redne in uravnotežene prehrane ter zavrnite nekatere nočne zabave, kar bo dober način za ohranjanje zdravja. Za konje srednjih let se naučite pobegniti od težkega dela. Vzemite si nekaj časa za pravilno vadbo in počitek.


19. december 1943 - Zgodovina

PRAVICE ŽEN. Skozi večino zgodovine so imele ženske na splošno manj zakonskih pravic in poklicnih možnosti kot moški. Žena in materinstvo sta veljala za najpomembnejša poklica žensk. V 20. stoletju pa so ženske v večini držav osvojile volilno pravico in povečale svoje možnosti izobraževanja in zaposlitve. Morda najpomembnejše, borili so se in v veliki meri dosegli ponovno vrednotenje tradicionalnih pogledov na svojo vlogo v družbi.

Zgodnji odnos do žensk

Že od nekdaj so na ženske edinstveno gledali kot na ustvarjalen vir človeškega življenja. V zgodovini pa niso veljali le za intelektualno manjvredne od moških, ampak tudi kot glavni vir skušnjave in zla. V grški mitologiji je bila na primer ženska, Pandora, ki je odprla prepovedano škatlo in prinesla kuge in nesrečo človeštvu. Zgodnje rimsko pravo je ženske opisovalo kot otroke, za vedno slabše od moških.

Zgodnjekrščanska teologija je te poglede ohranila. Sveti Jeronim, latinski oče krščanske cerkve iz 4. stoletja, je rekel: "Ženska so vrata hudiča, pot hudobnosti, pik kače, z eno besedo nevaren predmet." Tomaž Akvinski, krščanski teolog iz 13. stoletja, je dejal, da je bila ženska "ustvarjena za pomoč moškim, vendar je njena edinstvena vloga pri spočetju ... ker bi za druge namene moškim bolje pomagali drugi moški."

Odnos do žensk na vzhodu je bil sprva ugodnejši. Na primer v starodavni Indiji ženskam s poroko niso bile odvzete lastninske pravice ali individualne svoboščine. Toda hinduizem, ki se je v Indiji razvil po približno 500 pr.n.št., je zahteval poslušnost žensk do moških. Ženske so morale hoditi za svojim možem. Ženske niso mogle imeti lastnine, vdove pa se niso mogle ponovno poročiti. Tako na vzhodu kot na zahodu so bili moški otroci prednost pred ženskimi.

Kljub temu, ko jim je bila dovoljena osebna in intelektualna svoboda, so ženske dosegle pomembne dosežke. V srednjem veku so nune igrale ključno vlogo v verskem življenju Evrope. Aristokratske ženske so uživale moč in ugled. Na celotna obdobja so vplivale ženske vladarice, na primer angleška kraljica Elizabeta v 16. stoletju, ruska Katarina Velika v 18. stoletju in angleška kraljica Viktorija v 19. stoletju.

Šibkejši spol?

Ženske so dolgo veljale za naravno šibkejše od moških, skromne in nezmožne opravljati dela, ki zahtevajo mišični ali intelektualni razvoj. V večini predindustrijskih družb so na primer gospodinjska opravila prepustila ženskam, tako da je "težje" delo, kot sta lov in oranje, prepustila moškim. To ni upoštevalo dejstva, da skrb za otroke in opravljanje nalog, kot sta molža krav in pranje oblačil, zahtevata tudi težko in trajno delo. Toda fiziološki testi zdaj kažejo, da imajo ženske večjo toleranco za bolečino, statistike pa kažejo, da ženske živijo dlje in so bolj odporne na številne bolezni.

Materinstvo, naravna biološka vloga žensk, se tradicionalno obravnava tudi kot njihova glavna družbena vloga. Nastali stereotip, da je "žensko mesto v domu", je v veliki meri določil načine izražanja žensk. Danes sta kontracepcija in na nekaterih področjih legaliziran splav ženskam omogočila večji nadzor nad številom otrok, ki jih bodo rodili. Čeprav so ti dogodki ženske osvobodili drugih vlog, razen materinstva, kulturni pritisk, da ženske postanejo žene in matere, še vedno mnogim nadarjenim ženskam preprečuje dokončanje fakultete ali poklicno pot.

Tradicionalno se je deklica srednjega razreda v zahodni kulturi na zgledu svoje mame naučila, da je kuhanje, čiščenje in skrb za otroke vedenje, ki se od nje pričakuje, ko odraste. Preizkusi, opravljeni v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, so pokazali, da je šolski uspeh deklet v zgodnjih razredih višji kot v srednji šoli. Glavni razlog je bil, da so se lastna pričakovanja deklet zmanjšala, ker niti njihove družine niti učitelji niso pričakovali, da se bodo na poroko in materinstvo pripravili na prihodnost. Ta trend se je v zadnjih desetletjih spreminjal.

Uradno izobraževanje za dekleta je bilo v preteklosti sekundarno od dečkov. V kolonialni Ameriki so se dekleta naučila brati in pisati v ženskih šolah. Lahko bi obiskovali magistrske šole za dečke, ko je bilo prostora, običajno poleti, ko je večina fantov delala. Konec 19. stoletja pa se je število študentk močno povečalo. Z vzponom ženskih šol in sprejemom žensk na redne fakultete in univerze se je visoko izobraževanje še povečalo. Leta 1870 je bila po ocenah ena petina študentk in študentk stalnega prebivališča žensk. Do leta 1900 se je delež povečal na več kot tretjino.

Ženske so v začetku 20. stoletja pridobile 19 odstotkov vseh univerzitetnih diplom. Do leta 1984 se je ta številka močno povečala na 49 odstotkov. Število žensk se je povečalo tudi na podiplomskem študiju. Do sredine osemdesetih let so ženske zaslužile 49 odstotkov vseh magisterij in približno 33 odstotkov vseh doktoratov. Leta 1985 je bilo približno 53 odstotkov vseh študentk žensk, od tega več kot četrtina starejših od 29 let.

Pravni položaj žensk

Mit o naravni manjvrednosti žensk je močno vplival na položaj zakoncev. Po splošnem pravu Anglije bi lahko bila neporočena ženska lastnica premoženja, sklenila pogodbo ali tožila in bila tožena. Toda poročena ženska, ki je opredeljena kot eno z možem, se je odrekla svojemu imenu in skoraj vse njeno premoženje je bilo pod moževim nadzorom.

V zgodnji zgodovini Združenih držav je moški skoraj imel v lasti svojo ženo in otroke, medtem ko je imel svoje materialno premoženje. Če se je reven moški odločil, da svoje otroke pošlje v ubožnico, je bila mati pravno brez obrambe, da bi ugovarjala. Nekatere skupnosti pa so spremenile splošno pravo, da bi ženskam omogočile, da delujejo kot odvetnice na sodiščih, da tožijo za premoženje in da imajo lastništvo v svojem imenu, če se njihovi možje s tem strinjajo.

Pravo lastništva, ki se je razvilo v Angliji, je poudarjalo načelo enakih pravic in ne tradicije. Pravo lastništva je imelo liberalizacijski učinek na zakonske pravice žensk v Združenih državah. Na primer, ženska bi lahko tožila svojega moža. Mississippi leta 1839, nato New York leta 1848 in Massachusetts leta 1854, so sprejeli zakone, ki poročenim ženskam dovoljujejo, da imajo v lasti premoženje ločeno od moža. V zakonu o razvezi pa je na splošno ločeni mož ohranil pravni nadzor nad otroki in premoženjem.

V 19. stoletju so ženske začele v velikem številu delati zunaj svojih domov, zlasti v tekstilnih tovarnah in trgovinah z oblačili. V slabo prezračenih, prenatrpanih prostorih so ženske (in otroci) delali kar 12 ur na dan. Velika Britanija je leta 1847 sprejela deset urni zakon za ženske in otroke, vendar so v ZDA šele leta 1910 začele sprejemati zakonodajo, ki omejuje delovni čas in izboljšuje delovne pogoje žensk in otrok.

Sčasoma pa so nekateri od teh delovnih zakonov omejevali pravice delavk. Na primer, zakoni, ki ženskam prepovedujejo delati več kot osem ur na dan ali ponoči, so ženskam dejansko preprečevali opravljanje številnih delovnih mest, zlasti nadzornih, kar bi lahko zahtevalo nadurno delo. Zakoni v nekaterih državah prepovedujejo ženskam dvigovanje uteži nad določeno količino, ki se giblje od samo 15 kilogramov (7 kilogramov), ženskam pa spet ni dovoljeno opravljati številnih delovnih mest.

V šestdesetih letih je bilo sprejetih več zveznih zakonov, ki izboljšujejo gospodarski položaj žensk. Zakon o enakih plačah iz leta 1963 je zahteval enake plače za moške in ženske, ki opravljajo enako delo. Zakon o državljanskih pravicah iz leta 1964 je prepovedal diskriminacijo žensk s strani katerega koli podjetja z 25 ali več zaposlenimi. Predsedniški izvršni ukaz iz leta 1967 je prepovedal pristranskost žensk pri zaposlovanju pogodbenih delavcev zvezne vlade.

Toda diskriminacija na drugih področjih je obstajala. Številne maloprodajne trgovine poročenim ženskam ne izdajajo neodvisnih kreditnih kartic. Ločene ali samske ženske so pogosto težko pridobile kredit za nakup hiše ali avtomobila. Zakoni, ki se nanašajo na blaginjo, kriminal, prostitucijo in splav, kažejo tudi pristranskost do žensk. V primeru morebitne kršitve pravice ženske do zasebnosti je bila na primer mati, ki je prejemala državna socialna nadomestila, pogosto preiskana, da bi preverila svojo zahtevo po socialni pomoči. Diskriminacija po spolu pri opredelitvi kaznivih dejanj je obstajala na nekaterih območjih Združenih držav. Ženska, ki je ustrelila in ubila svojega moža, bi bila obtožena umora, toda ustrelitev njene žene po ženi bi lahko označili kot "streljanje iz strasti". Šele leta 1968, na primer, so sodišča v Pensilvaniji razveljavila državni zakon, ki je zahteval, da se vsaka ženska, obsojena zaradi hudega kaznivega dejanja, obsodi na najvišjo kazen, ki jo določa zakon. Prostitucije so bile pogosto preganjane, čeprav je bilo moškim strankam dovoljeno, da gredo na prosto. V večini držav je bil splav zakonit le, če je bilo ocenjeno, da je življenje matere fizično ogroženo. Leta 1973 pa je vrhovno sodišče Združenih držav odločilo, da države ne morejo omejiti pravice ženske do splava v prvih treh mesecih nosečnosti.

Vse do 20. stoletja so ženske v zahodnoevropskih državah živele pod številnimi enakimi pravnimi ovirami kot ženske v Združenih državah. Na primer, do leta 1935 poročene ženske v Angliji niso imele popolne pravice do lastništva in sklenitve pogodb na enak način kot neporočene ženske. Šele po letu 1920 je bila sprejeta zakonodaja, ki zaposlenim ženskam zagotavlja zaposlitvene možnosti in enake plače kot moški. Šele v zgodnjih šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja je bil sprejet zakon, ki je izenačil lestvice plač za moške in ženske v britanski javni službi.

Ženske pri delu

V kolonialni Ameriki so ženske, ki so same preživljale življenje, običajno postale šivilje ali hranile penzione. Nekatere ženske pa so delale v poklicih in na delovnih mestih, ki so na voljo večinoma moškim. Tam so bile ženske zdravnice, odvetnice, pridigarke, učiteljice, pisateljice in pevke. Do začetka 19. stoletja pa so bili sprejemljivi poklici za zaposlene ženske omejeni na tovarniško delo ali delo v gospodinjstvu. Ženske so bile izključene iz poklica, razen pisanja in poučevanja.

Zdravniška stroka je primer spremenjenega odnosa v 19. in 20. stoletju do tega, kar je veljalo za primerno delo za ženske. Pred 18. stoletjem skoraj ni bilo medicinskih šol in skoraj vsaka podjetna oseba se je lahko ukvarjala z medicino. Dejansko je porodništvo bilo področje žensk.

Od 19. stoletja se je zahtevna izobraževalna priprava, zlasti za medicinsko prakso, povečala. To je mnogim mladim ženskam, ki so se zgodaj poročile in rodile veliko otrok, preprečilo vstop v poklicno kariero. Čeprav je zdravstvena nega na domu veljala za pravi ženski poklic, so nego v bolnišnicah opravljali skoraj izključno moški. Začela se je pojavljati tudi posebna diskriminacija žensk. Na primer, Ameriško zdravniško združenje, ustanovljeno leta 1846, je ženskam prepovedalo članstvo. Prepovedano je tudi obiskovanje "moških" medicinskih fakultet, ženske so se vpisale na primer na žensko medicinsko fakulteto v Pensilvaniji, ki je bila ustanovljena leta 1850. Do leta 1910 pa so ženske obiskovale številne vodilne medicinske šole, leta 1915 pa ameriško Zdravniško združenje je začelo sprejemati ženske članice.

In 1890, women constituted about 5 percent of the total doctors in the United States. During the 1980s the proportion was about 17 percent. At the same time the percentage of women doctors was about 19 percent in West Germany and 20 percent in France. In Israel, however, about 32 percent of the total number of doctors and dentists were women.

Women also had not greatly improved their status in other professions. In 1930 about 2 percent of all American lawyers and judges were women in 1989, about 22 percent. In 1930 there were almost no women engineers in the United States. In 1989 the proportion of women engineers was only 7.5 percent.

In contrast, the teaching profession was a large field of employment for women. In the late 1980s more than twice as many women as men taught in elementary and high schools. In higher education, however, women held only about one third of the teaching positions, concentrated in such fields as education, social service, home economics, nursing, and library science. A small proportion of women college and university teachers were in the physical sciences, engineering, agriculture, and law.

The great majority of women who work are still employed in clerical positions, factory work, retail sales, and service jobs. Secretaries, bookkeepers, and typists account for a large portion of women clerical workers. Women in factories often work as machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors. Many women in service jobs work as waitresses, cooks, hospital attendants, cleaning women, and hairdressers.

During wartime women have served in the armed forces. In the United States during World War II almost 300,000 women served in the Army and Navy, performing such noncombatant jobs as secretaries, typists, and nurses. Many European women fought in the underground resistance movements during World War II. In Israel women are drafted into the armed forces along with men and receive combat training.

Women constituted more than 45 percent of employed persons in the United States in 1989, but they had only a small share of the decision-making jobs. Although the number of women working as managers, officials, and other administrators has been increasing, in 1989 they were outnumbered about 1.5 to 1 by men. Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paid about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues. Many cases before the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 1970 were registered by women charging sex discrimination in jobs.

Working women often faced discrimination on the mistaken belief that, because they were married or would most likely get married, they would not be permanent workers. But married women generally continued on their jobs for many years and were not a transient, temporary, or undependable work force. From 1960 to the early 1970s the influx of married women workers accounted for almost half of the increase in the total labor force, and working wives were staying on their jobs longer before starting families. The number of elderly working also increased markedly.

Since 1960 more and more women with children have been in the work force. This change is especially dramatic for married women with children under age 6: 12 percent worked in 1950, 45 percent in 1980, and 57 percent in 1987. Just over half the mothers with children under age 3 were in the labor force in 1987. Black women with children are more likely to work than are white or Hispanic women who have children. Over half of all black families with children are maintained by the mother only, compared with 18 percent of white families with children.

Despite their increased presence in the work force, most women still have primary responsibility for housework and family care. In the late 1970s men with an employed wife spent only about 1.4 hours a week more on household tasks than those whose wife was a full-time homemaker.

A crucial issue for many women is maternity leave, or time off from their jobs after giving birth. By federal law a full-time worker is entitled to time off and a job when she returns, but few states by the early 1990s required that the leave be paid. Many countries, including Mexico, India, Germany, Brazil, and Australia require companies to grant 12-week maternity leaves at full pay.

Women in Politics

American women have had the right to vote since 1920, but their political roles have been minimal. Not until 1984 did a major party choose a woman Geraldine Ferraro of New York to run for vice-president (see Ferraro).

Jeanette Rankin of Montana, elected in 1917, was the first woman member of the United States House of Representatives. In 1968 Shirley Chisholm of New York was the first black woman elected to the House of Representatives (see Chisholm). Hattie Caraway of Arkansas first appointed in 1932 was, in 1933, the first woman elected to the United States Senate. Senator Margaret Chase Smith served Maine for 24 years (1949-73). Others were Maurine Neuberger of Oregon, Nancy Landon Kassebaum of Kansas, Paula Hawkins of Florida, and Barbara Mikulski of Maryland.

Wives of former governors became the first women governors Miriam A. Ferguson of Texas (1925-27 and 1933-35) and Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming (1925-27) (see Ross, Nellie Tayloe). In 1974 Ella T. Grasso of Connecticut won a governorship on her own merits.

In 1971 Patience Sewell Latting was elected mayor of Oklahoma City, at that time the largest city in the nation with a woman mayor. By 1979 two major cities were headed by women: Chicago, by Jane Byrne, and San Francisco, by Dianne Feinstein. Sharon Pratt Dixon was elected mayor of Washington, D.C., in 1990.

Frances Perkins was the first woman Cabinet member as secretary of labor under President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Oveta Culp Hobby was secretary of health, education, and welfare in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Cabinet. Carla A. Hills was secretary of housing and urban development in Gerald R. Ford's Cabinet. Jimmy Carter chose two women for his original Cabinet Juanita M. Kreps as secretary of commerce and Patricia Roberts Harris as secretary of housing and urban development. Harris was the first African American woman in a presidential Cabinet. When the separate Department of Education was created, Carter named Shirley Mount Hufstedler to head it. Ronald Reagan's Cabinet included Margaret Heckler, secretary of health and human services, and Elizabeth Dole, secretary of transportation. Under George Bush, Dole became secretary of labor she was succeeded by Representative Lynn Martin. Bush chose Antonia Novello, a Hispanic, for surgeon general in 1990.

Reagan set a precedent with his appointment in 1981 of Sandra Day O'Connor as the first woman on the United States Supreme Court (see O'Connor). The next year Bertha Wilson was named to the Canadian Supreme Court. In 1984 Jeanne Sauve became Canada's first female governor-general (see Sauve).

In international affairs, Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed to the United Nations in 1945 and served as chairman of its Commission on Human Rights (see Roosevelt, Eleanor). Eugenie Anderson was sent to Denmark in 1949 as the first woman ambassador from the United States. Jeane Kirkpatrick was named ambassador to the United Nations in 1981.

Three women held their countries' highest elective offices by 1970. Sirimavo Bandaranaike was prime minister of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from 1960 to 1965 and from 1970 to 1977 (see Bandaranaike). Indira Gandhi was prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977 and from 1980 until her assassination in 1984 (see Gandhi, Indira). Golda Meir was prime minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974 (see Meir). The first woman head of state in the Americas was Juan Peron's widow, Isabel, president of Argentina in 1974-76 (see Peron). Elisabeth Domitien was premier of the Central African Republic in 1975-76. Margaret Thatcher, who first became prime minister of Great Britain in 1979, was the only person in the 20th century to be reelected to that office for a third consecutive term (see Thatcher). Also in 1979, Simone Weil of France became the first president of the European Parliament.

In the early 1980s Vigdis Finnbogadottir was elected president of Iceland Gro Harlem Brundtland, prime minister of Norway and Milka Planinc, premier of Yugoslavia. In 1986 Corazon Aquino became president of the Philippines (see Aquino). From 1988 to 1990 Benazir Bhutto was prime minister of Pakistan the first woman to head a Muslim nation (see Bhutto).

In 1990 Mary Robinson was elected president of Ireland and Violeta Chamorro, of Nicaragua. Australia's first female premier was Carmen Lawrence of Western Australia (1990), and Canada's was Rita Johnston of British Columbia (1991). In 1991 Khaleda Zia became the prime minister of Bangladesh and Socialist Edith Cresson was named France's first female premier. Poland's first female prime minister, Hanna Suchocka, was elected in 1992.

Feminist Philosophies

At the end of the 18th century, individual liberty was being hotly debated. In 1789, during the French Revolution, Olympe de Gouges published a 'Declaration of the Rights of Woman' to protest the revolutionists' failure to mention women in their 'Declaration of the Rights of Man'. In 'A Vindication of the Rights of Women' (1792) Mary Wollstonecraft called for enlightenment of the female mind.

Margaret Fuller, one of the earliest female reporters, wrote 'Woman in the Nineteenth Century' in 1845. She argued that individuals had unlimited capacities and that when people's roles were defined according to their sex, human development was severely limited.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a leading theoretician of the women's rights movement. Her 'Woman's Bible', published in parts in 1895 and 1898, attacked what she called the male bias of the Bible. Contrary to most of her religious female colleagues, she believed further that organized religion would have to be abolished before true emancipation for women could be achieved. (See also Stanton, Elizabeth Cady.)

Charlotte Perkins Gilman characterized the home as inefficient compared with the mass-production techniques of the modern factory. She contended, in books like 'Women and Economics' (1898), that women should share the tasks of homemaking, with the women best suited to cook, to clean, and to care for young children doing each respective task.

Politically, many feminists believed that a cooperative society based on socialist economic principles would respect the rights of women. The Socialist Labor party, in 1892, was one of the first national political parties in the United States to include woman suffrage as a plank in its platform.

During the early 20th century the term new woman came to be used in the popular press. More young women than ever were going to school, working both in blue- and white-collar jobs, and living by themselves in city apartments. Some social critics feared that feminism, which they interpreted to mean the end of the home and family, was triumphing. Actually, the customary habits of American women were changing little. Although young people dated more than their parents did and used the automobile to escape parental supervision, most young women still married and became the traditional housewives and mothers.

Women in Reform Movements

Women in the United States during the 19th century organized and participated in a great variety of reform movements to improve education, to initiate prison reform, to ban alcoholic drinks, and, during the pre-Civil War period, to free the slaves.

At a time when it was not considered respectable for women to speak before mixed audiences of men and women, the abolitionist sisters Sarah and Angelina Grimke of South Carolina boldly spoke out against slavery at public meetings (see Grimke Sisters). Some male abolitionists including William Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and Frederick Douglass supported the right of women to speak and participate equally with men in antislavery activities. In one instance, women delegates to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention held in London in 1840 were denied their places. Garrison thereupon refused his own seat and joined the women in the balcony as a spectator.

Some women saw parallels between the position of women and that of the slaves. In their view, both were expected to be passive, cooperative, and obedient to their master-husbands. Women such as Stanton, Lucy Stone, Lucretia Mott, Harriet Tubman, and Sojourner Truth were feminists and abolitionists, believing in both the rights of women and the rights of blacks. (See also individual biographies.)

Many women supported the temperance movement in the belief that drunken husbands pulled their families into poverty. In 1872 the Prohibition party became the first national political party to recognize the right of suffrage for women in its platform. Frances Willard helped found the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (see Willard, Frances).

During the mid-1800s Dorothea Dix was a leader in the movements for prison reform and for providing mental-hospital care for the needy. The settlement-house movement was inspired by Jane Addams, who founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889, and by Lillian Wald, who founded the Henry Street Settlement House in New York City in 1895. Both women helped immigrants adjust to city life. (See also Addams Dix.)

Women were also active in movements for agrarian and labor reforms and for birth control. Mary Elizabeth Lease, a leading Populist spokeswoman in the 1880s and 1890s in Kansas, immortalized the cry, "What the farmers need to do is raise less corn and more hell." Margaret Robins led the National Women's Trade Union League in the early 1900s. In the 1910s Margaret Sanger crusaded to have birth-control information available for all women (see Sanger).

Fighting for the Vote

The first women's rights convention took place in Seneca Falls, N.Y., in July 1848. The declaration that emerged was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, it claimed that "all men and women are created equal" and that "the history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman." Following a long list of grievances were resolutions for equitable laws, equal educational and job opportunities, and the right to vote.

With the Union victory in the Civil War, women abolitionists hoped their hard work would result in suffrage for women as well as for blacks. But the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, adopted in 1868 and 1870 respectively, granted citizenship and suffrage to blacks but not to women.

Disagreement over the next steps to take led to a split in the women's rights movement in 1869. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, a temperance and antislavery advocate, formed the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) in New York. Lucy Stone organized the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) in Boston. The NWSA agitated for a woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, while the AWSA worked for suffrage amendments to each state constitution. Eventually, in 1890, the two groups united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). Lucy Stone became chairman of the executive committee and Elizabeth Cady Stanton served as the first president. Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw served as later presidents.

The struggle to win the vote was slow and frustrating. Wyoming Territory in 1869, Utah Territory in 1870, and the states of Colorado in 1893 and Idaho in 1896 granted women the vote but the Eastern states resisted. A woman-suffrage amendment to the Federal Constitution, presented to every Congress since 1878, repeatedly failed to pass.

Excerpted from Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia
Copyright (c) 1994, 1995 Compton's NewMedia, Inc.


Discover free online learning resources on Australia's Defining Moments Digital Classroom.

Suggest a moment

I would like to see the election of the Gough Whitlam government as a defining moment.

Hvala. The election of the Whitlam government has been on our site for a while: https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/whitlam-election

COVID-19 response and 2019-2020 bushfires across Australia

Thanks, we are working on adding moments for both. Meantime, you might be interested in our Momentous website: https://momentous.nma.gov.au/

19 October 2001: SIEV X asylum seeker boat sinks in Australia's aerial border protection zone, 353 people drowned. There is a memorial to these people in Weston Park, not far from the Museum.

The first COVID-19 vaccinations in Australia

The demise of the local car manufacturing industry should be on the timeline, since the first Holden is there

Yes, the end of this era is mentioned at the end of our Holden launch moment: https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/holden-launch

Can you tell me about the first prime minister

See our Defining Moment on Federation in 1901. You can also learn more about Edmund Barton on our Prime Ministers of Australia website: https://www.nma.gov.au/explore/features/prime-ministers/edmund-barton

Formation of TISM and subsequently the end of TISM

Thanks for your suggestion Ollie. TISM has some great songs but if we chose one band we’d have to do many. We're after a defining moment when a person or band is responsible for a significant change.

2000 Olympic Games Sydney

How about adding some moments in history from the past 10 years to the defining moments wall.

Surely AFLW, marriage equality , stopping people climbing Uluru.

Thanks for your great suggestions Elle. Our Defining Moments Discovery Wall is only a selection of the moments that we have on our Defining Moments website. There you’ll find full feature moments on two of your suggestions — marriage equality and women’s AFL. We will soon be publishing a full feature moment on the handback of Uluru, as well as the closure of the climb. Some of these more recent defining moments will also be added to the Discovery Wall soon, as we know our visitors are interested in them. Thanks for being involved in our Defining Moments program.

Early aboriginal history maybe through archaeological finds across Australia

Thank you for your suggestion Sabrina. We have recently published a Defining Moment on First Rock Art, which can be viewed on our timeline.

Cathy freeman winning Gold at Sydney Olympics.

Hi Shelley, thank you for this great suggestion. This moment has already been suggested and is on our timeline.

I believe we should have Sam the Koala as a moment in Australia as it tells the tale of the koala who drank from a water bottle and was taken to Southern Ash Wildlife Shelter in the 2009 Bushfires

Hi Sam, we have already written a feature moment on the 2009 Bushfires. However we think this is a great idea and are working on adding a photo of Sam the Koala to the 2009 bushfire moment.

28th Jun 2019 15:41undefined

Proposal for a new Australian Defining Moment:

Can a small group change a nation (and the world) through a clear, passionate, well-researched message?

Small Melbourne based protest group wins a nobel peace prize for calling to attention weapons against humanity https://www.armscontrol.org/act/2017-11/news/ican-wins-nobel-peace-prize

Despite being a small group, stripped of funding, and essentially challenging the Australian government and world’s super powers in their love of weapons which do not differentiate between soldiers or civilians, ICAN’s message prevailed!

Why does the world need cluster bombs? Or nuclear weapons?
http://www.icanw.org/au/ican-australia-people/

This Defining Moment would have direct links to the current NMA Defining Moment https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/maralinga

Come-on NMA! The public and primary and secondary educators across the country need and want to recognise the power of active citizenship, pressure groups, and have quality resources for Civics and Citizenship units in the Australian Curriculum.

Also, some of us have seen and heard the inspiring Former Federal MP and UN lawyer Melissa Parke speak at History Teachers' Conferences and about a small Melbourne group challenging and changing the world and 'Australia’s role leading the world to get rid of nuclear weapons and weapons that harm civilians is critically important’ (hear! hear!).

Hi Mat, thanks for your suggestion. This moment has been suggested previously and can be viewed on our timeline.

20th Jun 2019 10:48undefined

Nicky Winmar mid 90s lifting his jumper and pointing to his skin mid AFL game - indigenous Australian

Thanks for your suggestion Andrew. Nicky Winmar’s stand is already a moment and on our timeline.

8th Jun 2019 11:08undefined

The burning of gold licences and the anti Chinese party is not included in the defining moments wall

Thanks for the suggestion, Abigail. The riots at Lambing flat are a defining moment on our timeline. We also have a few lines covering this in the Gold Rushes feature moment.

27th May 2019 14:39undefined

hello, this helped my son, benny and my daughter, mia
she finally understood the ending of the phar lap mystery book.
from archie ( not the one from riverdale) thanks

27th May 2019 14:38undefined

Hvala vam! it worked wonderfuly for my kid, liah.

Percy Trezise and Dick Roughsey's friendship and bond resulting in them winning the Order of Australia and the Order of the British Empire as they created and left a legacy of more than 30 childrens books about indigenous history and culture published in every state and territory in Australia, and worldwide.

Dick Roughsey was awarded the Order of the British Empire, as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire, for Service to Aboriginal Art and Culture in 1978.
Percy Trezise AM (1923 - 2005) was a painter and writer as well as an historian and documenter of Aboriginal rock art. Trezise served in the RAAF during WW2, and from 1956 he worked in northern Australia as an airline pilot. From the air he would gauge areas likely to contain Aboriginal rock art that he would later explore. Trezise collaborated on a series of children’s books with Aboriginal artist Dick Roughsey, and as well as being a member of the Order of Australia, in 2004 he received an Honorary Doctorate from James Cook University.

Roughsey's passion for the preservation of Indigenous culture and traditions presented him with the opportunity to be appointed to the Aboriginal Advisory Committee for the Australia Council in 1970. In 1971 he wrote the first autobiography by an Aboriginal author. In 1973 Roughsey became the Chair of the Aboriginal Arts Board, continuing this role until 1975. He was also a member of the Institute of Aboriginal studies.

Children's Book Council of Australia Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1974: commended for The Giant Devil-Dingo
Fellowship of Australian Writers Patricia Weickhardt Award to an Aboriginal Writer, 1976 for The Rainbow Serpent
Fellowship of Australian Writers Patricia Weickhardt Award to an Aboriginal Writer, 1976.
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1976: winner for The Rainbow Serpent
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1979: winner for The Quinkins
IBBY (International Board on Books for Young People) Honour Diploma, Illustration, 1980 for The Quinkins
Children's Book Council Book of the Year Award, Picture Book of the Year, 1983: commended for Turramulli the Giant Quinkin
The Order of the British Empire, Officer of the Order of the British Empire, for Service to Aboriginal Art and Culture, 1978
These notable awards for his publications were significant in contributing to cross-cultural communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

His cultural contributions inspired the establishment of the Gooalathaldin Memorial Community Centre, which opened in his honour on Mornington Island in 2003.


Kolos

The Kolos was the first electric programmable computer used by the British during World War II. The Colossus was used as a codebreaker to decode the Lorenz cipher, giving the Allies valuable military intelligence during the war.

There were two versions of the Colossus computer: the Mark 1 Colossus with 1,600 vacuum tubes, which became operational on February 5, 1944, and the Mark 2 Colossus on June 1, 1944. By the end of the war, there were ten total Colossus computers in use.


  • USA TODAY, Dec. 21, President-elect Joe Biden receives first dose of COVID-19 vaccine
  • USA TODAY, Dec. 18, 'I didn't feel a thing': Vice President Mike Pence gets COVID-19 vaccine on camera
  • USA TODAY, Dec. 14, A 'magical' moment: First COVID-19 vaccinations raise hopes on historic day marked by another grim milestone
  • Reuters, April 29, False claim: Bill Gates refused to vaccinate his children
  • Associated Press, May 6, Bill Gates did not refuse to vaccinate his children
  • Melinda Gates' Facebook, April 18, 2019, post
  • NBC's "Today," Dec. 3, Bill Gates: ‘It looks like almost all the vaccines are going to succeed’
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, VACCINE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVEILLANCE
  • USA TODAY, Dec. 10, The Gates Foundation adds $250M gift to fight COVID-19 worldwide: Melinda Gates explains why
  • Email correspondence with Amy Rose, a Pfizer spokesperson
  • CNBC, Dec. 14, Pfizer’s CEO hasn’t gotten his Covid vaccine yet, saying he doesn’t want to cut in line

Naše delo pri preverjanju dejstev delno podpira donacija Facebooka.