USS Parker (DD-48), Hampton Roads, 1914

USS Parker (DD-48), Hampton Roads, 1914


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Ameriški uničevalci: ilustrirana zgodovina oblikovanja, Norman Friedmann. Standardna zgodovina razvoja ameriških uničevalcev, od najstarejših uničevalcev torpednih čolnov do povojne flote in zajema ogromne razrede uničevalcev, zgrajenih za obe svetovni vojni. Bralcu daje dobro razumevanje razprav, ki so obdajale vsak razred uničevalcev in vodile do njihovih posameznih značilnosti.


Predavanja o zgodovini Hampton Roads

Poglejte nazaj v zgodovino kot John V. Quarstein, ugledni zgodovinar, avtor in zaslužni direktor USS Monitor Center skupaj s posebnimi gostujočimi govorniki deli pomembne dogodke o zgodovini našega naroda in preuči njihove neposredne povezave z regijo Hampton Roads.

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Prihajajoča predavanja:

Legendarna letovišča iz 19. stoletja na Hampton Roads

9. julij ob 12:00 (ET)

Pridružite se nam na virtualnem predavanju z Johnom V. Quarsteinom, zaslužnim direktorjem USS Monitor Center, ko predstavlja na vrhu hotela Chamberlin kot središče razkošnega gostoljubja za elito na Old Point Comfort.

O predstavitvi:
Hotel Chamberlin še danes stoji kot prevladujoča znamenitost s pogledom na pristanišče Hampton Roads. Ta hotel simbolizira dni, ko so bili Old Point Comfort, Phoebus, Buckroe Beach in Bayshore vsako poletje v poznem 19. in začetku 20. stoletja. Old Point Comfort je bil prvo zdravstveno in počitniško letovišče v Ameriki in je poskrbel za elito. Plaža Buckroe je bila za delavske družine, Bayshore pa prvo afriškoameriško letovišče na jugu. Parniki in vlaki so na stotine ljudi dnevno pripeljali mestne prebivalce, da so uživali v svežem vetriču, plavanju v slani vodi, odličnih morskih sadežih in fantastični zabavi. Ta letovišča so bila začetek vedno večje turistične industrije na cestah Hampton Roads.

Zasluga za sliko: Trdnjava Monroe, Old Point Comfort in hotel Hygeia, Va. Litografija. E. Sachse & amp Co in Charles Magnus [New York: Chs. Magnus, 1861]. Zemljevid. Z dovoljenjem Kongresne knjižnice.

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Bitka pri Ironcladu

The Monitor je bil izstreljen iz podjetja Continental Iron Works, Greenpoint, Long Island (New York City) 30. januarja 1862. CSS Virginia, Confederate ironclad, je bil izstreljen 17. februarja 1862. The Virginia je bil zgrajen nad spremenjenim trupom parne fregate USS Merrimack, ki so jih Konfederati rešili, potem ko so jo požgale in uničile sile Unije. Zaradi grožnje, da bo Virginia pozirala zvezni floti na Hampton Roads v Virginiji Monitor je bilo na to območje naročeno v začetku marca, takoj po hitrih poskusih na morju. Na hamptonske ceste je prispela v noči na 8. marec Virginia je angažiral zvezno floto in uničil lesene fregate Cumberland in Kongresu. The Minnesota je bila tudi poškodovana in nasedla pred Virginia se je upokojil na zaščitenem sidrišču v bližini Norfolka.

Ko je Virginia izplula, da bi obnovila napad na Minnesota 9. marca zgodaj zjutraj je naletela na nenavaden videz Monitor. V naslednjih štirih urah bitke sta se plovili pogosto bombardirali med seboj, brez bistvenega učinka. Vendar pa je v ogledalu okna eksplodirala lupina Monitorji pilothouse, začasno slepi kapitan John Worden. The Monitorji Izvršni častnik Samuel Dana Greene je prevzel poveljstvo in odredil Monitor v plitvo vodo, kjer je Virginia ni mogel slediti, da bi ocenil kapetanove rane in škodo na ladji. The Virginia kapitan, ob predpostavki, da je Monitor se je umaknil iz bitke, umaknil se je tudi v domnevni zmagi. Ko Monitor vrnil, da bi nadaljeval zaroko in našel Virginia ni več, zmaga je prevzela tudi njena posadka.


Mornarji iz USS Rhode Island reševanje posadke potopljenega Monitor kot je prikazano v Harper's Weekly, Januar 1863 (barvna različica). (Monitor Zbirka, NOAA) Za večji pogled kliknite na sliko.


10 dejstev: Hampton Roads

Wikimedia Commons

Tu na Hampton Roadsu bodo odkrili pravo moč železnih bojnih ladij. In tu je bil revolucionarni USS Monitor, s svojo oklepno vrtljivo kupolo bi najprej vstopil v boj. Upamo, da vam bo teh deset zanimivih dejstev pomagalo razširiti vaše znanje in spoštovanje te pomembne pomorske bitke v državljanski vojni.

Kongresna knjižnica

Dejstvo #1: CSS Virginia in USS Monitor niso bile prve železne ladje, vendar so bile prve gvozdenke, ki so se borile ena proti drugi

The Virginia in Monitor niso bile prve železne ladje. Novembra 1859 je izstrelila francoska mornarica La Glorie, prva oklepna bojna ladja. Kraljevska mornarica je kot odgovor na novo francosko bojno ladjo izstrelila HMS Bojevnik, fregato z železnim trupom, oktobra 1861.

Tudi v ameriški državljanski vojni je Virginia in Monitor niso bili prvi železarji. Za podporo pomorskim operacijam Unije na rekah v zahodnem gledališču so bile do januarja 1862. zgrajene, spuščene in razporejene rečne topovnjače (železniški čolni City Class). Te čolne so februarja igrale pomembno vlogo v bitkah za Fort Henry in Fort Donelson. iz leta 1862.

Dejstvo #2: Konfederacija je imela velike težave pri pridobivanju železne prevleke, potrebne za Virginia

Oktobra 1861 je bilo ugotovljeno, da Virginia (pretvorjen nekdanji USS Merrimack) bi potrebovali dve plasti dve palčni železni oklepni plošči, ki pokrivata celotno krilo. Ker je zahtevalo več kot 800 ton železa, preprosto ni bilo na voljo toliko železa. Da bi nadomestili to boleče pomanjkanje, se je Konfederacija zmanjšala na odstranjevanje starega odpadnega železa, taljenje starih topovskih in železnih orodij ter celo raztrganje več sto kilometrov železniške proge. Zamude pri pridobivanju in oblikovanju teh železnih plošč so Uniji dale več časa za izdelavo števcev za vse večjo grožnjo Virginia.

Dejstvo #3: Prvi "poskusni zagon" Virginia je bil njegov bojni prvenec proti ameriški mornarici na Hampton Roadsu 8. marca 1862

Zjutraj, 8. marca 1862, je Virginia naredil paro in se počasi odpravil proti reki Elizabeti na njeno prvo potovanje. The Virginia motorji niso bili v celoti preizkušeni in oklepni oklopi za njegova pristanišča za pištole niso bili nameščeni, vendar te "manjše podrobnosti" niso močno zadevale novega kapitana ladje Franklina Buchanana. Buchanan, ki ga je konfederacijski sekretar mornarice Stephen Mallory izbral zaradi svojih agresivnih nagnjenj, je bil odločen, da bo Virginia prvo plovbo napad na bližnjo mornarico Union.

Dejstvo #4: Bitka 8. marca 1862, v kateri so se spopadli Virginia proti lesenim ladjam ameriške mornarice je bil najhujši poraz v zgodovini mornarice ZDA do japonskega napada na Pearl Harbor

Medtem ko je bila velika pozornost namenjena skoraj brezkrvnemu dvoboju med Monitor in Virginia 9. marca 1862 je akcija med Virginia in ameriška mornarica prejšnji dan je bila precej krvava zadeva. The Virginia's napad na USS Cumberland ubil 121 od 376 na krovu in kasnejši napad na USS Kongresu ubil 27% svoje posadke - 120 od 434. CSS Virginiana drugi strani pa je v boju z mornarico Unije utrpel le dva ubita in ducat ranjenih.

V dvodnevnem boju je zvezna mornarica utrpela 261 mrtvih in 108 ranjenih v boju z Virginia - več ubitih in ranjenih kot katera koli druga pomorska bitka v ameriški zgodovini v tistem času. In 8. marec 1862 bi ostal najbolj krvav dan v ameriški pomorski zgodovini do 7. decembra 1941, ko je japonska mornarica udarila v ameriško floto v Pearl Harbourju.

Ta primerjava CSS Virginia in USS Monitorja (v ospredju) kaže na znatno razliko v velikosti med tema dvema znamenitima borcema. Kjer je bila Virginia zgrajena na trupu Merrimacka, je bil USS Monitor zgrajen od kobilice navzgor. © James Gurney (jamesgurney.com) James Gurney

Dejstvo #5: Kljub temu, da je nosil dvanajst pušk velikega kalibra, je ena od Virginia's najbolj smrtonosno orožje je bil preprost železni ovan velikosti 1500 lb, ki je štrlel iz njegovega premca

Kljub številnim tehnološkim novostim, ki so bile na ogled med bitko pri Hampton Roads, je bilo eno najbolj smrtonosnih orožij velik, 1500 lb železen ovan, pritrjen na premcu Virginia. To preprosto orožje, popolnoma podobno tistemu, ki bi ga našli na rimski trireme ali otomanski kuhinji, je uničilo USS Cumberland. The Virginia pari naravnost za Cumberland in s svojim mogočnim ovnom udaril po desnem boku. Ironično je, da je smrtni udarec, ki ga je nanesel Virginia's ram je skoraj pripeljal do lastnega uničenja. S svojim ovnom, ki se je hitro vtaknil v notranjost Cumberland, Virginia tvegano, da jih nosi potapljajoča zvezna ladja. Po nekaj trudu je Virginia se je lahko ločil in umaknil, vendar se je smrtonosni ovan osvobodil.

Med bitko z USS Monitor naslednji dan, Virginia poskušal uporabiti svojega ovna, ne da bi vedel, da je to orožje zdaj na dnu Hampton Roads.

Fotografija kapetana Franklina Buchanana, USN, avtor Matthew Brady okoli leta 1855-1861. Poveljstvo za pomorsko zgodovino in dediščino

Dejstvo #6: Virginia's poveljnik Franklin Buchanan je bil 8. marca hudo ranjen z mušketo in ni sodeloval pri Virginia's slavni dvoboj 9. marca z USS Monitor

V skladu z uveljavljenimi normami, ki so nastale v času jadralne dobe, je bilo običajno, da se poražena ladja in njen kapitan uradno predata svojim zmagovitim kolegom. Po ogledu bele zastave nad prizadeto USS KongresuJe Franklin Buchanan odredil, da se Kongresu vzeti kot nagrado. Na žalost konfederatov so vojaki Unije na bližnji obali poznali mornarsko tradicijo in ji ni bilo mar in so streljali na izpostavljene častnike in vojake. Franklina Buchanana, ki je šel na palubo, da bi nadziral to predajo, je krogla zadela v stegno in ga na hitro odnesla nazaj v notranjost Virginia. Ta večer je bil Buchanan odstranjen na obalo Virginia njegovemu izvršnemu častniku, poročniku Catesbyju ap Rogerju Jonesu, ki bo vodil znamenito gvozdenko v boju z Monitor naslednji dan.

Buchanan, ki si je opomogel po rani, je vodil CSS Tennessee v bitki z eskadrilo kontraadmirala Davida Farraguta v bitki pri Mobile Bayu. Med to bitko je Buchanan utrpel zlom noge in bi se 5. avgusta 1864 s svojo ladjo predal.

Dejstvo #7: Občutek, da bi njihove lupine lahko naredile majhno škodo, tudi na bližnji razdalji Virginia prenehal streljati na Monitor med bitko

Dve uri mornariškega streljanja na bližnjo razdaljo sta konfederate končno prepričali v nesmiselnost zapravljanja školjk in prahu na Monitor. Poročnik John Eggleston na krovu Virginia, na vprašanje, zakaj so njegove posadke pištole prenehale streljati na Monitor, je izjavil, da »[po] dveh urah neprekinjenega streljanja ugotavljam, da ji lahko naredim [ Monitor] približno toliko škode, če jo udarim s palcem vsake dve minuti in pol. "

The Virginia zmožnosti prodiranja oklepa so bile dodatno zmanjšane, ker je nosil le eksplozivne granate, ne pa trdne strele. Na neki točki bitke so člani posadke na krovu Virginia se je zatekel k poskusu streljanja mušket v odprta pristanišča pištole Monitor.

Dejstvo #8: Če je Monitor je v svojih 11-palčnih puškah uporabljal večje naboje smodnika, verjetno bi jih izkopal in potopil Virginia

The Monitor so ga kmalu po zagonu odhiteli na Hampton Roads in malo časa je bilo namenjenega preizkušanju tega novega, radikalnega orožnega sistema. Kljub temu, da so zasnovani za nošenje dveh 12-palčnih pomorskih pušk Dahlgren, so Monitor izstreljen z dvema manjšima 11-palčnim Dahlgrenom v oklepni, vrtljivi kupoli. Da bi preprečili kakršno koli katastrofalno pištolo v zaprtem stolpu, je bila vsaka od 11-palčnih pušk omejena na uporabo 15-kilogramskega naboja smodnika. Tudi s tem nižjim nabojem smodnika so 165 -kilogramski izstrelki s trdnim strelom naredili veliko, da so vdrli in izoblikovali oklep na Virginia. Kasnejši testi, opravljeni po bitki, so pokazali, da če Monitor je uporabil 25lb ali 30lb naboje smodnika, ki bi jih 11-palčne puške preluknjale Virginia's trup z relativno lahkoto na bližnjih razdaljah.

USS Monitor se je od blizu boril s CSS Virginia v kongresni knjižnici bitke pri Hampton Roads

Dejstvo #9: Ironično, kot Virginia ko je izstrelila več svojih orožij na ladji, je ladja postala bolj ranljiva za napad

Za razliko od Monitor, katerega oklepni pas se je spustil precej pod njeno vodno črto, Virginia's železna obloga se je pri polni obremenitvi komaj razširila do vodne črte. Z vsako stranjo se Virginia bi porabil 350 funtov orožja. In po dveh urah streljanja na Monitor in druge bližnje ladje, Virginia je tovor olajšal za 5 ton. Ironično, ko je ladja postala lažja, je postala tudi bolj ranljiva. Ko je ladja olajšala, so bile njene neprebojne stranice, pod železnim kazematom, vidne nad vodo in bi jih bilo mogoče lažje preluknjati.

Poročnik John L. Worden, kapitan pomorskega zgodovinskega centra USS Monitor

Dejstvo #10 Franklin Buchanan in John L. Worden sta postala nadzornika pomorske akademije Združenih držav v Annapolisu v Marylandu

John L. Worden, po vojni povišan v kontraadmirala, je bil poveljnik pomorske akademije Združenih držav Amerike med letoma 1869 in 1874. Vrtalno polje na akademiji nosi ime Worden.

Pred državljansko vojno je bil Franklin Buchanan prvi nadzornik pomorske akademije Združenih držav (1845 - 1847). Veličastna hiša Buchanan, sedanja rezidenca nadzornikov Akademije, se imenuje po tem slavnem admiralu Konfederacije.


Naš zgodovinski dom: nabijanje USS Yorktown (CG 48)

(WYDaily/ fotografija datoteke) USS Yorktown (CG 48) (WYDaily/ Z dovoljenjem poveljstva pomorske zgodovine in dediščine)

Nobenega dvoma ni, kako pomembna je vojska za našo regijo.

Vedno je obilo spominov, ki jih lahko delite z vsemi, ki so se jih kdaj dotaknile vojaške izkušnje.

Eden v nekoliko novejšem spominu se spominja kot »zadnji incident hladne vojne«. Ta krajevna zveza je bila leta 1988 nabijanje USS Yorktown (CG 48) in ameriški mornariški uničevalec, USS Caron (DD 970), v Črnem morju.

Prebivalci Yorktowna so imeli radi svojo istoimensko pomorsko ladjo.

Križarka razreda Ticonderoga je bila naročena leta 1984, sponzorirala pa jo je ljubljena prebivalka okrožja York, gospa Mary Mathews. Leta 1987 je Yorktown je imel čast, da je prejel nagrado za "Top Gun" atlantske flote v izjemni podpori za ogenj pomorske puške.

Konec leta 1987 je Yorktown in Caron napoteni v Sredozemsko morje za udeležbo na ameriških, Natovih in večnacionalnih vajah. To je bil nemiren čas za napetosti med ZDA in Sovjetsko zvezo.

Med obema narodoma se je razvil sum.

Trenje je bilo preizkušeno 12. februarja 1988 kot Yorktown in Caron odpluli v Črno morje na tako imenovanem nedolžnem prehodu, ki uresničuje svojo mednarodno pravico do svobode plovbe. Ko so velike ameriške bojne ladje prehajale 10 milj od polotoka Krim, sta na njihovo stran pripluli dve sovjetski ladji.

"Ne kršite državnih meja Sovjetske zveze. Pooblaščen sem za stavko! " Sovjeti so se prenašali z obale.

Ameriške ladje niso odgovorile.

V tem času so ZDA priznale teritorialne meje, ki so se raztezale le tri milje od obale. Po drugi strani je Sovjetska zveza uveljavila 12-miljsko ozemeljsko mejo.

Sovjetska fregata z vodenimi raketami razreda Krivak I BEZZAVETNY (FFG 811) vpliva na križarjeno križarjeno raketo USS YORKTOWN (CG 48), ko ameriška ladja uveljavlja pravico do prostega prehoda skozi 12-miljske teritorialne vode, ki jih zahteva Sovjetska zveza. (WYDaily/ fotografija datoteke)

Mornarji so prihiteli na palubo Yorktown ki ima dovolj časa, da izvleče video kamero. Med njimi je ostal ozek prehod vode Yorktown in sovjetsko fregato razreda M Burevestnik, Bezzavetnyy. Mornarji na nasprotnih straneh hladne vojne so stali na palubi in se gledali drug drugemu v oči. Zraven je prišel patruljni čoln Caron ko so se ladje še naprej vztrajno gibale po morju.

Brez dodatnega opozorila, Bezzavetnyy približala veliko večji Yorktown, se zaletel v njeno pristaniško stran.

"Kaj za vraga?! Kaj za vraga?!" so vpili ameriški mornarji.

Sovjetski patruljni čoln mu je sledil in ga zabil Caron. Po kratkem odmiku stran, Bezzavetnyy spet obrnil proti mogočni križarki.

“Spet prihajam!” Yorktown so kričali mornarji.

Ladja se je tresla kot Bezzavetnyy udaril ob straneh Yorktown, vendar jim ni uspelo ustaviti ladje.

V dveh urah Caron in Yorktown so se odpravili iz Črnega morja brez hujših poškodb posadke in njihovih ladij.

Posledica tega incidenta je bila kriza besed med dvema narodoma, ki sta si izmenjala komentarje, medtem ko sta si krivila drug drugega. Anonimni viri Pentagona so pricurljali informacije, da je prisotnost Yorktown in Caron v Črnem morju ni bilo tako nedolžno, kot se je zdelo. Caron nosil opremo, ki je bila uporabljena za zbiranje obveščevalnih podatkov. Zgodovinarji pa pojasnjujejo, da so bili povračilni ukrepi, ki so jih na ta dan sprejeli Sovjeti, pretirana reakcija.

USS Yorktown je bil razgrajen 3. decembra 2004 in zdaj ostaja del neaktivne flote v Philadelphiji. Ta pomorska ladja, ki je za vedno nosila ime našega ljubljenega mesta, je bila del zadnjega incidenta hladne vojne.

Kot večina stvari v zgodovini je zaroka zaokrožila. Danes med ZDA in Rusijo še vedno naraščajo napetosti in sum.

Kot nekdanji Yorktown častnik, viceadmiral Doug Crowder, upokojeni veteran mornarice, je leta 2015 za OregonLive.com povedal: "Poskrbijo, da vemo, da nas [še vedno] opazujejo."

Za ogled posnetkov, ki so nastali med nabijanjem Yorktown, kliknite spodnji video.

Morda bi radi preverili tudi te zgodbe:

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Posodobitev za februar 2017 na HistoryofWar.org: Severnoafriška kampanja 1940-43, Osvobodilna vojna 1913, Filip II Makedonski in tretja sveta vojna, ameriški tanki, uničevalci ZDA, Boulton Paul in letala Supermarine

Posodobitev za februar 2017 na HistoryofWar.org: Severnoafriška kampanja 1940–43, Osvobodilna vojna 1913, Filip II Makedonski in tretja sveta vojna, ameriški tanki, uničevalci ZDA, Boulton Paul in letala Supermarine

Ta mesec začenjamo novo serijo člankov o severnoafriški kampanji 1940–43, začenši s prihodom prvih nemških vojakov v Tripoli. Po januarski uvedbi osvobodilne vojne leta 1813 smo zdaj začeli podrobnejši pogled na zgodnje vojne dogodke. V stari Grčiji zaključujemo našo serijo o bitkah Filipa II Makedonskega, ki se konča z njegovo veliko zmago pri Chaeronei, kjer je vzpostavil oblast nad večino celinske Grčije, in si oglejmo tudi nekatere bitke tretje svete vojne.

V vojaški tehnologiji si ogledujemo vrsto motornih vagonov s pištolami, ki temeljijo na srednjih tankih, in začenjamo serijo člankov o težkih tankih ZDA. Na morju gledamo šest uničevalcev razreda Wickes. V zraku nadaljujemo z našo serijo letal Boulton Paul in začenjamo novo serijo na letalih Supermarine.

Na koncu dodamo še vrsto pregledov knjig in slik o severnoafriški kampanji in ameriških uničevalcih

Severnoafriška kampanja

Operacija Sonnenblume (sončnica) (februar-marec 1941) je bila kodno ime za prvotno selitev nemških vojakov v Severno Afriko, potem ko so bili Italijani prisiljeni izstopiti iz Cirenajke in se je zdelo, da se trudijo zadržati Tripolitanijo.

Rommelova prva ofenziva (od 24. marca do 30. maja 1941) je videla, kako je oslabljeno britansko vojsko potisnil iz Cirenajke in vse do egiptovske meje ter tako razveljavil vsa britanska osvajanja v začetku leta 1941 in določil vzorec za puščavska vojna, ki bo trajala do druge bitke pri El Alameinu konec leta 1942.

Ob obleganju Tobruka (10. april-16/17. december 1941) je zaseden zavezniški garnizon osem mesecev zdržal pred nemškimi in italijanskimi napadi ter Rommelu preprečil, da bi v prvi ofenzivi izkoristil zmago, v kateri je zmagal Cyrenaica le nekaj tednov po tem, ko je padla na Britance

Operacija Brevity (15-16. Maj 1941) je bila kratkotrajna britanska ofenziva, ki je izvedla, da bi ugotovila, ali je nemški položaj vzhodno od Tobruka dovolj krhek, da se obleganje lahko odpravi brez večje bitke.

Tauroggenska konvencija (30. december 1812) je bil sporazum, ki je naredil ruski korpus generala Yorcka nevtralen, kar je pomenilo začetek preloma med Prusijo in Francijo (osvobodilna vojna).

V drugem obleganju Danziga (24. januar-29. november 1813) je general Rapp večino leta 1813 branil mesto pred Rusi, vendar brez pravega upanja, da bo rešen (osvobodilna vojna).

Boj pri Zirkah (11.-12. Februar 1813) je bil eden prvih spopadov med osvobodilno vojno in je prišel med francoskim umikom od Visle do Odre.

Boj pri Kalischu (18. februar 1813) je bil eden prvih spopadov osvobodilne vojne leta 1813 in je prispeval Francoze, da opustijo poskuse obrambe vzhodne Nemčije.

Kalischska konvencija (28. februar 1813) je bila podpisana med Rusijo in Prusijo in je Prusijo zavezala, da se bo ponovno pridružila vojni proti Napoleonu, kar je postavilo temelje za osvobodilno vojno 1813.

Obleganje Glogaua (15. marec-27. maj 1813) je bil redek primer uspešne francoske obrambe ene od osamljenih trdnjav, ki so jo v začetku leta 1813 zapustili umiki s Poljske in vzhodne Nemčije, in videl je precejšen garnizon tri mesece, preden je bilo obleganje odpravljeno po bitki pri Bautzenu.

Bitka pri Möckernu (5. april 1813) je bila zadnja pomembna bitka med spomladansko kampanjo 1813, preden je Napoleon prišel na fronto, da bi osebno prevzel poveljstvo.

Boj pri Weissenfelsu (29. april 1813) je bil eden prvih spopadov med novo Napoleonovo vojsko iz leta 1813 in napredujočimi pruskimi in ruskimi silami, ki so do konca aprila dosegle reko Saale v Saški.

Bitka pri polju Crocus Field ali pri Pagasaeju (353 pr. N. Št.) Je bila pomembna zmaga Filipa II Makedonskega in videl ga je, da je premagal in ubil Onomarka, fokijskega vodjo, zmago, ki je pomagala zagotoviti Filipovo prevlado nad Tesalijo.

Obleganje Perinta (340-339 pr. N. Št.) Je bil neuspešen poskus Filipa II Makedonskega, da bi premagal kolebljivega zaveznika, in je bil izveden ob enako neuspešnem obleganju Bizanca. Oba obleganja sta potekala v obdobju tik pred četrto sveto vojno.

Obleganje Bizanca (340-339 pr. N. Št.) Je bil neuspešen poskus Filipa II., Da bi premagal nekdanjega zaveznika, in se je začelo potem, ko je njegovo obleganje bližnjega Perinta naletelo na težave. Oba obleganja sta nastala v času četrte svete vojne.

Bitka pri Chaeronei (avgust 338 pr. N. Št.) Je bila zadnja velika bitka v karieri Filipa II. Makedonskega in videl ga je, ko je pri tem vzpostavil svojo prevlado nad državami osrednje in južne Grčije, grško zavezništvo pod vodstvom Teb in Aten

Bitka pri Neonu (354 pr. N. Št.) Je bila bitka tretje svete vojne in je bila znana po smrti fokijskega voditelja Filomela.

Bitka pri Hermeju (354 ali 353 pr. N. Št.) Je bila fokijska zmaga nad Beotijcem (tretja sveta vojna), ki je sledila kratkemu posredovanju Fokijcev v Tesaliji, ko so Filipu II nanesli dva redka bojna poraza.

T24 3in Gun Motor Carriage je bil prvi poskus izdelave uničevalca tankov z namestitvijo 3in protiletalske pištole na podvozje Medium Tank M3.

Motorni nosilec 75 mm pištole T26 je bil neuspešna zasnova za samohodno protiletalsko letalo, ki ni uspelo zaradi težav s pištolo.

Motorni nosilec 40 mm pištole T36 je bil neuspešen poskus namestitve protiletalske pištole Bofors na podvozje srednjega tanka M3.

Motorni voziček z več pištolami T52 je bil neuspešen dizajn za samohodno protiletalsko vozilo, oboroženo z eno 40-milimetrsko pištolo Bofors in dvema mitraljezoma.

Motorni nosilec 90-milimetrske pištole T53 je bil zasnova kombiniranega uničevalca tankov in samohodne protiletalske pištole, ki je bil po obsežnih razvojnih delih zavrnjen.

20-milimetrski štirikotni tank AA, Skink, je bil najuspešnejši poskus namestitve protiletalske pištole na podvozje tanka Sherman, vendar jih je bilo proizvedenih le nekaj, njihova glavna uporaba pa je bila proti kopenskim ciljem.

Heavy Tank Mark VIII (Liberty Tank ali International) je bil prvotno mišljen kot skupni anglo-ameriško-francoski tank, ki bi ga v velikem številu uporabili, če bi se vojna nadaljevala do leta 1919, vendar so ga na koncu v manjšem številu zgradili v Britanci in ameriške različice.

Heavy Tank T29 je bil razvit kot odgovor na pojav težkih nemških tankov v evropskem gledališču in je nosil 105 -milimetrsko pištolo na podvozju, podobnem tistemu, ki se je uporabljalo na M26 Pershing.

USS Woolsey (DD-77) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je potonil leta 1921, potem ko je bil v trku s trgovsko ladjo prepolovljen.

USS Evans (DD-78) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je vstopil v ameriško službo tik po prvi svetovni vojni, za kratek čas se je udeležil nevtralnosti Patrl in nato vstopil v britansko službo kot HMS Mansfield

USS Mali (DD-79) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je bil med drugo svetovno vojno uporabljen kot hiter transport, septembra 1942 pa je bil potopljen z Gualalkanala.

USS Kimberly (DD-80) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je med prvo svetovno vojno služil v evropskih vodah, vendar je bil kmalu po koncu vojne razrezan.

USS Sigourney (DD-81) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je med prvo svetovno vojno deloval iz Bresta in je služil pri Kraljevski norveški mornarici in Kraljevski mornarici kot HMS Newport med drugo svetovno vojno.

USS Gregory (DD-82/ APD-3) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je služil pozno v prvi svetovni vojni, nato pa je bil spremenjen v hiter transport. Potopljena je bila med izvajanjem nove vloge pri Guadalcanalu septembra 1942.

USS Stringham (DD-83/ APD-6) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je imel proti koncu prve svetovne vojne omejeno uporabo, preden je v večini pacifiške kampanje druge svetovne vojne služil kot hiter transport.

USS Dyer (DD-84) je bil uničevalec razreda Wickes, ki je pozno v prvi svetovni vojni deloval iz Gibraltarja, nato pa je leta 1919 služil kot vodilna ladja ameriških pomorskih sil v vzhodnem Sredozemlju.

Supermarine N.1B je bil enomestni skavt, zasnovan za spremljanje patruljnih letečih čolnov RNAS.

Supermarine Seal je bilo letalo za izvidovanje in bežno opazovanje dvoživk, ki je služilo kot prototip uspešnega supermarinskega galeba, ki je bil tudi sam osnova bolj znanega supermarinskega morža.

Supermarine Sea King je bilo skavtsko in lovsko letalo dvoživk, ki so ga proizvajali v dveh različicah, vendar niso prejeli nobenega naročila. Postal je osnova za dirkalna letala Sea Lion in ker je Sea Lion II leta 1922 osvojil Schneider Trophy.

Supermarine Sea Lion je bila dirkalna različica skavtskega letala Sea King. Izdelane so bile tri različice, ki so bile prijavljene na dirkah Schneider Trophy 1919, 1922 in 1923, zmagale pa so leta 1922.

Letalo Boulton Paul

Boulton Paul P.101 je bil radikalen dizajn za lovca dvokrilnega koraka, ki je bil izdelan kot odgovor na specifikacijo letalskega ministrstva za manevrski lovec z visoko stopnjo vzpona.

Boulton Paul P.102 je bil projekt vgradnje reaktivnega motorja v obstoječe letalo, vendar je trpel zaradi velike neodločnosti in je bil sčasoma preklican.

Nemški polgosečniki in kolesna vozila 1939-1945, Alexander Lüdeke.
Ogleda oklepne avtomobile in polgosenice, ki jih je uporabljala nemška vojska pred in med drugo svetovno vojno, s poudarkom na razvoju in tehničnih opisih vsake vrste in njenih glavnih različic. Vsak tip dobi eno ali dve strani, podprti s fotografijami vozila. Koristna kratka referenčna knjiga o teh bistvenih vozilih, ki zajema tako številne tipe, razvite v Nemčiji, kot tudi manjše število ujetih vozil, ki so jih začeli uporabljati.
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Gempejska vojna 1180-85 - Velika samurajska državljanska vojna, Stephen Turnbull.
Gleda na državljansko vojno med klanoma Taira in Minamoto, v kateri so samuraji zamenjali cesarsko sodišče kot glavni vir moči na Japonskem, in se končalo z vzpostavitvijo šogunata, sistema vojaške vladavine, ki je trajal skoraj sedemsto let. Fascinantno poročilo o tem ključnem spopadu, ki pomaga razumeti vojno, ki se včasih pojavi kot zbirka nepovezanih bitk, ki vključujejo vrsto različnih poveljnikov.
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BT Fast Tank - Rdeča armada, konjeniški tank 1931-1945, Steven J. Zaloga.
Ogleda hitre tanke serije BT, ki temeljijo na ameriškem tanku Christie. Tanki BT, ki so jih v Sovjetski zvezi proizvedli v številnih glavnih različicah, so bili uporabljeni v Španiji, proti Japonski na mongolski meji in med zimsko vojno, preden so bili v prvem letu velike domovinske vojne uničeni v enakem številu. Sledi razvoju sovjetske različice tanka, številnim proizvedenim različicam in njegovi večinoma neizraziti bojni karieri.
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Britanski in nemški bojni križarji - njihov razvoj in delovanje, Michele Cosentino & amp Ruggero Stanglini.
Koristna knjiga, ki zajema razvoj, oblikovanje in izdelavo britanskih in nemških bojnih križarjev, njihovo uvajanje v vojni in načrte obeh strani za naslednjo generacijo bojnih križarjev, od katerih je bil dokončan le HMS Hood. Če imate vse to gradivo v enem samem zvezku, dobite veliko boljši pregled nad obema mornariškima križarskima križarkoma, njunima prednostma in pomanjkljivostmi ter njunim delovanjem v bitki in izven nje. Zaključi s pogledom na modele drugih bojnih križarjev in bojnih križancev drugih držav
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Stout Hearts: Britanci in Kanadčani v Normandiji 1944, Ben Kite.
Podrobno obravnava vlogo vsakega elementa v britanskem in kanadskem vojaškem stroju med Normandijsko kampanjo, vključno z vsakim vidikom kopenskih sil od pehote do oklepa, obveščevalnimi, izvidniškimi in zdravstvenimi službami ter zračno podporo in ognjeno moč, ki jo zagotavljajo velike zavezniške flote ob obali Normandije. Zelo uporaben spremljevalec pripovednih poročil o kampanji, ki pomaga razložiti, kako so Britanci in Kanadčani uspeli premagati odločen nemški odpor na svoji fronti
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Brutus - Cezarjev morilec, Kirsty Corrigan.
Dobro uravnotežena biografija Bruta, enega bolj doslednih zagovornikov Rimske republike in slavnega enega od Cezarjevih morilcev na marčevskih idah. Nariše sliko moškega na splošno visokih moralnih standardov (z nekaterimi napakami v finančnih zadevah), pa tudi preveč optimističnega spletkarja, ki ni uspel narediti realnih načrtov za posledice atentata. Dobro odkriva Brutova zgodnja leta, pa tudi razlikuje med poznejšimi legendami in zgodovinsko verjetnimi dogodki
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Alesia - Zadnji boj za Galijo, Nic Fields.
Koristna zgodovina obleganja in s tem povezanih bitk, ki so Cezarju zagotovile osvojitev Galije in končale upor Vercingetorixa, prvi (in edini) čas, ko so se galska plemena združila proti Cezarju. Starts with a history of Vercingetorix's revolt and the earlier failed siege of Gergova, before moving onto the climatic siege of Alesia, the massive Gallic relief effort and its defeat by Caesar. A good account of this siege, supported by excellent maps showing the besieged town and its surroundings.
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Sailors on the Rocks - Famous Royal Navy Shipwrecks, Peter C. Smith.
Looks at a long series of Royal Naval shipwrecks, from the loss of HMS Coronation in 1691 to the grounding of HMS Nottingham in 2002. Covers the background histories of the ships involved, their actions in the period before their loss, the lead-up to the loss, the rescue attempts and the aftermath of the loss. An interesting book that covers a great deal of ground
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US Navy Carrier Aircraft vs IJN Yamato Class Battleships, Pacific Theatre 1944-45, Mark Stille.
Looks at the two battles that resulted in the sinking of Yamato and Musashi, the two most powerful battleships ever completed, and the US aircraft, weapons and tactics that sank them. Interesting to bring together all of the relevant technical histories – the ships themselves, Japanese anti-aircraft guns, the US aircraft and their main weapons – in a single volume, followed by detailed accounts of the air attacks that sank the two battleships
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By the Knife, Steve Partridge .
A historical novel set largely at sea in the middle of the eighteenth century, following two intertwined lives from their formative years in England, to their repeated encounters across the oceans. Written across a very broad canvas, from the Caribbean to the west coast of Africa, Britain to the Mediterranean, and with a good feel for the naval warfare and general lawlessness of the period.
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The Great Siege of Malta - The Epic Battle between the Ottoman Empire and the Knights of St. John, Bruce Ware Allen.
Looks at one of the pivotal conflicts of the Sixteenth Century, when a massive Ottoman army attempted to capture Malta, then the main base for the Knights of St. John. This excellent history traces events from the earlier siege of Rhodes, where the Knights were defeated, through the intervening years of intermittent conflict, and on to the Great Siege itself, covering both the fighting on Malta and the attempts to raise the siege
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Critical Convoy Battles of WWII - Crisis in the North Atlantic, March 1943, Jurgen Rohwer.
Focuses on the successful U-boat attacks on convoys HX.229 and SC.122, looking at how earlier convoys were able to avoid attack, why those particular convoys were hit so hard, the methods being used by both sides, and their impact on the longer term result of the Battle of the Atlantic. A useful study, despite its age (first published in 1977), in particular because of its focus on the successful German attacks of March 1943, which thus get the attention they deserve rather than being seen as a precursor to the Allied victories later in the summer.
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USS Monitor’s turret was armed with two XI-inch Dahlgren guns resting on specially designed gun carriages. To date, one carriage has been completely dissembled and the individual pieces are undergoing their own conservation treatments. The second carriage has only been partially disassembled and is visible to visitors in its treatment tank from our special viewing platform.Read more

USS Monitor full-scale replica, outside The USS Monitor Center

The Mariners’ Museum was named the official repository for the Monitor Collection by NOAA in 1987. The collection consists of over 200 tons of priceless artifacts recovered from the iconic Civil War ironclad located within the boundaries of NOAA’s Monitor National Marine Sanctuary.

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Ironclad Revolution Exhibition

At the heart of the USS Monitor Center is the award-winning exhibition—Ironclad Revolution—a melding of artifacts, original documents, paintings, personal accounts, interactives and environments that will pique all five senses. The strategies, people, technology, and science behind the historic circumstances surrounding this story are displayed in a way the public has never before seen.Read more

As-found USS Monitor turret, upside down a full-scale replica, inside The USS Monitor Center

ZDA GUAM

USS Guam (LPH-9) keel was laid on 15 November 1962 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. She was launched 22 August 1964, and after fitting out, was commissioned 16 January 1965.

LPH-9 was the third US Navy ship to be named after the World War II Battle of Guam. The second USS Guam (CB-2) was a cruiser commisioned towards the end of the Second World War.

USS Guam (LPH-) sailed for Norfolk, VA, her new homeport in April 1965. Immediately sent on to Fleet Refresher Training in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, she returned in July 1965 to commence Amphibious Assualt Training.

Gaum then remained on the East Coast with deployments to the Caribbean in 1966, 1967 and 1969. On September 18 1966 Guam recovered the Gemini 11 space capsule with Astronauts Dick Gordon and Pete Conrad onboard.

In 1971 Gaum was choosen as a test ship for the Sea Control Ship Project. The LPH was a suitable platform for VSTOL Harrier fighters and Anti-submarine helicopters. Exercises were conducted through 1974 to evaluate the concept.

USS Guam deployed regularly to the Mediterranean Sea during the rest of her service career. The deployments were varied with North Atlantic cruises for Cold Weather Amphibious Assualt Exercises. In October 1983 Gaum participated in the invasion of Grenada and then headed directly to the Mediterranean due to the Lebanese Civil War.

After overhaul in 1985 USS Gaum returned to standing watch on the East Coast of the U.S., taking her turns with deployments to the Mediterranean and Caribbean. In August 1990 Guam departed Norfolk for the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. While deployed in January 1991 Guam was sent to Somalia to evacuate diplomatic perssonel. She returned to Norfolk in March 1991.

USS Gaum was decommissioned 25 August 1998. She sunk in a Fleet training exercise (SINKEX) 16 OCT 2001

The USS Guam (LPH-9) operational history and significant events of her service career follow:


Profiles from the Archives: William F. Parker

William Franklin Parker was born on July 30, 1897, in Wayne County, N.C., to John William and Rosa E. Parker. By 1910, the Parker family was living on a farm in Brogden, N.C., where they rented a home and William Parker was working as a farm laborer by the age of 12.

On May 1, 1917, William Parker enlisted in the U.S. Navy at the U.S. Naval Recruiting Station in Raleigh, N.C., as an Apprentice Seaman to serve in World War I. Parker was sent to Norfolk, Virginia, where he was stationed until May 30, 1917. On the same day, he was assigned to the USS Utah (BB-31), a Florida-class of dreadnought battleships. At the time Parker was aboard the ship, the USS Utah was serving around the Chesapeake Bay as an engineering and gunnery training ship.

From June 15 through July 7, 1917, Parker was in hospital at Norfolk, Virginia. By this time, he had reached the rank of fireman third class. On July 7, 1917, he returned to the USS Utah, and reached the rank of fireman second class. On August 10, 1917, Parker was transferred to the USS Kentucky (BB-6), a Kearsarge-class pre-dreadnought battleship used during this period as a training ship, where he reached the rank of fireman first class. On September 21, 1917, William Parker was sent to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to serve on a receiving ship, and by now had become an engineman second class. On October 2, 1917, Parker was assigned to his longest-tenured station ship aboard the battleship USS Indiana (BB-1).

William Parker remained aboard the USS Indiana until July 26, 1918, when he was transferred to a receiving ship in New York on August 8, 1918. On that day, Parker was assigned to his last ship, the USS Kermanshah, an Austro-Hungarian cargo ship that had sought refuge in the New York City harbor at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. In 1917, the U.S. government confiscated the cargo ship, and converted it to a military cargo ship that made trips to Europe with American military supplies in 1918. After the Armistice was declared on November 11, 1918, Parker was transferred to inactive service, and was honorably discharged on November 3, 1919, at Hampton Roads, Virginia, with the rank of engineman second class.

After the war, William Parker would marry Frances Elizabeth Paschal on March 31, 1926, in Guilford County, N.C. By 1930, the Parkers had come to live in Greensboro, N.C., and William was working as a mail carrier for the Greensboro U.S. Postal Service. Later in life, Parker transferred to working for the McLeansville, N.C., U.S. Post Office as a mail carrier, and retired from that position on October 31, 1956. The Parkers retired to the town of Shallotte in Brunswick County, N.C., prior to 1960. William F. Parker died on August 6, 1960, in Wilmington, N.C., from injuries he sustained in an automobile accident. He was buried in Guilford Memorial Park in Greensboro, N.C.

You can read William Parker's original WWI Navy pocket diary from his time aboard the USS Indiana online through the WWI collection of the North Carolina Digital Collections, a joint effort of the State Archives of North Carolina and the State Library of North Carolina.


USS Missouri : Served in World War II and Korean War

Life was exciting for 23-year-old Ensign Lee Royal in the summer of 1950. The tall, slim Texan had recently graduated from the United States Naval Academy and reported for duty on board the most famous warship in the world, the USS Missouri. Royal was wearing the gold bars of a commissioned officer, a step up from the previous year when he had served on the same ship as a midshipman on a training cruise.

The Missouri had visited England during that cruise, and Royal and two classmates had been brash enough to go to Chartwell, Winston Churchill’s country home. They wanted to shake the hand of the former British prime minister. Churchill had been even more obliging than that, taking the three young midshipmen on a tour of the grounds and then presenting them with books, cigars, and wine. An amazed bodyguard told them privately that the British statesman had been much more hospitable to them than to many of his famous visitors. The guard mentioned that Churchill was fond of navy men, Americans, and young people. The midshipmen belonged to all three categories.

By 1950, the Missouri was the U.S. Navy’s only active battleship–just a decade after the navy had considered battleships to be its foremost fighting ships. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, however, had dramatically changed the situation. Soon aircraft carriers and submarines became the navy’s primary offensive weapons, while battleships were relegated to a secondary role. They had been designed to fight gun duels against large surface vessels, but those encounters rarely occurred in World War II. The United States entered the war with a number of old, slow battleships commissioned between 1912 and 1923, which were primarily used for shore bombardment and to support amphibious landings. Only the navy’s 10 new battleships, commissioned between 1941 and 1944, were fast enough to travel in aircraft carrier task groups and provide antiaircraft protection.

USS Missouri was the last battleship the navy completed. Commissioned in June 1944, she reached the Western Pacific war zone in early 1945. The ship served with carrier forces in support of landings at Iwo Jima and Okinawa, and near the end of the war, the Missouri’s 16-inch guns bombarded industrial targets in Japan itself.

‘Mighty Mo’ became world-famous as the site of the Japanese surrender ceremony in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945, bringing World War II to an end. The Missouri and dozens of other U.S. warships arrived home to a triumphant welcome, but the nation demobilized rapidly once the hostilities ceased. At the end of the war, the navy had 23 battleships in commission but soon began withdrawing them from active service–mothballing the newest ones and scrapping the oldest. The return to peacetime defense budgets emphasized the fact that the battleships’ period of primacy was over.

By the summer of 1950, the Missouri had been downgraded from a full-fledged warship to a training vessel with a reduced crew. Economy-minded Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson would have preferred to decommission the Missouri entirely to save money, but President Harry S. Truman wouldn’t allow it. The president was particularly fond of the ship. Not only was she named for his home state, but his daughter Margaret had christened her.

When Lee Royal returned to the Missouri the year after his visit with Churchill, the ship was making another training cruise, but this time budget considerations limited her itinerary to the western Atlantic Ocean. Still, Royal found it an enjoyable experience, particularly when the battleship made a port visit to New York City in mid-August. One evening Royal and a date went to see a Broadway musical. When he returned to the ship at one in the morning the officer on the quarterdeck asked him, ‘Did you have a good time?’ The ensign replied that he had. ‘Good,’ the officer said, ‘because that’s the last one you’re going to have for some time.’ The Missouri was going back to war.

The korean war had begun a month and a half earlier, on June 25, 1950. As Communist North Korea army units advanced into South Korea, President Truman committed American troops to the hostilities. Zaradi Missouri possessed the only active 16-inch guns in the fleet–an important factor in the planning of amphibious assaults–she received orders to report for duty half a world away.

Five years earlier, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur had accepted the Japanese surrender on the captain’s veranda deck of the Missouri. Now the general was planning an invasion at the port of Inchon, behind North Korean lines. He scheduled the action for mid-September and wanted the Missouri‘s big guns to stop North Korean traffic on roads leading into the Inchon-Seoul area.

The Missouri‘s crew had much to do. The ship traveled first to her home port of Norfolk, Virginia, where she spent four days and nights taking on supplies of food, fuel, and ammunition. The battleship’s peacetime crew increased to a fighting complement of 114 officers and 2,070 enlisted men.

On Saturday morning, August 19, 1950, the 887-foot-long warship cruised through Hampton Roads and Thimble Shoal Channel and into the Atlantic Ocean. The same routine trip had been a disaster seven months earlier. On January 17, while leaving for a training cruise to Cuba, the Missouri had run aground in the same port, a huge embarrassment for the navy. Captain William D. Brown was relieved of command shortly after that.

The Missouri‘s role in the Inchon mission was considered so important that she went to sea in the face of threatening weather. That night newly appointed Captain Irving Duke and his crew paid heavily as they encountered a hurricane off North Carolina. Under normal conditions the Missouri was rock steady, but these waters were anything but normal. The wind and waves sent two helicopters over the side and caused serious damage elsewhere. Trying to outflank the storm had been a calculated risk, and the ship suffered for it.

The battleship passed through the Panama Canal and into the Pacific Ocean and proceeded to Pearl Harbor for repairs and installation of antiaircraft guns that had been removed after World War II. She then continued westward–through the Philippine archipelago and toward Japan.

Nature, though, didn’t respect the navy’s scheduling. Typhoon Kezia lay in the ship’s path. This time, Captain Duke took a more deliberate approach, following a course that diminished the risk of storms. The ship came through unscathed, but the delays from the repair period and the zigzag course kept the ship from reaching Korea in time for the Inchon invasion.

Up until this point the fighting in Korea had not been going well for the ill-prepared United Nations forces. The North Koreans had pushed steadily southward, driving the U.N. troops into the Pusan perimeter at the southern end of the Korean peninsula. MacArthur’s invasion at Inchon, however, proved to be a brilliant success even without the Missouri‘s firepower. When it became apparent that the battleship could not make it to Inchon in time for the invasion, which had to be precisely timed to take advantage of the tides, the Missouri received orders to bombard North Korean transportation facilities and ground troops along the way. When the ship finally reached Inchon on September 21, MacArthur, an old soldier who was then 70, came aboard for a visit.

Members of the ship’s Marine detachment scoffed at the theatrical general, whom some people scornfully referred to as ‘Dugout Doug.’ Some of the men under MacArthur’s command during World War II had given him the nickname due to his absence during the siege of Bataan on the PhilippineIslands.

When the five-star general arrived on board, he spoke with Captain Lawrence Kindred, commanding officer of the Missouri’s Marines. The general told him, ‘I have just returned from the far north, where your comrades-in-arms are in close combat with the enemy. And I wish to report to you that there is not a finer group of fighting men in the world than the U.S. Marines.’ The previously skeptical Kindred became an instant MacArthur fan.

The following month another famous guest boarded the Missouri. Comedian Bob Hope presented a show for the benefit of crew members gathered on the fantail for a Navy Day celebration. Hope’s time-honored formula included both humor and an attractive actress, Marilyn Maxwell.

The ground fighting improved for U.N. forces in the wake of the landings at Inchon. Later in the year, however, the situation turned around again as Chinese forces entered the war to help the North Koreans, and U.N. troops were once again pushed south. In action that became legendary in the annals of Marine Corps history, troops at frozen Chosin Reservoir fought a valiant rear-guard action. Shortly before Christmas, the Marines moved to an evacuation site in the port of Hungnam on the east coast, where the Missouri created a curtain of fire between the advancing enemy and the retreating allies. Though the ship no longer performed the ship-against-ship missions for which she was designed, her guns proved an invaluable weapon for land war, with each 16-inch projectile capable of producing a crater some 30 feet in diameter.

By 1951, the battleship had settled into a wartime routine that included bombarding enemy facilities on shore, supporting ground troops, and providing antiaircraft protection for carriers launching bombing strikes against North Korea. Periodically she would meet up with supply ships for replenishment at sea or travel to Sasebo, Japan, to take on ammunition and give the crew some free time ashore. Missouri’s first combat service in Korea ended in mid-March, six months after her arrival, and she began the long trip back to the United States.

By this time the navy had begun pulling other World War II-era ships from mothballs for return to active duty. Med njimi je bil tudi Missouri’s sister ship, New Jersey, slated as her relief. The two ships crossed paths at the Panama Canal. The Wisconsin was recommissioned in March, and the Iowa would be recommissioned in August. With all four ships of the Iowa class back in active service, the situation had changed dramatically from the previous August when Ensign Royal learned that his New York liberty had been the last good time he would see for a while. Zdaj pa Missouri became part of a regular rotation as the battleships alternated between midshipman training cruises and deployments to the 7th Fleet off Korea.

The Missouri returned to Norfolk on April 27, more than eight months after her hurried departure for the war zone. Thousands of people turned out for the homecoming celebration. As the battleship headed toward her berth at the naval station’s pier seven, a biplane flew overhead, towing a long banner that read, ‘WELCOME HOME MIGHTY MO.’

During the summers of 1951 and 1952 the Missouri resumed her role as a training ship, but in September 1952, the battleship returned for more Far East duty. Taking command for the Missouri‘s second deployment to Korea was Captain Warner Edsall. As the ship proceeded westward, Ensign Lawrence ‘Ace’ Treadwell, a recent naval academy graduate and not long married, was standing on the Missouri’s bridge when he heard Captain Edsall remark, ‘It’s great to be back to sea.’ Treadwell would have preferred to be home with his wife, but the captain realized he had one of the choicest commands in the navy, and he meant to enjoy it.

By the autumn of 1952 the Korean War had settled down to a stalemate. North Korean and U.N. representatives met at Panmunjom to seek some sort of negotiated settlement. President Truman had ruled out taking the war north to China, but he was determined to hold onto territory in South Korea during the peace talks. Torej Missouri continued her program of shore attacks.

The battleship remained so far off shore during her bombardment missions that she was essentially invulnerable. Eden izmed Missouri’s targets was the port of Wonsan, a transportation hub and industrial center on the east coast of North Korea. On March 5 and March 10, 1953, North Korean gunners at Wonsan retaliated and succeeded in firing some shrapnel onto the battleship’s broad fantail. The range was long for Missouri‘s less powerful 5-inch guns, but they were aimed toward Wonsan and pumped out 998 rounds, by far the most prolific day for the smaller guns during the deployment.

Kot je Missouri had done two years previously, she made a number of visits to Japan for re-arming and so that the crew could enjoy liberty. One of those who went sightseeing was Chief Gunner’s Mate Jack McCarron, who had served on the Missouri for roughly five years–a long tour of duty for a navy man. On December 7, 1941, McCarron had been badly burned while manning a 5-inch antiaircraft gun on the battleship Arizona during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. McCarron had the distinction of serving on the two battleships that symbolized the beginning and the end of World War II in the Pacific.

The Missouri’s last bombardment mission of the Korean War came to an end on the morning of March 25, 1953. She fired at targets in the vicinity of Kojo, just south of Wonsan. Captain Edsall was on the Missouri‘s bridge on the morning of March 26 as she steamed into port at Sasebo, Japan, the first stop on the long journey home. At 7:21 a.m., just after Edsall gave the helmsman an order, the captain grasped the arm of his executive officer, Commander Bob North, and collapsed on the deck. North directed the ship to her berth, as Edsall was pronounced dead of a heart attack. A new skipper, Captain Robert Brodie, Jr., soon came aboard to take command and shepherd the Missouri back to the United States.

In 1953, Dwight D. Eisenhower replaced Harry Truman as president of the United States, and during that summer the negotiators at Panmunjom completed armistice talks and ended the fighting. South Korea had maintained its independence, and the war had remained a limited one, although U.S. casualties totaled about 137,000.

The conflict did not end in a rousing and decisive victory like that of World War II, but the Missouri had made a significant contribution to the Korean War. She was decommissioned after the war, but in 1986 the modernized Missouri was recommissioned once more. During the Persian Gulf War five years later, the battleship again saw active service, when her guns and missiles were used against military targets in Iraq.

In 1992, the Missouri was decommissioned for the second time. Four years later the navy donated the battleship to the Honolulu-based USS Missouri Memorial Association. The Missouri will never again see combat but will open as a memorial museum in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in January 1999, allowing visitors the opportunity to board America’s most celebrated battleship.

This article was written by Paul Stillwell and originally published in the February 1999 issue of Ameriška zgodovina Revija. For more great articles, subscribe to Ameriška zgodovina revija danes!


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Komentarji:

  1. Benoni

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  2. Abracham

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  3. Berend

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  4. Wyiltun

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  5. Ronit

    zdi se še bolj smešno :)



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