Je George Washington imel otroke?

Je George Washington imel otroke?


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George Washington, "oče naroda", ni imel svojih bioloških otrok. Toda v svoji 40-letni poroki z Martho je junak revolucionarne vojne in prvi predsednik predsedoval posestvu Mount Vernon, napolnjenem z njenimi otroki in vnuki, po njihovem mnenju pa je bil ljubljeni oče.

Zakaj George in Martha nista imela svojih otrok? V zgodovinskem zapisu ni skoraj ničesar, kar bi dokončno odgovorilo na neko (in zdaj) zasebno vprašanje, vendar to ljudi ni ustavilo pri ugibanju. Sodobne teorije segajo od sterilnosti, ki jo povzroča tuberkuloza, do Marthinega primera hudega napada ošpic.

George in Martha sta bila oba v poznih dvajsetih, ko sta se poročila in sta pričakovala, da bosta skupaj imela otroke. V času Washingtona je bilo običajno žensko kriviti za težave s plodnostjo, toda Mary V. Thompson, zgodovinarka raziskav na Mount Vernon, pravi, da je imela Martha s prvim možem, Danielom Parkeom Custisom štiri otroke, in "ni dokazov, da obstaja Problem."

Če ga je Washington motilo pomanjkanje bioloških otrok, o tem ni pustil zapisov. Zgodovinarji opozarjajo na eno pismo njegovemu nečaku, v katerem 54-letni Washington razpravlja o oddaljeni možnosti prihodnjih dedičev. Če bi umrl pred Martho, Washington vztraja, da obstaja "moralna gotovost", da iz lesa ne bodo prišli nezakoniti dediči. In če bi preživel Martho in se ponovno poročil, še vedno ne bi bilo otrok.

"Ali bi moral biti jaz najdaljša jetra, je to po mojem mnenju komaj manj gotovo," je zapisal Washington, "ker čeprav ohranim sposobnost razmišljanja, se ne bom nikoli poročil z dekletom; & ni verjetno, da bi morala imeti otroka ženska, ki je primerna za mojo starost, če bi bila pripravljena skleniti drugo poroko. "

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George Washington je bil oče Marthinih mlajših otrok

Toda pomanjkanje lastnih bioloških otrok ni pomenilo, da Washington ni bil otrok. Marthina dva najstarejša otroka sta že umrla, ko se je ponovno poročila, vendar je Washington postal zakoniti skrbnik njenih dveh mlajših otrok: štiriletnega Johna Parkea Custisa (znanega kot Jacky) in dveletne Marthe Parke Custis (znane kot Patsy).

Iz njegovih pisem dobimo jasno sliko o Washingtonu kot nekoliko strogem in formalnem staršu, a tudi ljubečem očetu, ki je svojim otrokom in na koncu vnukom želel le najboljše.

"Zdi se, da je bil [Washington] dober oče očetov za otroke," pravi Kathryn Gehred, urednica raziskav pri The Washington Papers na Univerzi v Virginiji. "Vedno piše pisma Marthinim otrokom in vnukom, ki ju sprejmeta, potem ko oba otroka umreta. Ljudem vedno daje nasvete - zelo redko jih poslušajo -, vendar lahko rečete, da je prevzel veliko vlogo. "

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Washington je poudaril izobraževanje, zlasti med svojimi fanti

Washington je izobraževanju pripisal velik pomen, zlasti moškim otrokom in vnukom v njegovi družini. Ker je Washingtonov oče umrl mlad, nikoli ni dobil formalne izobrazbe poleg gimnazije.

Washington je bil hudo razočaran, ko se je zdelo, da fantje v njegovi družini nimajo zanimanja za šolo in so raje imeli sproščeno življenje podeželskih gospodov. V pismu Jackyjevemu učitelju se Washington pritožuje, da se Jacky vrača s poletnih počitnic, "Njegov um se je precej sprostil od študija in se bolj kot kdaj koli obrnil na Dogs Horses & Guns."

Washington prosi učitelja, naj se Jacky ne izmuzne in se zaplete v težave, "se na Nights in Company potuhne s tistimi, ki jim ni vseeno, kako razvratno in zlobno je njegovo ravnanje." Zaskrbljen oče Washington vztraja, da "mi je pri srcu zelo prijeten in bi mu moralo biti žal, če bi padel v kakršen koli porok ali hudobno pot, ki mu ga lahko zadrži."

Odnos Washingtona s svojimi dekleti je bil manj napet, obenem pa tudi tragičen. Zaljubil se je v malo Patsy in bil edini oče, ki ga je kdaj poznala. Žal so jo epileptični napadi začeli že v zgodnjih najstniških letih in nenadoma umrla pri 17 letih z jokajočim Washingtonom ob postelji.

"Bil je zelo razburjen," pravi Thompson. "Očitno ji je šlo bolje, on in Martha pa sta bila strašno presenečena, da se je to zgodilo, in samo uničena."

Na dan, ko je bila Patsy pokopana na Mount Vernon, je Washington napisal pismo svojemu šogoru, ki se nanaša na nenadno izgubo njegove "sladke nedolžne deklice" in njen izčrpavajoč učinek na Marto, ki je "mojo ubogo ženo skoraj znižala na najnižjo oseko" bede. "

George in Martha postaneta starša svojim vnukom

Osem let po Patsyjevi smrti je imel Washington drugo dejanje de facto oče dveh vnukov. Ko je Jacky umrl leta 1781, sta George in Martha vzela njegova dva najmlajša otroka, dveletno Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis (znano kot Nelly) in dojenčka Georgea Washingtonja Parke Custisa (ljubkovalno imenovanega Washy).

Ko je markiz de Lafayette leta 1784 obiskal Mount Vernon, je pisal o toplem odnosu med visokim vojnim junakom in njegovim triletnim vnukom. Opisal je "zelo malega gospoda s peresom v klobuku, ki se je držal za en prst izjemne roke dobrega generala, ki je (tako velika ta roka!) Vse, kar je majhen človek obvladal."

Ko je Washy odraščal, je podedoval očetovo gnus do šole. Washington je v pismu predsedniku Princetona, kjer je Washy nameraval zbežati, odvrnil razočaranje.

"Od [Washyjevega] otroštva sem odkril skoraj nepremagljivo nagnjenost k brezdelju v vsaki stvari, ki mu ni bila všeč," je zapisal Washington, "in ga na najbolj starševski in prijazen način pogosto opominjal, naj posveti svoj čas za bolj koristne dejavnosti ... "

Ko je Washy na koncu opustil Princeton in se vrnil domov v Mount Vernon, da bi »študiral«, mu je Washington pisal s klasičnim očetovskim nasvetom - »Vstani zgodaj, da bo po navadi lahko postal znan, prijeten - zdrav - in donosen« - in nekaj dobrega starega -modno nagajanje.

"[Ure], namenjene študiju, če se res nanaša na to, namesto da bi tekel po stopnicah navzdol in navzdol ter bil izgubljen v pogovoru s tistim, ki se bo pogovarjal z vami, vam bo omogočil precejšen napredek pri tem, kar je za vas označeno: in da to lahko storite, je moja iskrena želja. ”

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Washington je ponudil nasvet o "zapiranju" ljubezni

Stoični Washington, ki ga poznamo iz portretov, je presenetljivo želel svojim vnukinjam in nečakom ponuditi ljubezenske in poročne nasvete. Ko je njegovo 18-letno vnukinjo Elizabeth Parke Custis Law odvrnilo, da jo je mlajša sestra pretepla do oltarja, jo je Washington opozoril, naj se poroči le iz ljubezni.

"Ljubezen je mogočna lepa stvar; toda tako kot vse druge slastne stvari se tudi ona zapira," je pisala Washington Elizabeth, "in ko se prvi prenosi strasti začnejo umirjati, kar bo zagotovo minilo, in bo pogosto popustilo," za bolj trezen razmislek služi dokazovanju, da je ljubezen preveč okusna hrana, da bi živeli sami, in je ne bi smeli obravnavati dlje kot nujno sestavino tiste zakonske sreče, ki je posledica kombinacije vzrokov. "

Očetov nasvet Washingtona je bil rutinsko zanemarjen. V kasnejšem pismu Elizabeth jo Washington opozarja, naj se poroči s starejšim moškim: »[F] ali mladost in starost, ne več kot zima in poletje, se lahko izenačita - frigidnosti slednjega ni mogoče uskladiti z toplina prvega: poleg navad obeh sta si zelo različni. "

Dva meseca pozneje, pravi Gehred, se je Elizabeth zaročila z moškim "dvakrat starejšim". Petnajst let po njuni poroki se je zveza končala z ločitvijo.

Washington nikoli ni uradno posvojil nobenega od Marthinih otrok ali vnukov, vendar ga to v očeh ni naredilo nič manj očeta. Leta 1776, leto po vojni za neodvisnost, je bil zdaj poročen Jacky preseljen, da je napisal iskreno pismo Washingtonu, v katerem je izrazil tisto, česar nikoli ni mogel povedati osebno.

"Vsemogočni je bil zadovoljen, da me je prikrajšal v zelo zgodnjem obdobju življenja mojega Očeta, vendar ne morem dovolj oboževati njegove dobrote, ko mi je poslal tako dobrega varuha, kot ste vi," je zapisal Jacky. "Le redki so imeli takšno skrb in pozornost pravih staršev, kot sem to storil jaz. Najbolj si zasluži Ime Očeta, ki deluje kot del enega. "

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Družinska zapuščina Georgea Washingtona vključuje otroke, rojene iz sužnjev

Craig Syphax in Donna Kunkel sta predstavila svoje prednike na junijski rekonstrukciji poroke sužnjev Charlesa Syphaxa in Marije Carter leta 1821 v hiši Arlington. Matthew Barakat/Associated Press

ARLINGTON, Va.-Posvojenec Georgea Washingtona je bil po mnenju večine ljudi, tudi tistih iz Washingtona, ki so pisali o svojih frustracijah nad fantom, ki so ga poimenovali "Wash", nekoliko ne počuti dobro.

'' Od njegovega otroštva sem odkril skoraj nepremagljivo nagnjenost k brezbrižnosti v vsem, kar mu ni bilo všeč, '' je zapisal oče ustanovitelj.

Takrat je bil George Washington Parke Custis star 16 let in je obiskoval Princeton, eno izmed številnih šol, v katere je odhajal in iz katerih je šel. Kmalu se je vrnil domov v Mount Vernon, kjer bi ga obtožili očetovstva otrok s sužnji.

Dve stoletji kasneje služba za narodne parke in neprofitna organizacija, ki upravlja z posestvom Mount Vernon v Washingtonu, ugotavljata, da so govorice resnične: v ločenih eksponatih je razvidno, da je družinsko drevo prve družine izbrano od svojih prvih vej.

"" Te zgodovine ni več potiskati na stran, "je dejal Matthew Penrod, nadzornik službe za nacionalne parke in vodja programov v Arlington House, kjer so se zbližala življenja Washington, njihovih sužnjev in generala Konfederacije Roberta E. Leeja. .

Predsednik George Washington ni imel neposrednih potomcev, njegova žena Martha Custis pa je bila vdova, ko sta se poročila, vendar je posvojil Marthine vnuke - '' Wash '' in njegovo sestro '' Nellie '' - in ju vzgojil na svojem posestvu Mount Vernon.

Parke Custis se je leta 1804 poročil z Mary Fitzhugh in imela sta eno hčer, ki je preživela v odrasli dobi, Mary Anna Randolph Custis. Leta 1831 se je poročila s svojim tretjim sestričnim - Leejem, ki je nato služil kot poročnik ameriške vojske.

Izven zakonske zveze je Parke Custis verjetno razvil otroke z dvema očetovimi sužnji: Arianno Carter in Caroline Branham, glede na razstave v Arlington House in Mount Vernon.

Prvo uradno priznanje je prišlo junija, ko je služba Park ponovno predstavila poroko Marije Carter iz leta 1821 s Charlesom Syphaxom v Arlingtonovi hiši, dvorcu na hribu s pogledom na prestolnico, ki jo je Custis zgradil (in ki jo je Lee pozneje vodil) kot svetišče svojega posvojitelja. Novo družinsko drevo, predstavljeno ob rekonstrukciji, navaja nevestine starše kot Parke Custis in Arianna Carter.

"" Popolnoma se zavedamo, da je bila prva družina te države veliko več od tistega, kar se je pojavilo na površini, "je na slovesnosti dejal Penrod.

Zasebno upravljano posestvo Mount Vernon raziskuje to zgodovino sužnjev na letošnji razstavi "Lives Bound Together", ki priznava, da je tudi Parke Custis verjetno rodil dekle po imenu Lucy s sužnjo Caroline Branham.

Ko so Penrod začeli v Arlington House pred 26 leti, turistični vodniki niso bili tako odkriti. Zaposlenim je bilo rečeno, naj stanovanja za sužnje opišejo kot '' služabniške '' '' in '' poudarek je bil na Leeju, da ga časti in pokaže v najbolj pozitivni luči, '' je dejal Penrod.

Rekel je, da se niso pojavili novi, dokončni dokazi, ki bi dokazovali, da je Parke Custis rodil dekleta s sužnji, priznanje pa odraža vse večji občutek, da afriško-ameriške zgodovine ni mogoče zanemariti in da Arlingtonova hiša predstavlja več kot Leejeva zapuščina, je dejal.

Znanstveni dokaz bi zahteval ujemanje DNK Carterjevih in Branhamovih potomcev s potomci njegove hčere in generala Konfederacije, ker linija Parke Custis poteka izključno prek potomcev njegove hčerke in Roberta E. Leeja.

Stephen Hammond iz Restona, potomec Syphaxa, je obsežno raziskal svoje družinsko drevo. Rekel je, da je priznanje Custisovega očetovstva s strani službe Park razveseljivo. '' To je postala moja strast, ugotavljam, kje se ujemamo z ameriško zgodovino, '' je dejal Hammond.

Hammond je dejal, da se s svojimi bratranci še ni obrnil na Leejeve potomce, da bi ocenil njihovo zanimanje za genetske teste, in ni jasno, kako se počutijo glede uradnega priznanja - nekateri se niso odzvali na zahteve Associated Press za komentar.

Nekatere družinske evidence se hranijo v rojstni hiši Roberta E. Leeja, Stratford Hall, vendar je direktorica raziskave Judy Hynson dejala, da ne pozna nobenega, ki bi potrdil, da je Parke Custis rodil sužnje.

'' To ni nekaj, kar bi zapisali v svojo družinsko Biblijo, '' je dejal Hynson.

Posredni dokazi vključujejo poroko Carter-Syphax v Arlingtonovi hiši-nenavadno čast za sužnje-in dejstvo, da Parke Custis ni samo osvobodil Marijo Syphax in njenih sinov pred državljansko vojno, ampak je zanjo namenil 17 hektarjev posesti.

Ko so sile Unije zavzele goro Vernon, je kongresno dejanje zagotovilo, da se zemljišče vrne družini Marije Syphax. Newyorška senatorka Ira Harris je takrat dejala, da ima posvojen sin Washington poseben interes zanjo - '' nekaj, kar je morda podobno očetovskemu instinktu. ''

Ustne zgodovine prav tako zagovarjajo skupne krvne linije.

Potomci Marije Carter na primer vedo, da se je njeno ime izgovarjalo '' Ma-RYE-eh '', ne '' Ma-REE-uh, '' je povedala Donna Kunkel iz Los Angelesa, ki je upodobila svojega prednika pri rekonstrukciji.

'' Kot otrok bi ljudem vedno govorila, da sem v sorodu z Georgeom Washingtonom, vendar mi nihče ne bi verjel, '' je dejala.

Med potomci Branhama je ZSun-nee Miller-Matema iz Hagerstowna, dr., Ki je dejala: '' moja teta me je stara, da bi, če bi bila znana resnica naše družine, padle prve družine v Virginiji. ''

Rekla je, da je svojo resnico odkrila po naključju v devetdesetih letih, ko je med raziskovanjem v aleksandrijskem zgodovinskem muzeju za črno sceno opazila portret z družinsko podobnostjo. Muzejski uslužbenec jo je kmalu posedel s ploščami. Sčasoma je svoje prednike izsledila do Caroline Branham, ki se pojavlja v dokumentih, napisanih z lastno roko prvega predsednika.

'' Preprosto nisem mogla verjeti, '' je rekla. '' General Washington si je zapisoval mojo Caroline? ''

Kot sužnji se ženske niso mogle strinjati s spolnim napredkom posvojenca lastnika nasada, vendar je Kunkel dejala, da poskuša dejanja ne obravnavati kot posilstvo.

'' Poskušam se osredotočiti na rezultat. Po dejstvu je z Marijo ravnal spoštljivo, '' je povedala.

Vključitev teh družinskih zgodovin v narodno skupno zgodbo je še posebej pomembno v času obnovljene rasne napetosti, je dejal Miller-Matema.

'' Vsi smo tako del drug drugega, '' je rekla. "" Nima več smisla biti razdeljena hiša. "


Starševstvo

George Washington ni imel lastnih bioloških otrok in trajalo je veliko let, da se je Washington spopadel z dejstvom, da ne bo oče svojih otrok. 1 Kljub tem težavam je bil dom Washington v Mount Vernonu skoraj vseh štirideset let njune poroke poln otrok. Za večino teh otrok je George Washington stal v vlogi očeta ali dedka.

Prvi od teh otrok sta bila dva preživela otroka iz prve poroke Marthe Washington z Danielom Parke Custis. John Parke Custis (znan kot Jacky, ko je bil mlajši, in Jack, ko je ostarel) je bil star približno štiri leta, ko se je njegova mama poročila z Georgeom Washingtonom. Martha Parke Custis, znana kot Patsy, je bila v času poroke stara približno dve leti.

Jacky in Patsy nista bila edina otroka, ki sta na Georgea Washingtona gledala kot na nadomestnega očeta. Smrt Marthinega sina med kampanjo Yorktown leta 1781 je pustila njegove tri hčere & mdashElizo, Martha in Eleanor & mdashas ter njegovega dojenčka Georgea Washingtona Parke Custisa v oskrbi njihove bolne in žalostne triindvajsetletne matere. Washington je poskušal prepričati svojega zeta Bartholomewa Dandridgea, da nadzira njihovo vzgojo in njihovo posestvo. 2

Dandridge se je sčasoma strinjal, da bo nadzoroval družinsko posestvo Custis za otroke, George in Martha Washington pa sta dva najmlajša otroka, Nelly in George Washington Parke Custis (imenovano Washy), odpeljala v svoj dom, kjer sta jih vzgajala kot otroka. 3 Poleg otrok in vnukov Marthe Washington se je George Washington znašel tudi v vlogi nadomestnega očeta več nečakinjam in nečakom. Med njimi so bili predvsem otroci njegovega mlajšega brata Samuela, ki je umrl leta 1781.

Trije Samuelovi otroci so bili še posebej zaskrbljeni za njihovega strica: George Steptoe Washington, ki je bil v času očetove smrti star osem let, Lawrence Augustine Washington, ki je bil star šest let, in Harriet, ki je imela pet let, ko je oče umrl. Ker sta fantka po vojni obiskovala šolo v Aleksandriji, se je njun stric zelo vključil v njihovo vzgojo. Harriet je nekaj časa preživela na Mount Vernon in Kenmore (dom sestre Georgea Washingtona, Betty Washington Lewis) v Fredericksburgu v Virginiji.

Ena izmed najbolj opaznih razlik med Georgeom Washingtonom in njegovo ženo v zvezi z vzgojo otrok je bila povezana z njihovim pristopom k disciplini. George Washington je s svojimi vojaškimi izkušnjami poskušal precej trdo zavzeti mlade, ki so ravnali neprimerno in niso bili proti razumni uporabi telesnega kaznovanja. 4 Martha Washington pa je bila do otrok, za katere skrbi, veliko bolj popustljiva. 5

Izobraževanje je bilo za Georgea Washingtona izjemno pomembno. Smrt njegovega očeta, ko je imel komaj enajst let, pomeni, da Washington ni imel možnosti študirati v Angliji, tako kot njegova dva starejša polbrata. Ker je bila izobraževanje tako pomembna tema v njegovem življenju, George Washington ni mogel razumeti, zakaj mladeniči, ki jim je pomagal vzgojiti, ne morejo ali ne vidijo potrebe po tem, da bi se morali prijaviti v šolo. 6

Pastorki in vnuki Georgea Washingtona so se izobraževanja lotili veliko bolj pozitivno. Ko ji je učiteljica povedala, da so edini primerni predmeti za ženske "popravljanje, pisanje, aritmetika in glasba", se je Eliza Parke Custis odzvala obupano, pogosto je zaradi te želje po formalnem izobraževanju te besede "globoko obžalovala" vse življenje . 7 V letih predsedovanja Georgea Washingtona je mlajša sestra Nelly študirala na nekaterih najboljših šolah, ki so na voljo mladim ženskam v New Yorku in Philadelphiji.

Najmlajši otrok Marthe Washington, Martha Parke Custis (družini znana kot Patsy) je imel posebno težko življenje. Šele kot malček, ko sta bila njena starša poročena, je zrasla v nežnega najstnika, ki je pokazal veliko obljubo. Toda ko je bila Patsy okoli enajstih ali dvanajstih, so jo začeli pogosti napadi. Mlada ženska je umrla poleti 1773, ko je bila stara okoli sedemnajst let.

Med starševskimi dolžnostmi se je George Washington znašel, ko so vnukinje njegove žene prerasle v mlade ženske, ki jim je svetoval na temo ljubezni in poroke. Konec poletja 1794 se je najstarejša vnukinja Eliza (takrat osemnajst let) počutila potrto, ker se je njena naslednja najmlajša sestra Martha pravkar zaročila. Zdelo se je, da je njen očed potreboval nekaj očetovske spodbude, ki je pojasnil, da mora za dober zakon biti, da ima predlagani partner "razum, dobro voljo in sredstva, ki vas podpirajo tako, kot ste bili vzgojeni", kot je pa tudi spoštovanje in spoštovanje njegovega družabnega kroga. 8

V zadnjih letih svojega življenja je George Washington videl, da so se vse tri njegove vnukinje poročile in rodile naslednjo generacijo njegove posvojene družine. Do njegove smrti, 14. decembra 1799, je bilo pet pravnukov, med njimi Nellyjeva dva tedna in pol stara hči, Frances Parke Lewis. Tako je moški, ki je po vsem svetu znan kot oče svoje dežele, vendar ni imel lastnih bioloških otrok, preživel štirideset let svojega zakonskega življenja v domu, polnem otrok. V procesu vzgoje Nelly, Jacka in drugih otrok, ki so prišli v njegovo življenje, se je Washington naučil, da je biti oče veliko več kot preprost biološki proces, vendar vključuje leta skrbi, skrbi, nasvetov, denarja, humorja in veselja.

Mary V. Thompson
Zgodovinar raziskav
Posestvo in vrtovi Mount Vernon

Opombe:
1.
Glej na primer "George Washington Charlesu Thomsonu, 22. januarja 1784", v Spisi Georgea Washingtona, Letnik 27 ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Washington, DC: Tiskovni urad vlade ZDA, 1931-1938), 312 in Zadnja volja in zaveza Georgea Washingtona in urnik njegovega premoženja, ki mu je priložena zadnja oporoka in zaveza Marthe Washington ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Mount Vernon, Virginia: Združenje žensk Mount Vernon, 1972), 22.

4. "George Washington Samuelu Hansonu, 6. avgusta 1788," Dokumenti Georgea Washingtona, serija Confederation, Letnik 6, ur. W.W. Abbot, (Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1997), 429.

5. "Abigail Adams gospe William Stephens Smith, 11. oktobra 1789," v Nova pisma Abigail Adams, 1788-1801, ur. Stewart Mitchell (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1947), 30.

6. "Jonathan Boucher Georgeu Washingtonu," 21. maj 1770, Dokumenti Georgea Washingtona, Kolonialna serija, Letnik 8, 339.

7. William D. Hoyt, Jr., "Avtoportret: Eliza Custis, 1808," Revija Virginia History and Biography (April 1945), 97.


Bratje in sestre Washington

George Washington je imel 9 bratov in sester: 3 brate, 2 sestri, 3 polbrata in 1 polsestro.

Bratje
Samuel Washington (1734-1781)
John Augustine Washington (1736-1787)
Charles Washington (1738-1799)
Sestre
Betty Washington Lewis (1733 - 1797)
Mildred Washington (1737-1740)
Polbratje
Butler Washington (1716-1716)
Lawrence Washington (1718-1752)
Augustine Washington Jr. (1720-1762)
Polsestra
Jane Washington (1722-1734)

Lawrence Washington

Lawrence Washington je bil starejši polbrat Georgea Washingtona, najstarejšega živega otroka Augustina Washingtona in njegove prve žene Jane Butler. George Washington je že od malih nog malikoval svojega starejšega brata.

Betty Washington Lewis

Betty Washington je bila drugi otrok in edina preživela hči Augustina in Mary Ball Washington. V odrasli dobi sta z možem Fieldingom prispevala precejšen del svojega osebnega bogastva in časa k ameriški revoluciji.

Charles Washington

Charles Washington je bil najmlajši brat George Washington & rsquos. Brata sta si dopisovala vse življenje, Charles pa je v letih pred ameriško revolucijo pogosto obiskoval starejšega brata v Mount Vernonu.


Tajna zgodovina potomcev sužnjev Georgea Washingtona

Čeprav George Washington ni imel bioloških potomcev, je imel otroka. George Washington Parke Custis (ali “Wash, ”, kot so ga pogosto imenovali) je bil vnuk Marthe iz njenega prvega zakona. Ko je leta 1757 umrl Daniel Parke Custis, se je leta 1759 poročila z Georgeom, oba sta ostala skupaj do njegove smrti leta 1799. Ko je Wash leta 1781 v samo šestih mesecih ostal sirota, sta ga posvojila Martha in George.

Wash je dočakal 76 let in umrl leta 1857. Od Georgea je podedoval bogastvo in čeprav ni veljal za posebej učinkovitega upravitelja nasada, je vse življenje ostal cenjena osebnost, zlasti zaradi svoje vloge pri ohranjanju posesti svojega posvojenega očeta. (Imel je tudi izjemno uspešnega zeta v obliki Roberta E. Leeja, ki se je poročil z edinim priznanim Custisovim otrokom, da bi dočakal polnoletnost.)

Vendar to ni spremenilo dejstva, da so družinski člani menili, da ga je Martha razvadila, medtem ko je bil George zaseden z obveznostmi do našega nastajajočega naroda in ne v bližini, da bi priskrbel kakršno koli disciplino. (George je o Washu zapisal: “ Od svojega otroštva sem odkril skoraj nepremagljivo nagnjenost k brezbrižnosti v vsem, kar mu ni bilo všeč. ”) Posledično se je Wash nagibal k temu, da nikoli ni dokončal fakultete in se tudi ukvarjal v svojem vedenju v svojem osebnem življenju, ki sta se Mount Vernon in služba nacionalnega parka po svojih najboljših močeh trudila prezreti več kot 200 let.

Natančneje, dolgo se je govorilo, da je Wash rodil otroke z Arianno Carter in Caroline Branham, dvema sužnjema na Mount Vernon. To se je izkazalo za podcenjevanje: Zdi se, da so otroci, ki so bili otroci Opere več sužnji. (Testiranje DNK je še vedno potrebno za potrditev vseh povezav.) Šele leta 2016 sta služba National Park in Mount Vernon javno priznala to verjetnost kot del razstave, ki raziskuje odnos Georgea Washingtona do suženjstva, medtem ko je vseživljenjski suženj George vzel drzen korak za čas osvoboditve sužnjev v oporoki.

Če želite prebrati več o teh prej skritih vejah družinskega drevesa Washington, kliknite tukaj. Kliknite tukaj, če želite prebrati, kako se nekateri novopriznani potomci Washingtona počutijo glede te spremembe zgodovinskega zapisa.

Ta članek je bil predstavljen vInsideHook glasilo. Prijavite se zdaj.


Kaj je George Floyd povedal o svojih otrocih?

Floyd je protestiral, da je klavstrofobičen, ko so ga policisti poskušali spraviti v osebni avtomobil in policiste vprašali, ali bi lahko namesto tega "držal na tleh".

Domnevno je poklical mamo in rekel: "Otroci me imajo radi. Umrl sem, preden je bil pripet na tla.

Po njegovi smrti so nekdanjega košarkarskega profesionalca Stephena Jacksona in Floydovega osebnega prijatelja držali Gianno z iztegnjenimi rokami.

Po njegovi smrti je Washington novinarjem na konferenci povedal: »Bil je dober človek. Sem 'm tukaj za svojega otroka in 'm tukaj za Georgea, ker želim pravičnost.


Potomci suženjskega sina trdijo, da je bil njegov oče George Washington

Je George Washington oče sin z Venero, mladim sužnjem, ki je živel na posestvu svojega polbrata Johna Augustina Washingtona?

Trije potomci Venusinega sina, imenovanega West Ford, pravijo, da je bil po družinski tradiciji, star dve stoletji, George Washington oče West Forda. Upajo, da bodo razvili dokaze DNK iz potomcev družine Washington in vzorcev las iz Washingtona, da bi okrepili njihov primer.

Zgodovinarji so skeptični, saj pravijo, da ni nobenih dokumentarnih dokazov, ki bi nakazovali, da je Washington kdaj srečal Venero, katere sin se je rodil štiri ali pet let pred tem, ko je Washington postal predsednik, in obstaja več razlogov, da je takšna povezava neverjetna. Poleg tega Washington, 26, ko se je poročil s takrat 27 -letno Marto, ni imel otrok z njo. Toda Martha je v prvem zakonu rodila štiri otroke, kar kaže na to, da je bil Washington morda sterilen.

Vendar obstaja razlog za domnevo, da če otrokov oče ni bil Washington, bi to lahko bil nekdo, ki je z njim tesno povezan. Trditev bratrancev ' vsebuje več elementov resnice, ki zadostujejo za postavitev zgodovinske skrivnosti o identiteti očeta West Forda in za dodajanje nove verige nastajajočim povezavam med črno-belo stranjo družin, ki so lastniki sužnjev.

Čeprav se je tradicija prenesla z opozorilom, naj ne povedo nobenemu belcu, je sedanja generacija potomcev West Forda#svobodno govorila o svoji skrivnosti. To počnejo znova, potem ko so dokazi DNK, o katerih so poročali novembra lani, podprli tradicijo med potomci Sally Hemings, suženjke na posestvu Thomasa Jeffersona, da je Jefferson rodil njeno družino.

' 'Ko je bil West Ford še majhen fant, je slišal sužnje, ki so govorili o tem, kako je videti kot George Washington, ' ' je povedala Linda Bryant, zdravstvena pisateljica in farmacevtska predstavnica, ki živi v Aurori, Colo. Bryant ponavlja zgodbo, ki jo je njena mama Elise Ford Allen slišala od dedka gospe Allen, majorja Georgea W. Forda, vnuka West Forda.

' ' Rekli so nam, da je njegova osebna partnerka za spanje in da, ko je bilo očitno, da je noseča, ne spi več z njo, «je dejala gospa Bryant, ki se je sklicevala na izjave njenega pradeda o Veneri. . ' 'Ko so jo vprašali, kdo je njen otrok, je odgovorila, da je oče George Washington. ' '

Gospa Bryant in njena sestra Janet Allen, urednica v mestu Peoria, Ill., Sta poskušali urediti DNK test za primerjavo potomcev West Forda s potomci Washingtona.

' ' Smo dediči Georgea Washingtona na strani sužnjev, ' ' gospa Allen je rekla, ' 'in 't lahko dobimo Washington, da se oglasi. ' '

Gospa Bryant in gospa Allen imata daljno sestrično, Judith S. Burton, upokojeno učiteljico v Aleksandriji, Va. Gospa Burton je pravnukinja Johna Bell Forda, brata majorja Forda in#x27. Sestrična pravi, da se poznata šele od leta 1994 in da je gospe Burton isto zgodbo povedala njena babica.

' ' Moja babica nam je ves čas, ko smo bili zelo mladi, govorila, da je West Ford sin Georgea Washingtona, ' ' je rekla. ' ' Njegova mama je bila Venera. Venus je bila hči Jenny, ki je bila služabnica Hannah Washington, svakinje Georgea Washingtona. ' '

Ustne tradicije, kot je ta, so dobile novo spoštovanje v povezavi z Jefferson-Hemings, ki jo je večina zgodovinarjev Jeffersona leta DNK zavrnila. Toda zgodovinarji iz Washingtona niso našli dokazov, ki bi podpirali idejo, da bi George Washington morda rodil otroka s sužnjem.

Prvič, zaščitil je svoj ugled, kar bi lahko izpostavljenost zunajzakonskemu odnosu poslabšalo.

' 'George Washington se je močno zavedal svojega pomena za mlad, nepreverjen narod, ' ' je dejal Jean Lee, zgodovinar z univerze v Wisconsinu, ki je strokovnjak za Mount Vernon in njegove sužnje. ' ' Zelo pozorno je opazoval in modeliral svoje vedenje, kar pa ne bi bilo primerno za zvezo. ' '

Drugič, ni dokazov, da bi Washington kdaj srečal Venero. Za razliko od Sally Hemings, ki je bila Jeffersonova osebna spremljevalka, je Venera živela na oddaljenem posestvu, ki je pripadalo polbratu Johna Augustina Washingtona. Plantaža je bila v Bushfieldu, pol in dva dni težka jahanja z Mount Vernon, Washington 's domov.

Da bi povezovali svojo družinsko tradicijo z znanimi zgodovinskimi dejstvi, sta gospa Bryant in gospa Allen predlagali, da je George Washington aprila 1784 obiskal svojega brata na pogrebu 17-letnega sina John Augustina, ki mu je bilo tudi ime Augustine v nesreči.

''We believe that is when he had the relationship with Venus,'' Ms. Bryant said. ''Venus was made available to him for his comfort.''

Historians disagree. Mary V. Thompson, a research specialist at Mount Vernon, said she had consulted many records but could find no evidence that Washington and Venus were ever in the same place at the same time.

West Ford, Venus's son, seems to have been born before June 1784, or possibly before November 1785, according to an ambiguous statement in the will of Hannah Washington, John Augustine's wife, Ms. Thompson said. Only the later date allows any possibility that George Washington was the father: he was away fighting the Revolutionary War and did not return home to Mount Vernon until Christmas Eve 1783.

To investigate the cousins' claim, Ms. Thompson said she had tried to establish Washington's whereabouts for every day in 1784 from his correspondence and for 1785 from his diary. There are several gaps of a few days in 1784, in which a person could perhaps have dashed over to Bushfield and back.

But Washington, though officially in retirement, was extraordinarily busy during this period. His house was so full of visitors that he rarely sat down to dine with his wife alone.

''He called Mount Vernon a well-resorted tavern,'' said Dorothy Twohig, who was chief editor of Washington's papers for 30 years. ''It just seems to me, knowing Washington very well, that whatever the moral aspects, this is a question of politics. Washington was an extremely careful man, very conscious of his reputation.''

Ms. Bryant, who is writing a book about her family tradition, is trying to develop DNA evidence and has consulted Dr. Eugene Foster, the pathologist who took DNA samples in the Jefferson family case. Dr. Foster told Ms. Bryant that he would need DNA from men in the all-male line of descent from West Ford and the Washington families.

Ms. Bryant said that she had a male relative in an all-male line of descent from West Ford and that she was negotiating with an all-male line descendant of Corbin Washington, George's nephew, to determine whether he would also be willing to be tested. Although George and Martha Washington had no children together, comparison of a Y chromosome inherited from one of his brothers with that of a West Ford descendant could indicate whether a Washington family member was West Ford's father. But it could not prove that George Washington was the father.

Ms. Bryant said the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, which runs Mount Vernon, had refused to provide hair samples for testing. It ''will do anything by whatever means necessary to keep this story hushed,'' she said.

But Ms. Thompson, the research specialist and a staff member of the association, said that for a different purpose -- to test their authenticity -- the Federal Bureau of Investigation had analyzed samples of hair identified as Washington's from Mount Vernon and four other museums but had failed to recover enough DNA even to tell if the samples were from the same person.

''So I don't think testing the hair would really help,'' Ms. Thompson said. But she and other historians give serious weight to the cousins' family history, even if they interpret it differently, because similar accounts have been preserved independently.

''I think it is very interesting that the tradition came down in two branches of the family, separated for over 100 years,'' she said.

West Ford seems to have had a secret, one that was known to John Augustine and Hannah Washington and that caused them to treat him with special favor. A portrait preserved at Mount Vernon shows that West Ford was fair skinned, suggesting that his father was white. According to the oral history received by Ms. Burton, West Ford attended church and went hunting with Augustine and Hannah Washington, as if he were a family member. Hannah, in her will, directed that West should be inoculated against smallpox, trained in a trade until he was 21, and then freed, the only of her slaves to be freed.

It is not impossible that West Ford's father was one of Hannah's three sons, all of them young, unmarried men at the time of his birth: in 1784 Bushrod was 21, Corbin 19, and Augustine 17.

Bushrod, who later inherited Mount Vernon and became a Justice of the United States Supreme Court, is an obvious candidate. He took West Ford to Mount Vernon, where he served as a carpenter and foreman. Bushrod also left West Ford a tract of land in his will.

''If you compare pictures of West Ford with Bushrod Washington, they look a lot alike,'' said Philander Chase, who followed Dr. Twohig as editor of Washington's papers.

Ms. Thompson suggests another possibility. When Augustine, the youngest son, died in the gun accident, his parents were distraught. Augustine ''possesed as sweet a disposicion as ever a Youth did,'' his father wrote to George Washington, adding ''I wish to God Mrs Washington could have borne this loss as well as myself -- but the shock was too great for her infirm frame to bear with any tolorable fortitude, upon the first communication she fell into a Strong Convulsion which continued for some time, and when that went of, she lay for near four hours in a state of insencibility, when her reason returned her grief did also and she had a return of the Fit.''

Could Hannah have freed West Ford because she believed him to be Augustine's son? Oral traditions often have large elements of truth 'ɻut sometimes things get a little skewed,'' Ms. Thompson said.

The slain boy's full name, she noted, was George Augustine Washington, although some documents also give his first name as William.

Ms. Bryant rejects the possibility that ''George Augustine'' could have changed into ''George Washington'' in the telling of her family's story. She emphasized the directness of the history, saying that West Ford had told it to his grandson, who told it to her mother.

It is not hard to believe that Ms. Bryant and her cousins may be true Washingtons, a testimony to the power of their oral history. But without independent evidence, Venus's voice across the centuries is too faint for listeners to make out the first name of her son's father.


Did Washington father a child with slave? Descendants of slave named Venus say she bore first President a son Historians are skeptical

Did George Washington father a son with Venus, a young slave who lived on the estate of his brother, John Augustine Washington?

Three descendants of Venus' son, who was called West Ford, say that according to a family tradition two centuries old, George Washington was West Ford's father. They hope to develop DNA evidence from Washington family descendants and his hair samples to bolster their case.

Historians so far are skeptical, saying there is no documentary evidence to suggest that Washington ever met Venus, whose son was born four or five years before he became president, and several reasons to consider any such liaison improbable. In addition, Washington, who was 26 when he married Martha, then 27, had no children with her. But Martha bore four children in her first marriage, suggesting that Washington may have been sterile.

There is, however, reason to believe that if the child's father was not Washington, it might have been someone closely related to him. The cousins' claim has several elements of truth, enough to set up a historical mystery as to the identity of West Ford's father and to add a new strand to the emerging links between the black and white sides of slave-owning families.

Though the tradition was passed down with a warning to tell no white person, the present generation of West Ford's descendants has spoken freely of their ancient secret. They are doing so again after DNA evidence, reported last November, supported the tradition among descendants of Sally Hemings, a slave on Thomas Jefferson's estate, that Jefferson fathered her family.

"When West Ford was a little boy he heard the slaves talking about how much he looked like George Washington," said Linda Bryant, a health writer and pharmaceutical representative who lives in Aurora, Colo. Bryant is repeating the story her mother, Elise Ford Allen, heard from Allen's grandfather, Maj. George W. Ford, a grandson of West Ford.

"We were told she was his personal sleep partner and that when it was obvious she was pregnant he no longer slept with her," Bryant said, referring to her great-grandfather's statements about Venus. "When she was asked who fathered her child, she replied George Washington was the father."

Bryant and her sister Janet Allen, an editor with the Traveler Weekly of Peoria, have been trying to arrange a DNA test to compare West Ford's descendants with those of the Washington family.

"We're the heirs of George Washington on the slave side and we can't get a Washington to come forward," Allen said.

Bryant and Allen have a distant cousin, Judith S. Burton, a retired schoolteacher who lives in Alexandria, Va. Burton, who has a doctorate in education, is a great-granddaughter of John Bell Ford, George Ford's brother. The cousins say that they have known one another only since 1994, but that Burton had been told the same story by her grandmother.

"My grandmother used to tell us all the time when we were very young that West Ford was the son of George Washington," Burton said. "His mother was Venus. Venus was the daughter of Jenny who was the servant to Hannah Washington, George Washington's sister-in-law."

Oral traditions like this have won a new respect in light of the Jefferson-Hemings liaison, which until the DNA tests was dismissed by most historians of Jefferson. But Washington historians have not found any evidence to support the idea that Washington might have fathered a child with a slave.

For one thing, he was protective of his reputation, which the exposure of an extramarital relationship could have impaired.

"George Washington had an acute self-awareness of his importance to a young, untested nation," said Jean B. Lee, a historian at the University of Wisconsin who is an expert on Mount Vernon and its slaves. "He watched and modeled his behavior very carefully, and that would not comport with a liaison."

For another, there is no evidence that Washington ever met Venus. Unlike Sally Hemings, who was a personal attendant of Jefferson, Venus lived on a distant estate belonging to Washington's brother, John Augustine Washington. The plantation was at Bushfield, one and a half to two day's hard riding from Washington's home at Mount Vernon.

To relate their family tradition to known historical facts, Bryant and Allen have suggested that George Washington visited his brother in April 1784 for the funeral of John Augustine's 17-year-old son, also named Augustine, who was killed by a classmate in an accident with a loaded gun.

"We believe that is when he had the relationship with Venus," Bryant said. "Venus was made available to him for his comfort."

But historians disagree. Mary V. Thompson, a research specialist at Mount Vernon, said she had consulted many records but could find no evidence that Washington and Venus were ever in the same place at the same time.

West Ford, Venus' son, seems to have been born before June 1784, or possibly before November 1785, according to an ambiguous statement in the will of Hannah Washington, John Augustine's wife, Thompson said. Only the later date allows any possibility that George Washington was the father: the general was away fighting the Revolutionary War and did not return home to Mount Vernon until Christmas Eve of 1783.

To investigate the cousins' claim, Thompson said she had tried to establish Washington's whereabouts for every day in 1784 from his correspondence and for 1785 from his diary. There are several gaps of a few days in 1784, in which a person could perhaps have dashed over to Bushfield and back.

But Washington, though officially in retirement, was extraordinarily busy during this period. His house was so full of visitors that he rarely sat down to dine with his wife alone.

"He called Mount Vernon a well-resorted tavern," said Dorothy Twohig, who was chief editor of Washington's papers for 30 years. "It just seems to me, knowing Washington very well, that whatever the moral aspects, this is a question of politics. Washington was an extremely careful man, very conscious of his reputation. He would have been extremely unlikely to have gotten involved in anything."

Bryant, who is writing a book about her family tradition, is trying to develop DNA evidence and has consulted Dr. Eugene Foster, the pathologist who took DNA samples in the Jefferson family case. Foster told her he would need DNA from men in the all-male line of descent from West Ford and the Washington families.

Bryant said she had a male relative in an all-male line of descent from West Ford, and that she is negotiating with an all-male line descendant of Corbin Washington, George's nephew, to determine whether he would also be willing to be tested.

Although George and Martha Washington had no children, comparison of a Y chromosome inherited from one of his brothers with that of a West Ford descendant could indicate whether a Washington family member was West Ford's father. But it could not prove that George Washington was the father.

Bryant said the Mount Vernon Ladies Association, which runs Mount Vernon, had refused to provide hair samples for testing. The association "will do anything by whatever means necessary to keep this story hushed," she said.

But Thompson, the research specialist and a staff member of the association, said that for a different purpose to test their authenticity the Federal Bureau of Investigation had analyzed samples of hair identified as Washington's from Mount Vernon and four other museums and had failed to recover enough DNA even to tell if the samples were from the same person. "So I don't think testing the hair would really help," Thompson said.

But she and other historians give serious weight to the cousins' family history, even if they interpret it differently. It is significant that similar accounts have been preserved independently by both women.


Did You Know George Washington Had A Black Son Named West Ford

One of the many things school didn’t teach us about Black History month was that George Washington had a illegitimate black son with a slave nammed Venus named West Ford. According to Westfordlegacy:

1785 West Ford, the son of George Washington and Venus, is born in Westmoreland County, VA.

1799 George Washington dies at his Mount Vernon plantation.

1802 West Ford comes to Mount Vernon with new owner, Bushrod Washington. West becomes caretaker of George Washington’s tomb and is befriended by Washington’s old valet, Billy Lee.

1804 West Ford is freed on his 21st birthday his portrait is drawn to commemorate the occasion.

1812 West Ford marries Priscilla Bell, a free woman, they have four children William, Daniel, Jane and Julia. The children are educated on the Mount Vernon plantation.

1829 Bushrod Washington dies and wills 160 acres of land to West Ford. John Augustine Washington III inherits Mount Vernon. West works at Mount Vernon as an overseer. Venus dies a slave before West can buy her freedom.

1833 West Ford sells his land and purchases 214 acres adjacent to it the area is known today as Gum Springs.

1994 A National Enquirer article speculating upon whom should be heir to the U.S. “throne” left vacant by George Washington results in the Allen/Ford family reuniting with another branch of the Ford family through descendant Dr. Judy Saunders Burton.

1996 The Allen/Ford family goes public with the story of George Washington in their family tree articles appear in Newsweek, Time, and Der Spiegel magazines.

1998 The Washington/Venus story breaks in every major newspaper in the U.S. Feature stories are carried in the Chicago Tribune, The Washington Post, The Peoria Journal Star, Rocky Mountain News, Foster’s Daily Democrat, Newsday, Waterloo Courier, Boston Globe, and USA Today. A number of television broadcasts carry the story as well, including live feature stories on MSMBC and Channel 9 Denver, Colorado mentions on major city networks including CNN, BET, and Saturday Night Live. The story is also featured on several live feature radio broadcasts including WGN, Sheridan Broadcasting Network, KACT Los Angeles, and BBC London.

2000 The West Ford story ushers in the new millenium with a new website and media interest continuing to grow. To date this year the story has been featured on CBS Sunday Morning News, in the Chicago Tribune and Rocky Mountain News. Other print articles and television broadcasts are in the works. In March, a historic meeting took place at Mount Vernon between members of the Ford family and Mount Vernon staff. In May, PBS broadcasted a docu*entary featuring the Ford history and posted a mini-docu*entary called George and Venus that still can be seen on the worldwide web.

2001 Ford descendant Linda Allen Bryant publishes I Cannot Tell a Lie: The True Story of George Washington’s African American Descendants.” The book is the first to explore her family’s controversial history. The History Channel features the Ford family history in a docu*entary called Family Tree in September. Exploration into the saga of West ford and the African-American descendants of George Washington is ongoing. And the story continues….


Discovering George Washington

1. Washington's birth record does not include a middle name.

2. Upon the death of his father, Augustine, Washington became an 11-year-old owner of ten slaves.

3. Washington's formal education ended when he was around 15 years old.

4. Washington stood six feet, three inches tall.

5. He started losing his teeth in his twenties.

6. The National Museum of Dentistry in Baltimore, Md., has on display one of Washington's lower dentures—made from gold, ivory and lead, as well as human and animal teeth.

7. The only time Washington traveled out of the country was to Barbados in 1751 with his brother Lawrence who was suffering from tuberculosis.

8. He and Martha were both 27 when they married.

9. Martha, who had first been married at 18, was one of the wealthiest widows in the Tidewater region of eastern Virginia when she married Washington. Only one of her four children with her first husband Daniel Custis survived to adulthood.

10. When Washington inherited Mount Vernon from his brother, the plantation was 2,000 acres. By the time of George's death in 1799, it was 8,000 acres.

11. Charles Willson Peale painted the earliest known portrait of Washington in 1772.

12. One of Washington's most interesting innovations was a nearly round, 16-sided barn for thrashing wheat.

13. He established a spy ring in 1780 to reveal that Major General Benedict Arnold was a traitor.

14. Washington died on December 14, 1799 of a throat infection and was mourned by the nation for months.

15. At his death, Washington owned more than 300 slaves. They were emancipated in his will and some were paid pensions for decades.


Poglej si posnetek: What It Was Like To Be A Slave At George Washingtons Mount Vernon