Apophis

Apophis


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Apophis (znan tudi kot Apep) je velika kača, sovražnik boga sonca Ra, v staroegipčanski religiji. Sonce je bila Rajeva velika barka, ki je plula po nebu od zore do mraka in se nato spustila v podzemlje. Ko je plul skozi temo, ga je napadel Apophis, ki je skušal ubiti Raja in preprečiti sončni vzhod.

Na krovu velike ladje so v različnih obdobjih upodobljeni številni različni bogovi in ​​boginje, pa tudi upravičeni mrtvi in ​​vse to je pomagalo odbraniti kačo. Starodavni egipčanski duhovniki in laiki bi se vključevali v rituale, da bi zaščitili Raja in uničili Apofisa ter s temi obredi povezovali živo z mrtvimi in naravni red, ki so ga vzpostavili bogovi.

Apophis nikoli ni imel formalnega kulta in ni bil nikoli čaščen, vendar se bo pojavil v številnih zgodbah, ki obravnavajo njegova prizadevanja za uničenje boga sonca in vrnitev reda v kaos. Apophis je povezan s potresi, grmenjem, temo, nevihtami in smrtjo, včasih pa je povezan tudi z bogom Set, ki je povezan tudi s kaosom, neredom, nevihtami in temo. Set je bil prvotno bog zaščitnik in se večkrat pojavlja kot najmočnejši od bogov na krovu sončne božanske plošče, ki je branil ladjo pred Apofisom.

Čeprav so bile v zgodnji egipčanski zgodovini verjetno zgodbe o veliki sovražnikovi kači, se Apophis prvič pojavi po imenu v besedilih iz Srednjega kraljestva (2040-1782 pr. N. Št.) In je v poznem obdobju starega Egipta priznan kot nevarna sila (525- 332 pr. N. Št.), Zlasti v ptolemejsko obdobje (323-30 pr. N. Št.) In rimski Egipt. Večina besedil, ki ga omenjajo, izvira iz Novega kraljestva (ok. 1570–1069 pr. N. Št.), Vključno s tistim, znanim kot Knjiga strmoglavljenja Apophisa ki vsebuje rituale in uroke za premagovanje in uničenje kače. To delo je med najbolj znanimi med t.i Besedila o izjemnosti, dela, napisana kot spremstvo za obrede, ki obtožujejo in preklinjajo osebo ali entiteto, ki je ostala v uporabi skozi zgodovino starega Egipta.

Apophis je včasih upodobljen kot zvita kača, pogosto pa razkosana, razrezana na koščke ali pod napadom. Znamenita upodobitev v tej smeri prihaja iz Ura 17 iz Egipčanska knjiga mrtvih v katerem velika mačka Mau z nožem ubije Apophisa. Mau je bila božanska mačka, poosebljenje boga sonca, ki je varovala drevo življenja, ki je skrivalo skrivnosti večnega življenja in božanskega znanja. Mau je bil prisoten pri dejanju stvarjenja, ki je poosebljal zaščitni vidik Ra, in je veljal za njegovega največjega zagovornika v času novega egiptovskega kraljestva.

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Egiptolog Richard H. Wilkinson v svoji knjigi ponatisne podobo Popolni bogovi in ​​boginje starega Egipta iz groba Inerkhaua v Deir el-Medini, v katerem je viden Mau, kako brani Drevo življenja pred Apofisom, ko s svojim rezilom zareže v glavo velike kače. Spremno besedilo iz uroka 17 Knjiga mrtvih, pove, kako mačka brani Ra, in navede tudi izvor mačke v Egiptu; božansko je bil ustvarjen na začetku časa po volji bogov.

Mitološki izvor

Po najbolj priljubljenem mitu o ustvarjanju je bog Atum stal na prvotni gomili sredi vrtinčastih voda kaosa in začel ustvarjati. Bog Heka, poosebljenje magije, je bil z njim in prav s pomočjo magije je red nastal iz kaosa in pojavil se je prvi sončni vzhod. Različica tega mita je pokazala, da je boginja Neith prišla iz prvotnih voda in spet s Heko začela ustvarjanje. V obeh različicah, ki izhajata iz Besedila o krstah, Apophis se prvič pojavlja v mitologiji.

V zgodbi o Atumu je Apophis vedno obstajal in plaval v temnih vodah nediferenciranega kaosa pred ben-ben (prvotna gomila) se je dvignila iz njih. Ko se je ustvarjanje začelo, je bil Apophis jezen zaradi uvedbe dvojnosti in reda. Pred nastankom je bilo vse enotna celota, potem pa so obstajala nasprotja, kot sta voda in zemlja, svetlo in temno, moški in ženska. Apophis je postal sovražnik boga sonca, ker je bilo sonce prvo znamenje ustvarjenega sveta in je simboliziralo božanski red, svetlobo, življenje in če bi lahko pogoltnil boga sonca, bi lahko svet vrnil v enotnost teme.

Različica, v kateri Neith ustvarja urejen svet, je podobna, vendar s pomembno razliko: Apophis je ustvarjeno bitje, ki mu je življenje dano v istem trenutku kot stvarstvo. Zato ni enak najzgodnejšim bogovom, ampak njihovim podrejenim. V tej zgodbi Neith izstopi iz kaotičnih voda teme in nekaj izpljune, ko stopi na ben-ben. Njena slina postane velikanska kača, ki nato odplava, preden jo ujame. Ko je bil Neith del voda teme, tako kot v drugi pravljici, je bilo vse enotno; zdaj pa je prišlo do raznolikosti. Apophisov cilj je bil vrniti vesolje v prvotno, nediferencirano stanje.

Red proti kaosu

Mit o Apofisu pooseblja motiv, kjer bogovi, sile reda, prosijo človeštvo za pomoč pri obrambi svetlobe pred temo in življenja pred smrtjo.

Eden najbolj priljubljenih literarnih motivov srednjega egiptovskega kraljestva je bil red proti kaosu, ki ga lahko vidimo v številnih najbolj znanih delih. Opombe Ipuwerja, na primer, kaos pripovedovalčeve sedanjosti nasprotuje popolni "zlati dobi" preteklosti in Razgovor med človekom in njegovo dušo enako počne na bolj osebni ravni.

Zato ni presenetljivo, da se v tem obdobju pojavlja mit o Apophisu, ker pooseblja ta motiv. Bogovi, sile reda, prosijo človeštvo za pomoč pri obrambi svetlobe pred temo in življenja pred smrtjo; v bistvu ohraniti dvojnost in individualnost proti enotnosti in kolektivnosti.

Osebnost posameznika je bila v egipčanski kulturi zelo cenjena. Vsi bogovi so bili upodobljeni s svojimi lastnostmi, še manjša božanstva in duhovi pa so imeli svoje posebne osebnosti. Avtobiografije, vpisane na stele in grobnice, so morale zagotoviti, da oseba, ki je tam pokopana, ta posebna oseba in njeni dosežki, ne bodo nikoli pozabljena. Apophis je torej predstavljal vse, česar so se Egipčani bali: temo, pozabo in izgubo identitete.

Zrušitev Apophisa

Egipčani so verjeli, da je vsa narava prežeta z božanskostjo in to seveda vključuje tudi sonce, ki je dalo življenje. Mrki in oblačni dnevi so bili zaskrbljujoči, ker se je zdelo, da ima bog sonca težave pri vrnitvi svoje ladje nazaj v nebo. Vzrok teh težav je bil vedno Apophis, ki je nekako prebolel bogove na krovu. V zadnjem delu obdobja novega kraljestva je bilo besedilo znano kot Knjiga strmoglavljenja Apofisa izhaja iz prejšnjih ustnih tradicij, v katerih je po mnenju egiptologinje Geraldine Pinch:

Najstrašnejša božanstva v egipčanskem panteonu so bila priklicana za boj proti kaosu kače in uničenje vseh vidikov njegovega bitja, kot so njegovo telo, njegovo ime, njegova senca in njegova magija. Duhovniki so to neskončno vojno odigrali z risanjem slik ali izdelavo Apofisovih modelov. Te so preklinjali, nato pa uničili z zabadanjem, teptom in sežiganjem. (108)

Že dolgo pred pisanjem besedila pa je bil obred uveden. Ne glede na to, kolikokrat je bil Apophis poražen in ubit, je vedno znova vstal in napadel čoln boga sonca. Najmočnejši bogovi in ​​boginje bi vsako noč premagali kačo, a podnevi, ko je bog sonca počasi plul po nebu, se je Apophis regeneriral in bil v mraku spet pripravljen za nadaljevanje vojne. V besedilu, znanem kot Knjiga Gates, boginje Isis, Neith in Serket, ki jim pomagajo druga božanstva, ujamejo Apophisa in ga zadržijo v mrežah, ki jih držijo opice, Horusovi sinovi in ​​veliki zemeljski bog Geb, kjer ga nato razsekajo na koščke; naslednjo noč pa je kača spet cela in čaka na sončno barko, ko vstopi v podzemlje.

Čeprav so bili bogovi vsemogočni, so potrebovali vso pomoč, ki so jo lahko dobili, ko je šlo za Apophisa. Upravičene mrtve, ki so bili sprejeti v raj, pogosto vidimo na nebesni ladji, ki jo pomaga braniti. Urok 80 od Besedila o krstah omogoča pokojniku, da se pridruži obrambi boga sonca in njegove ladje. Kot smo že omenili, je Set eden prvih, ki je Apophisa odgnal s kopjem in palico. Kačji bog Mehen je viden tudi na krovu, ki izvira pri Apophisu, da zaščiti Ra. Egipčanska družabna igra mehenpravzaprav naj bi izviral iz Mehenove vloge na sončni barki. Skupaj z dušami mrtvih pa so imeli vlogo tudi živi. Egiptologinja Margaret Bunson opisuje ritual:

Egipčani so se zbrali v templjih, da bi naredili podobe kače v vosku. Pljuvali so po podobah, jih sežigali in pohabljali. Oblačni dnevi ali nevihte so bili znaki, da se Apophis vse bolj uveljavlja, sončni mrki pa so bili za Egipčane poseben čas groze, saj so jih razlagali kot znak smrti Raja. Bog sonca je vsakič znova zmagal in ljudje so nadaljevali z molitvami in himnami. (198)

Vsako jutro je sonce znova vzšlo in se premaknilo po nebu, ljudje pa bi ob njegovem opazovanju vedeli, da so igrali vlogo pri zmagi bogov nad silami teme in kaosa. Prvo dejanje duhovnikov v templjih po vsem Egiptu je bil ritual Prižiganje ognja ki je ponovno upodobil prvi sončni vzhod. To je bilo izvedeno tik pred zoro v nasprotju z Apofisovo željo, da ugasne luč stvarstva in vse vrne v temo.

Sledi Prižiganje ognja prišel je drugi najpomembnejši jutranji ritual, Vlečenje vijaka, v katerem so veliki duhovniki odklenili in odprli vrata notranjega svetišča, kjer je živel bog. Ta dva rituala sta oba povezana z Apofisom: Prižiganje ognja pozval luč stvarstva, da pooblasti Ra in Vlečenje vijaka prebudil boga templja iz spanja, da bi se pridružil obrambi sončne barke pred veliko kačo.

Zaključek

Rituali, ki obkrožajo Apofisa, so se nadaljevali v poznem obdobju, v katerem se zdi, da jih jemljejo resneje, kot so bili prej, in v rimskem obdobju. Ti obredi, v katerih so se ljudje skupaj z bogovi borili proti silam teme, niso bili značilni le za Apophisa. Festivali, ki so praznovali vstajenje Ozirisa, so vključevali celotno skupnost, ki je sodelovala kot dve ženski, igrali sta v delih Isis in Nephthys in pozvali Ozirisa, naj se zbudi in se vrne v življenje.

Na kraljevem festivalu Sed in drugih so udeleženci odigrali dele vojske Horusa in Seta v lažnih bitkah, ki so upodobili zmago Horusa (red) nad Setom (kaos). Na Hathorjevem festivalu so ljudi spodbudili, da so pretirano pili, da so ponovno predstavili čas nereda in uničenja, ko je Ra poslal Sekhmeta, da bi uničil človeštvo, a se je nato pokesal. Imel je velik kozarec piva, pobarvan v rdeče, postavljen na Sekhmetovo pot v Denderi, in ona je, misleč, da je kri, popila, se napila in se onesvestila. Ko se je zbudila, je bila nežen Hathor, ki je nato obnovil red in postal prijatelj človeštva.

Ti rituali so spodbudili razumevanje, da imajo človeška bitja pomembno vlogo pri delovanju vesolja. Sonce ni bil samo neoseben predmet na nebu, ki je vsako jutro vzhajal in zahajal vsak večer, ampak je bil prežet z značajem in namenom: to je barka sončnega boga, ki je ves dan zagotavljala nadaljevanje življenja in, ponoči, zahteval molitve in podporo ljudi, da bi zagotovil, da ga bodo videli naslednji dan.

Rituali, ki obkrožajo strmoglavljenje Apofisa, so predstavljali večni boj med dobrim in zlim, redom in kaosom, svetlobo in temo ter so se opirali na vsakodnevno pozornost in prizadevanja ljudi za uspeh. Človeštvo torej ni bilo le pasivni prejemnik darov bogov, ampak pomemben sestavni del delovanja vesolja.

To razumevanje se je ohranilo in ti obredi so se upoštevali vse do vzpona krščanstva v 4. stoletju n. V tem času je bil stari model človeštva kot sodelavcev z bogovi zamenjan z novim, v katerem so bila človeka padla bitja, nevredna svojega božanstva in popolnoma odvisna od božjega sina in njegove žrtve za njihovo odrešenje.

Ljudje so zdaj veljali za prejemnike daril, ki jih niso zaslužili in si jih niso zaslužili, sonce pa je izgubilo svojo posebno osebnost in namen, da bi postalo še eno od stvaritev krščanskega boga. Apophis pa bi živel v krščanski ikonografiji in mitologiji, združil se z drugimi božanstvi, kot sta Set in benigna kača Sata, kot božji nasprotnik, Satan, ki je tudi neutrudno delal, da bi prevrnil božanski red in prinesel kaos.


Asteroid se bo leta 2029 neverjetno približal Zemlji

Znanstvenike navdušuje ta asteroid, ki ga pasejo nekateri naši sateliti.

Desetletje od danes, 15. aprila 2029, bo asteroid zamajal mimo Zemlje, komaj je vse pogrešal. Asteroid z imenom Apophis & mdash bo tako blizu kot nekateri naši sateliti in le nekaj tisoč milj oddaljen od Zemljine atmosfere. To bi pomenilo enega najbližjih asteroidov v zgodovini, ki bi ga skoraj pogrešali, in neverjetno priložnost, da se znanstveniki o njem naučijo čim več.

Številni asteroidi ves čas na kratko pogrešajo Zemljo, vendar se običajno nikoli ne približajo toliko kot Luna. Apophis se vse bolj približuje & mdashand Apophis je ogromen. Premer več kot 1000 čevljev, kar pomeni, da bo dovolj velik, da bo viden s prostim očesom, ko bo letel mimo nas. Večina asteroidov, ki so nas skoraj zadeli, je prečnih le nekaj deset metrov.

Delno zaradi velike velikosti smo lahko videli, da bo Apophis prišel več kot desetletje vnaprej. To daje znanstvenikom dovolj časa za pripravo. Obstaja dolg seznam znanstvenih poskusov, ki bi jih lahko naredili, in desetletje, da se odločimo, katere želimo nadaljevati.

Razlog za tako veliko priložnost je, da nam bo Apophis vsaj za kratek čas neverjetno blizu. Bolj ko mora vesoljsko plovilo potovati, več goriva potrebuje in manj prostora imamo za namestitev znanstvene opreme. Ker je Apophis v bistvu na našem dvorišču, bi lahko poslali ogromen satelit, poln pomembnih instrumentov.

Veliko bi se lahko naučili o tem, iz česa so asteroidi, kot je Apophis. Lahko bi izvedeli, kako je bil naš sončni sistem pred milijardami let. Lahko bi spoznali zgodovino našega planeta. Lahko bi se naučili vseh vrst stvari, o katerih bi lahko šele začeli ugibati & mdasha, pripraviti pa imamo celo desetletje.


Apophis

Asteroid 99942 Apophis je skoraj zemeljski asteroid, velik več kot 1000 čevljev (več kot 300 metrov), ki bo 13. aprila 2029 neškodljivo prešel blizu Zemlje. Ko so ga leta 2004 odkrili, je asteroid vznemiril, ker so začetni izračuni pokazali majhna možnost, da bi leta 2029 vplival na Zemljo.

Po iskanju nekaterih starejših astronomskih slik so znanstveniki izključili možnost udarca leta 2029. Zdaj & rsquos je napovedal, da bo asteroid varno prehodil približno 19.900 kilometrov (31.900 kilometrov) od površine našega planeta & rsquos. Čeprav je to & rsquos varna razdalja, je & rsquos dovolj blizu, da bo asteroid prišel med Zemljo in našo Luno, ki je oddaljena približno 238.855 milj (384.400 kilometrov). Prav tako je na razdalji, da neka vesoljska plovila krožijo okoli Zemlje.

Redko je, da bi asteroid te velikosti prišel tako blizu Zemlje, čeprav so mimo na podobnih razdaljah opazili manjše asteroide v razponu od 5 do 10 metrov.

Bližnji približek Apophisa leta 2029 bo neverjetna priložnost za znanost, «je dejala Marina Brozović, radarka iz laboratorija NASA & rsquos Jet Propulsion Laboratory v Pasadeni v Kaliforniji, ki se ukvarja z radarskimi opazovanji objektov v bližini Zemlje (NEO). & ldquoOpazujemo asteroid z optičnimi in radarskimi teleskopi. Z radarskimi opazovanji bi morda lahko videli površinske podrobnosti, ki so velike le nekaj metrov. & Rdquo

Med preletom leta 2029 bo Apophis najprej viden s prostim očesom na nočnem nebu nad južno poloblo in bo videti kot delček svetlobe, ki se giblje od vzhoda proti zahodu nad Avstralijo. Na vzhodni obali ZDA bo sredi jutra, ko bo Apophis nad Avstralijo.

Apophis bo nato prečkal Indijski ocean, nadaljujoč proti zahodu pa bo prečkal ekvator nad Afriko.

Pri najbližjem približevanju Zemlji, malo pred 18. uro. EDT, 13. aprila 2029, bo Apophis nad Atlantskim oceanom. Premikal se bo tako hitro, da bo čez eno uro prečkal Atlantik. Do 19. ure. EDT, bo asteroid prečkal Združene države.

Ko bo šel mimo Zemlje, bo postajal svetlejši in hitrejši. V nekem trenutku se bo zdelo, da bo v minuti potoval več kot širina polne Lune in bo tako svetel kot zvezde v Mali medvedi.

Apophis je dobil ime po demonski kači, ki je poosebljala zlo in kaos v staroegipčanski mitologiji.

Raziskovanje

Apophis so 19. junija 2004 odkrili astronomi Roy Tucker, David Tholen in Fabrizio Bernardi na nacionalnem observatoriju Kitt Peak v Tucsonu v Arizoni. Asteroid so lahko opazovali le dva dni zaradi tehničnih in vremenskih težav. Na srečo je ekipa na Siding Spring Observatory v Avstraliji pozneje istega leta znova opazila asteroid.

Optični in radarski teleskopi od odkritja sledijo Apophisu, ki kroži okoli Sonca, znanstveniki pa so prepričani, da poznajo njegovo prihodnjo pot. Trenutni izračuni kažejo, da ima Apophis še vedno zelo majhno možnost, da bo vplival na Zemljo manj kot 1 na 100.000 čez mnogo desetletij.

Najpomembnejša opažanja Apophisa bodo priletela ob njegovem bližnjem preletu Zemlje leta 2029. Znanstveniki po vsem svetu bodo proučevali velikost, obliko, sestavo in celo notranjost asteroida rsquos.

Velikost in razdalja

Apophis je asteroid širok 1120 čevljev (340 metrov širok). To je približno tri in pol nogometna igrišča.

Najdlje lahko Apophis doseže razdaljo približno 2 astronomskih enot (ena astronomska enota, skrajšano AU, je razdalja od Sonca do Zemlje.) Stran od Zemlje. Pričakuje se, da bo 13. aprila 2029 varno prešel blizu Zemlje in 31.860 kilometrov od površine našega planeta & mdash blizu 31.860 kilometrov (19.794 milj). To je najbližji približek asteroida te velikosti, za katerega so znanstveniki vedeli že vnaprej.

Orbita in rotacija

Apofisova orbita prečka Zemljino orbito. Obrne se okoli Sonca v nekaj manj kot enem zemeljskem letu (približno 0,9 leta). To ga uvršča v skupino asteroidov, ki prečkajo Zemljo, znanih kot & quotAtens, & quot; katerih orbite so po širini manjše od širine Zemljine orbite ali 1 AU. Zaradi bližnjega srečanja z Zemljo leta 2029 se bo orbita asteroida razširila in postala nekoliko večja od širine Zemljine orbite. Na tej točki bo prerazvrščena iz skupine Aten v skupino & quotApollo & quot (skupina asteroidov, ki prečkajo Zemljo, s tirnicami širšimi od 1 AU).

Asteroid & ldquowoble & rdquo, ko se vrti okoli svoje kratke osi, običajno se vrti približno enkrat na 30 ur. Včasih obstaja tudi gibanje & ldquorocking & rdquo naprej in nazaj okoli njegove dolge osi, ki se pojavi v daljšem časovnem obdobju kot nihanje kratke osi. (Tehnični izraz za to zibanje je & ldquonon-rotacija glavne osi. & Rdquo)

Struktura

Apophis je razvrščen kot asteroid tipa S ali kamen, sestavljen iz silikatnih (ali skalnatih) materialov in mešanice kovinskega niklja in železa. Radarske slike kažejo, da je podolgovat in ima lahko dva režnja, zaradi česar je videti kot arašid. Po tem preletu Zemlje leta 2029 se bo izvedelo veliko več o tej asteroidni zgradbi.

Oblikovanje

Tako kot vsi asteroidi je tudi Apophis ostanek zgodnje tvorbe našega sončnega sistema pred približno 4,6 milijarde let. Izvira iz glavnega asteroidnega pasu med Marsom in Jupitrom. Več milijonov let se je njegova orbita spremenila predvsem zaradi gravitacijskega vpliva velikih planetov, kot je Jupiter, tako da zdaj kroži okoli Sonca bližje Zemlji. Posledično je Apophis razvrščen kot asteroid blizu Zemlje, v nasprotju z asteroidom glavnega pasu.

Površina

Slik površine asteroida Apophis ni v visoki ločljivosti, vendar je verjetno podoben površinam drugih asteroidov kamnitega tipa, kot je Itokawa, prvi asteroid, s katerega so bili zajeti vzorci in pripeljani na Zemljo za analizo.


Vpliv asteroidnega Apofisa / premagovanje brezupa

V naši nočni oddaji za zahvalni dan, raziskovalec starodavne mitologije in paranormalnih pojavov, je Tom Horn delil prepričanje, da bo asteroid Apophis na Zemljo udaril 29. aprila 2029, v petek, 13., in to bi lahko bil dogodek "pelin", o katerem je bilo napovedano leta knjiga Razodetja. Horn je dejal, da se mu je v življenju uresničilo več preroških sanj, na primer leta 2010, ko je imel vizijo, da bo sedanji papež odstopil (res je Benedikt odstopil leta 2013). Torej, ko je imel v začetku leta 2019 še eno močno vizijo, ji je dal verodostojnost. Najprej je zagledal rogato kačo, široko stotine čevljev, valovito proti Zemlji. Njegov pogled se je spremenil v pogled iz zraka in nato je objekt prepoznal kot asteroid. Na Zemlji zasliši neverjeten razcvet, ko se asteroid spušča v Pacifik, cunami pa je zajel skoraj polovico sveta. "Vzdušje," je nadaljeval, "prežeto z ožganimi delci, ki prihajajo iz vrele vode oceana," ko ljudje tečejo za svoja življenja.

Ko se je vizija končala, je slišal, da je nekaj zašepetalo besedo "Apophis"- ime, ki ga je NASA uporabila za asteroid (od egipčanskega boga uničenja). Medtem ko so astronomi govorili, da bo Apophis prišel na razdaljo 19.000 milj od našega planeta, Horn meni, da se prikriva, in navedel prispevek znanstvenika Nathana Myrhvolda, ki trdi, da NASA močno podcenjuje nevarnosti asteroidov in objektov v bližini Zemlje. Kartiranje kaže, da bo Apophis, če bo udaril na Zemljo, prišel vzdolž obale Kalifornije in Mehike ter sprožil eksplozijo, ki je enaka milijardi ton TNT ali več kot 65.000 jedrskih bojnih glav, je opozoril Horn. Medtem ko se za poskus spreminjanja poti asteroida lahko uporabijo eksotične tehnologije, kolikor ve, še niso popolnoma razvite.

V drugi polovici so avtor, motivacijski govornik, minister za enotnost in praktični šaman, časnik Temple Hayes, razpravljali o težavah osamljenosti, depresije in pomanjkanja pomena ter o tem, kako premagati pomanjkanje ljubezni in pretiran občutek brezupa. Njena skrb je, da ljudje "umrejo, medtem ko živijo"- na primer tisti v službah ali odnosih, ki so nevzdržni ali jih premagajo stiske. Sodeluje v prihajajočem filmu "Nikoli nisem sam" za ozaveščanje o preprečevanju samomorov in duševnem zdravju. Medtem ko imajo ljudje več načinov povezovanja z drugimi kot kdaj koli prej, se mnogi počutijo odklopljene in neveljavne, je poudarila.

V praksi Hayes poskuša ljudi usmeriti nazaj v občutek veselja do svojega življenja. Ljudje bi morali pogledati svoje sisteme prepričanj in programiranje, je svetovala, na primer, kako nekatere religije vse označujejo za grešnike, kar prispeva k občutku ničvrednosti. Njena brezplačna aplikacija Mind Dive ponuja predloge za različne pogoje. Na primer, če uporabnik klikne na depresijo ali tesnobo, bo aplikacija predstavila različna priporočila, kot so eterično olje, poučevanje ali vadba.


Znanstveniki zdaj načrtujejo, da bo Asteroid preletel desetletje stran

13. aprila 2029 bo delček svetlobe razpršil nebo in postajal svetlejši in hitrejši. V nekem trenutku bo v minuti potoval več kot širina polne Lune in postal svetel kot zvezde v Mali medvedi. Ne bo pa satelit ali letalo, mdashit pa bo 340 metrov širok asteroid blizu Zemlje, imenovan 99942 Apophis, ki bo neškodljivo križal po Zemlji, približno 19.000 milj (31.000 km) nad površjem. To & rsquos znotraj razdalje, kot je nekaj naših vesoljskih plovil, ki krožijo okoli Zemlje.

Mednarodna raziskovalna skupnost asteroidov ne bi mogla biti bolj navdušena.

Ta teden se bodo na konferenci o planetarni obrambi 2019 v College Parku v Marylandu zbrali znanstveniki, ki bodo razpravljali o načrtih opazovanja in znanstvenih priložnostih za nebesni dogodek, ki je oddaljen še desetletje. Na seji 30. aprila bodo znanstveniki razpravljali o vsem, od tega, kako opazovati dogodek, do hipotetičnih misij, ki bi jih lahko poslali na asteroid.

Bližnji približek Apophisa leta 2029 bo neverjetna priložnost za znanost, «je dejala Marina Brozović, radarka iz laboratorija NASA & rsquos Jet Propulsion Laboratory v Pasadeni v Kaliforniji, ki se ukvarja z radarskimi opazovanji objektov v bližini Zemlje (NEO). & ldquoOpazujemo asteroid z optičnimi in radarskimi teleskopi. Z radarskimi opazovanji bi morda lahko videli površinske podrobnosti, ki so velike le nekaj metrov. & Rdquo

Redko je, da bi asteroid te velikosti šel mimo Zemlje tako blizu. Čeprav so znanstveniki opazili majhne asteroide, velikosti 5-10 metrov, ki letijo po Zemlji na podobni razdalji, je asteroidov velikosti Apophis veliko manj, zato ne gredo tako blizu Zemlje.

Asteroid, ki je videti kot premikajoča se zvezda podobna svetlobna točka, bo najprej viden s prostim očesom na nočnem nebu nad južno poloblo, ki bo letel nad Zemljo od vzhodne obale do zahodne obale Avstralije. Na vzhodni obali Združenih držav Amerike bo sredi jutra, ko bo Apophis nad Avstralijo. Nato bo prečkal Indijski ocean, do popoldneva na vzhodu ZDA pa bo prečkal ekvator in se še vedno premikal proti zahodu, nad Afriko. Pri najbližjem pristopu, malo pred 18. uro. EDT, Apophis bo nad Atlantskim oceanom & ndash in se bo premikal tako hitro, da bo čez eno uro prečkal Atlantik. Do 19. ure. EDT, bo asteroid prečkal Združene države.

Skupina astronomov na Nacionalnem observatoriju Kitt Peak je junija 2004. odkrila Apophisa. Astronomi so lahko odkrili asteroid le dva dni, preden so tehnične in vremenske težave preprečile nadaljnja opazovanja. Na srečo je druga ekipa pozneje istega leta pri Siding Spring Survey v Avstraliji znova odkrila asteroid. Opazovanja so povzročila precej razburjenja. Mdashinitial orbitalni izračuni so pokazali, da je imel asteroid 2,7% možnosti, da bi leta 2029 udaril v Zemljo. Na srečo so dodatna opazovanja izboljšala orbito in popolnoma izključila to možnost.

Od odkritja so optični in radarski teleskopi sledili Apophisu, ko se nadaljuje na svoji orbiti okoli Sonca, zato njegovo prihodnjo pot dobro poznamo. Trenutni izračuni kažejo, da ima Apophis še vedno majhne možnosti, da bo vplival na Zemljo, manj kot 1 na 100.000 čez mnogo desetletij, vendar je pričakovati, da bodo prihodnje meritve njegovega položaja izključile morebitne vplive.

Najpomembnejša opazovanja Apophisa se bodo zgodila leta 2029, ko bodo imeli znanstveniki asteroidov po vsem svetu priložnost podrobno proučiti velikost, obliko, sestavo in morda celo notranjost Apophisa.

Na konferenci bodo znanstveniki razpravljali o vprašanjih, kot so & ldquoKako bo Zemljina & rsquos gravitacija vplivala na asteroid, ki prehaja mimo? & Rdquo, & ldquo Ali lahko uporabimo letenje Apophis & rsquo za spoznavanje notranjosti asteroida & rsquos? & Rdquo in & ldquo Ali naj pošljemo misijo vesoljskega plovila?

& ldquo Že vemo, da bo bližnje srečanje z Zemljo spremenilo orbito Apophis & rsquo, vendar naši modeli prav tako kažejo, da bi bližnji pristop lahko spremenil način vrtenja tega asteroida, možno pa je, da bo prišlo do nekaterih površinskih sprememb, kot so majhni plazovi, & rdquo je dejal Davide Farnocchia , astronom v JPL & rsquos Centru za študije objektov blizu Zemlje (CNEOS), ki skupaj z Brozovićem sopredseduje 30. aprila na zasedanju Apophis.

& ldquoApophis je predstavnik približno 2000 trenutno znanih potencialno nevarnih asteroidov (PHA), «je dejal Paul Chodas, direktor CNEOS. & ldquo Z opazovanjem Apofisa med preletom leta 2029 bomo pridobili pomembno znanstveno znanje, ki bi ga nekoč lahko uporabili za obrambo planetov. & rdquo


5 načrtov za odhod z asteroida ubijalca Apophis

V petek, 13. aprila 2029 bi lahko bil za planet Zemljo zelo nesrečen dan. Ob 4:36 uri po srednjem času po Greenwichu bo 25-milijonski tonski asteroid, širok 820 čevljev, imenovan 99942 Apophis, prerezal orbito lune in se sodil proti Zemlji s hitrostjo več kot 28.000 km / h. Ogromna luknjasta skala, ki je dve tretjini velikosti Hudičevega stolpa v Wyomingu, bo energijo 65.000 bomb v Hirošimi-dovolj, da izbrišejo majhno državo ali dvignejo 800 čevljev. cunami.

Na ta dan pa se ne pričakuje, da bo Apophis dočakal svojega soimenjaka, staroegipčanskega boga teme in uničenja. Znanstveniki so 99,7 -odstotno prepričani, da bo prešel na razdalji od 18.800 do 20.800 milj. Astronomsko gledano je 20.000 milj le streljaj, krajše od povratnega leta iz New Yorka v Melbourne v Avstraliji, pa tudi v orbitah številnih geosinhronih komunikacijskih satelitov Zemlje. Nekaj ​​ur po mraku bodo ljudje v Evropi, Afriki in zahodni Aziji videli nekaj, kar izgleda kot srednje svetla zvezda, ki se plazi proti zahodu skozi ozvezdje Raka, s čimer je Apophis prvi asteroid v človeški zgodovini, ki je jasno viden s prostim očesom . In potem bo izginilo, ko je izginilo v temni prostranosti prostora. Izognili se bomo vesoljski krogli.

Mogoče. Znanstveniki izračunajo, da bo šel Apophis na razdaljo natančno 18893 milj skozi "gravitacijsko ključavnico". Ta majhna vesoljska regija-široka le približno pol milje ali dvakratni premer samega asteroida-je tam, kjer bi Zemljina gravitacija motila Apophisa na povsem napačen način, zaradi česar bi lahko vstopil v orbito sedem šestin, kolikor je zemeljska . Z drugimi besedami, planet bo ravno v križišču zaradi potencialno katastrofalnega udarca asteroida natanko sedem let pozneje, 13. aprila 2036.

Z radarskim in optičnim sledenjem med poletjem Apophisa lani poleti je verjetnost, da asteroid preide skozi ključavnico, približno 45.000 proti 1. "Ljudje težko razmišljajo o tveganjih z majhno verjetnostjo/posledicami," pravi Michael DeKay iz Centra za zaznavanje in komuniciranje tveganj na Univerzi Carnegie Mellon. "Nekateri pravijo:" Zakaj bi se trudili, to se res ne bo zgodilo. " Drugi pa pravijo, da če so možne posledice tako resne, je celo majhno tveganje nesprejemljivo. "

Nekdanji astronavt Rusty Schweickart, zdaj 71 let, ve nekaj o objektih, ki letijo po vesolju, saj je bil sam med vesoljskim sprehodom na misiji Apollo 9 leta 1969. S fundacijo B612, ki jo je soustanovil leta 2001, je bil Schweickart spodbuditi NASA, naj naredi nekaj glede Apophisa-in kmalu. "Moramo ukrepati," pravi. "Če bomo to razstrelili, bo to kaznivo."

If the dice do land the wrong way in 2029, Apophis would have to be deflected by some 5000 miles to miss the Earth in 2036. Hollywood notwithstanding, that's a feat far beyond any current human technology. The fanciful mission in the 1998 movie Armageddon--to drill a hole more than 800 ft. into an asteroid and detonate a nuclear bomb inside it--is about as technically feasible as time travel. In reality, after April 13, 2029, there would be little we could do but plot the precise impact point and start evacuating people.

According to projections, an Apophis impact would occur somewhere along a curving 30-mile-wide swath stretching across Russia, the Pacific Ocean, Central America and on into the Atlantic. Managua, Nicaragua San José, Costa Rica and Caracas, Venezuela, all would be in line for near-direct hits and complete destruction. The most likely target, though, is several thousand miles off the West Coast, where Apophis would create a 5-mile-wide, 9000-ft.-deep "crater" in the water. The collapse of that transient water crater would trigger tsunamis that would hammer California with an hour-long fusillade of 50-ft. waves.

BUT DON'T EVACUATE ravnokar. Although we can't force Apophis to miss the Earth after 2029, we have the technology to nudge it slightly off course well before then, causing it to miss the keyhole in the first place. According to NASA, a simple 1-ton "kinetic energy impactor" spacecraft thumping into Apophis at 5000 mph would do the trick. We already have a template for such a mission: NASA's Deep Impact space probe--named after another 1998 cosmic-collision movie--slammed into the comet Tempel 1 in 2005 to gather data about the composition of its surface. Alternatively, an ion-drive-powered "gravity tractor" spacecraft could hover above Apophis and use its own tiny gravity to gently pull the asteroid off course.

In 2005, Schweickart urged NASA administrator Michael Griffin to start planning a mission to land a radio transponder on Apophis. Tracking data from the device would almost certainly confirm that the asteroid won't hit the keyhole in 2029, allowing everyone on Earth to breathe a collective sigh of relief. But if it didn't, there still would be time to design and launch a deflection mission, a project that Schweickart estimates could take as long as 12 years. It would need to be completed by about 2026 to allow enough time for a spacecraft's tiny nudge to take effect.

NASA, however, is taking a wait-and-see attitude. An analysis by Steven Chesley of the Near Earth Object program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif., concludes that we can safely sit tight until 2013. That's when Apophis swings by Earth in prime position for tracking by the 1000-ft.-dia. radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. This data could also rule out a keyhole hit in 2029. But if it doesn't, the transponder mission and, if necessary, a last-resort deflection mission could still be launched in time, according to Chesley. "There's no rush right now," he says. "But if it's still serious by 2014, we need to start designing real missions."

About 100 tons of interplanetary material drifts to the Earth's surface on a daily basis. Occasionally, an object hurtles with enough force to leave a mark.

ASTEROIDS are large rocky or metal bodies that originate in the relatively warm inner solar system, in the region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

COMETS are composed mostly of water ice and rock, and form in the cold outer solar system beyond the planets' orbits. Scientists believe comets may have delivered the first organic compounds to Earth billions of years ago.

METEOROIDS are either pieces of asteroids that collided in space, or debris released by vaporizing comets. When meteoroids enter Earth's atmosphere, they are called meteors, and when they reach its surface they are called meteorites. So far, the remnants of more than 160 impact craters have been identified on Earth. Here are six of the most notable:

Diameter: 236 miles

Cause: 6-mile-wide comet

Claim to fame: Though now the most eroded, Vredefort is the oldest and (at impact) the largest such crater on Earth. It was created by the world's greatest known energy release, which may have altered the evolution of single-cell organisms.

Predicting asteroid orbits can be a messy business, as the history of tracking Apophis in its 323-day orbit demonstrates. Astronomers at Arizona's Kitt Peak National Observatory discovered the asteroid in June 2004. It was six months before additional sightings&mdashmany made by amateurs using backyard telescopes&mdashtriggered alarm bells at JPL, home to the Sentry asteroid-impact monitoring system, a computer that predicts the orbits of near-Earth asteroids based on astronomical observations. Sentry's impact predictions then grew more ominous by the day. On Dec. 27, 2004, the odds of a 2029 impact reached 2.7 percent&mdasha figure that stirred great excitement in the small world of asteroid chasers. Apophis vaulted to an unprecedented rating of 4 on the Torino Impact Hazard Scale, a 10-step, color-coded index of asteroid and comet threat levels.

But the commotion was short-lived. When previously overlooked observations were fed into the computer, it spit out reassuring news: Apophis would not hit the Earth in 2029 after all, though it wouldn't miss by much. Oh, and there was one other thing: that troublesome keyhole.

The small size of the gravitational keyhole&mdashjust 2000 ft. in diameter&mdashis both a blessing and a curse. On the one hand, it wouldn't take much to nudge Apophis outside it. Calculations suggest that if we change Apophis's velocity by a mere 0.0001 mph&mdashabout 31 in. per day&mdashin three years its orbit would be deflected by more than a mile, a piddling amount, but enough to miss the keyhole. That's easily within the capabilities of a gravity tractor or kinetic energy impactor. On the other hand, with a target so minuscule, predicting precisely where Apophis will pass in relation to the keyhole becomes, well, a hit-or-miss proposition. Current orbit projections for 2029 have a margin of error&mdashorbital scientists call it the error ellipse&mdashof about 2000 miles. As data rolls in, the error ellipse will shrink considerably. But if the keyhole stubbornly stays within it, NASA may have to reduce the ellipse to a mile or less before it knows for sure whether Apophis will hit the bull's-eye. Otherwise, a mission risks inadvertently nudging Apophis into the keyhole instead of away from it.

Can we predict Apophis's orbit to the submile level far enough in advance to launch a deflection mission? That level of forecasting accuracy would require, in addition to a transponder, a vastly more complex orbital calculation model than the one used today. It would have to include calculations for such minute effects as solar radiation, relativity and the gravitational pulls of small nearby asteroids, none of which are fully accounted for in the current model.

And then there's the wild card of asteroid orbital calculations: the Yarkovsky Effect. This small but steady force occurs when an asteroid radiates more heat from one side than the other. As an asteroid rotates away from the sun, the heat that has accumulated on its surface is shed into space, giving it a slight push in the other direction. An asteroid called 6489 Golevka, twice the size of Apophis, has been pushed about 10 miles off course by this effect in the past 15 years. How Apophis will be influenced over the next 23 years is anybody's guess. At the moment we have no clue about its spin direction or axis, or even its shape&mdashall necessary parameters for estimating the effect.

IF APOPHIS IS INDEED headed for the gravitational keyhole, ground observations won't be able to confirm it until at least 2021. By that time, it may be too late to do anything about it. Considering what's at stake&mdashChesley estimates that an Apophis-size asteroid impact would cost $400 billion in infrastructure damage alone&mdashit seems prudent to start taking steps to deal with Apophis long before we know whether those steps will eventually prove necessary. When do we start? Or, alternatively, at what point do we just cross our fingers and hope it misses? When the odds are 10-to-1 against it? A thousand-to-1? A million?

When NASA does discover a potentially threatening asteroid like Apophis, it has no mandate to decide whether, when or how to take action. "We're not in the mitigation business," Chesley says. A workshop to discuss general asteroid-defense options last June was NASA's first official baby step in that direction.

If NASA eventually does get the nod&mdashand more important, the budget&mdashfrom Congress, the obvious first move would be a reconnaissance mission to Apophis. Schweickart estimates that "even gold-plated at JPL," a transponder-equipped gravity tractor could be launched for $250 million. Ironically, that's almost precisely the cost of making the cosmic-collision movies Armageddon and Deep Impact. If Hollywood can pony up a quarter of a billion in the name of defending our planet, why can't Congress?


Apophis through the keyhole

We know the position and orbit of the planets with quite some precision, but for smaller objects like asteroids there is always some uncertainty in their trajectories. To make things more complicated, as asteroids pass by massive objects with huge gravitational forces, their path is altered and this uncertainty in their trajectory is amplified.

Before the latest radar measurements of Apophis were taken, its orbit was understood with enough accuracy to predict a series of safe close approaches over the coming decades.

The next and closest of these swing-bys will take place on Friday, 13 April 2029, when Apophis will pass less than 35 000 km from Earth and be visible to the naked eye. At ten times closer than the Moon, Apophis will be closer than satellites orbiting in the Geostationary ring.

At this distance, Earth’s gravity will have a notable impact on the passing space rock, altering its path and amplifying the uncertainty in its orbit and in possible future impacts.

What was not known previously is whether the 2029 flyby would alter Apophis’ orbit in just the ‘right’ way that it would collide with Earth in a future orbit around the Sun. To do this, Apophis would pass through what’s called a ‘gravitational keyhole’, leading to a potential (but still very unlikely) impact in 2068.

“With the support of recent optical observations and radar observations, the uncertainty in Apophis’ orbit has collapsed from hundreds of kilometres to just a handful of kilometres when projected to 2029,” explains Davide Farnocchia of NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS).

Fortunately, these latest radar observations have reduced the uncertainty in Apophis’ trajectory to such an extent that even with the orbit-altering effects of the upcoming 2029 flyby, any chance of impact in 2068 or long after has been ruled out.


Vau! Huge Asteroid Apophis Won't Hit Earth in 2036

The Earth is safe from the giant asteroid Apophis when it flies extremely close to our planet in 2029, then returns for seconds in 2036, NASA scientists announced today (Jan. 10). The chances of an impact in 2036 are less than one in a million, they added.

Asteroid Apophis — which is the size of three and a half football fields — was discovered in June 2004 and gained infamy after a preliminary study suggested it had a 2.7 percent chance of hitting the Earth during its 2029 flyby. Subsequent observations ruled out an impact in 2029, but astronomers were closely studying Apophis&rsquo return in 2036.

Now, new observations of asteroid Apophis recorded Wednesday (Jan.9) have revealed the space rock poses no real threat to the Earth in 2036, NASA officials said. Astronomers tracked the asteroid as Apophis made a distant flyby of Earth at a range of about 9.3 million miles (15 million kilometers).

"The impact odds as they stand now are less than one in a million, which makes us comfortable saying we can effectively rule out an Earth impact in 2036,&rdquo Don Yeomans, manager of NASA's Near-Earth Object Program Office, said in a statement. The office is based at the agency's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. [See Photos of Giant Asteroid Apophis]

"Our interest in asteroid Apophis will essentially be for its scientific interest for the foreseeable future," Yeomans said.

And that scientific interest will be high.

When Apophis buzzes the Earth on April 13, 2029, it will come within 19,400 miles (31,300 km) of our planet. That's closer than some geostationary satellites, which orbit the Earth at a range of 22,370 miles (36,000 km), and will be the closest flyby of an asteroid the size of Apophis in recorded history, NASA officials said.

"But much sooner, a closer approach by a lesser-known asteroid is going to occur in the middle of next month when a 40-meter-sized asteroid, 2012 DA14, flies safely past Earth's surface at about 17,200 miles," said Yeomans. "With new telescopes coming online, the upgrade of existing telescopes and the continued refinement of our orbital determination process, there's never a dull moment working on near-Earth objects."

Also on Wednesday, the European Space Agency announced that new observations of Apophis by the infrared Herschel Space Observatory revealed that the asteroid is about 1,066 feet (325 meters) wide, nearly 20 percent larger than a previous estimate of 885 feet (270 m). It is also 75 percent more massive than previous estimates, ESA officials said.

The new observations of asteroid Apophis this week were made by astronomers at the Magdalena Ridge observatory, operated by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the University of Hawaii's Pan-STARRS telescope. The observations were combined with data from NASA's Goldstone Solar System Radar to rule out any chance of a 2036 impact.

NASA astronomers regularly use telescopes on Earth and in space to search for any asteroids that may pose an impact threat to Earth.


NASA Analysis: Earth Is Safe From Asteroid Apophis for 100-Plus Years

The near-Earth object was thought to pose a slight risk of impacting Earth in 2068, but now radar observations have ruled that out.

After its discovery in 2004, asteroid 99942 Apophis had been identified as one of the most hazardous asteroids that could impact Earth. But that impact assessment changed as astronomers tracked Apophis and its orbit became better determined.

Now, the results from a new radar observation campaign combined with precise orbit analysis have helped astronomers conclude that there is no risk of Apophis impacting our planet for at least a century.

Estimated to be about 1,100 feet (340 meters) across, Apophis quickly gained notoriety as an asteroid that could pose a serious threat to Earth when astronomers predicted that it would come uncomfortably close in 2029. Thanks to additional observations of the near-Earth object (NEO), the risk of an impact in 2029 was later ruled out, as was the potential impact risk posed by another close approach in 2036. Until this month, however, a small chance of impact in 2068 still remained.
When Apophis made a distant flyby of Earth around March 5, astronomers took the opportunity to use powerful radar observations to refine the estimate of its orbit around the Sun with extreme precision, enabling them to confidently rule out any impact risk in 2068 and long after.

This animation depicts the orbital trajectory of asteroid 99942 Apophis as it zooms safely past Earth on April 13, 2029. Earth’s gravity will slightly deflect the trajectory as the 1,100-foot-wide (340-meter-wide) near-Earth object comes within 20,000 miles (32,000 kilometers) of our planet’s surface. The motion has been speeded up 2,000 times.

“A 2068 impact is not in the realm of possibility anymore, and our calculations don’t show any impact risk for at least the next 100 years,” said Davide Farnocchia of NASA’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS), which is managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. “With the support of recent optical observations and additional radar observations, the uncertainty in Apophis’ orbit has collapsed from hundreds of kilometers to just a handful of kilometers when projected to 2029. This greatly improved knowledge of its position in 2029 provides more certainty of its future motion, so we can now remove Apophis from the risk list.”

Farnocchia was referring to the Sentry Impact Risk Table. Maintained by CNEOS, the table keeps tabs on the few asteroids whose orbits take them so close to Earth that an impact can’t be ruled out. With the recent findings, the Risk Table no longer includes Apophis.

Relying on optical telescopes and ground-based radar to help characterize every known near-Earth object’s orbit to improve long-term hazard assessments, CNEOS computes high-precision orbits in support of NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office.

These images of asteroid Apophis were recorded by radio antennas at the Deep Space Network’s Goldstone complex in California and the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. The asteroid was 10.6 million miles (17 million kilometers) away, and each pixel has a resolution of 127 feet (38.75 meters). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech and NSF/AUI/GBO

To arrive at the latest Apophis calculations, astronomers turned to the 70-meter (230-foot) radio antenna at the Deep Space Network’s Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California, to precisely track Apophis’ motion. “Although Apophis made a recent close approach with Earth, it was still nearly 10.6 million miles [17 million kilometers] away. Even so, we were able to acquire incredibly precise information about its distance to an accuracy of about 150 meters [490 feet],” said JPL scientist Marina Brozovic, who led the radar campaign. “This campaign not only helped us rule out any impact risk, it set us up for a wonderful science opportunity.”

Goldstone also worked in a collaboration with the 100-meter (330-foot) Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia in order to enable imaging of Apophis Goldstone was transmitting while Green Bank was receiving – a “bistatic” experiment that doubled the strength of the received signal.

Although the radar imagery of Apophis appears pixelated, the images have a resolution of 38.75 meters (127 feet) per pixel, “which is a remarkable resolution, considering the asteroid was 17 million kilometers away, or about 44 times the Earth-Moon distance,” added Brozovic. “If we had binoculars as powerful as this radar, we would be able to sit in Los Angeles and read a dinner menu at a restaurant in New York.”

As the radar team further analyzes their data, they also hope to learn more about the asteroid’s shape. Previous radar observations have suggested that Apophis has a “bilobed,” or peanutlike, appearance. This is a relatively common shape among the near-Earth asteroids larger than 660 feet (200 meters) in diameter at least one in six have two lobes.

Astronomers are also working to develop a better understanding of the asteroid’s rotation rate and the axis it spins around (known as its spin state). That knowledge will enable them to determine the orientation the asteroid will have with Earth as it encounters our planet’s gravitational field in 2029, which could change that spin state and even cause “asteroid quakes.”

On April 13, 2029, the asteroid Apophis will pass less than 20,000 miles (32,000 kilometers) from our planet’s surface – closer than the distance of geosynchronous satellites. During that 2029 close approach, Apophis will be visible to observers on the ground in the Eastern Hemisphere without the aid of a telescope or binoculars. It’s also an unprecedented opportunity for astronomers to get a close-up view of a solar system relic that is now just a scientific curiosity and not an immediate hazard to our planet.

“When I started working with asteroids after college, Apophis was the poster child for hazardous asteroids,” said Farnocchia. “There’s a certain sense of satisfaction to see it removed from the risk list, and we’re looking forward to the science we might uncover during its close approach in 2029.”


Large asteroid Apophis will safely fly by Earth on Friday

Our solar system's most infamous asteroid will pass by Earth on Friday (March 5), and with a high-end telescope you can watch it as it safely whizzes by our planet.

We're talking about none other than asteroid 99942 Apophis, which will come even closer to Earth on April 13, 2029, when it passes through the zone of high-altitude satellites. But even then, Apophis won't hit Earth as some had predicted — so instead, let's focus on what science is coming from these flybys.

The near-Earth asteroid is roughly 1,000 feet (300 meters) across and was discovered in 2004. Initial early estimates suggested there was a small chance of Apophis hitting Earth in 2029, but scientists ruled out that possibility after looking at archival images, NASA said.

Even though the planet is not in danger, however, scientists will still appreciate the rare flybys in 20210 and 2029 to look at the shape of the asteroid — and perhaps even surface features in 2029 — in our ongoing study to learn more about asteroids, which have been around since early in the solar system's history (our neighborhood came together roughly 4.5 billion years ago).

Apophis' closest approach Friday will be at 0.11 astronomical units (an astronomical unit is the average distance between the Earth and the sun, or roughly 93 million miles or 150 million kilometers). While the flyby is close in astronomical terms, Apophis will remain at a distance of 44 times the distance between the Earth and the moon.

Personal telescopes may struggle to see Apophis due to its faintness, as it's only going to have a visual magnitude of roughly 15 or 16, according to EarthSky. You'll either need a 12-inch diameter or larger telescope to spot it visually, or to equip a slightly smaller telescope with a sensitive camera to process the images for later viewing.

Your best chance to see it may be early on Saturday (May 6), when Unistellar Optics coordinates a citizen-science campaign to observe Apophis around the time it gets closest to Earth. From the perspective of viewers in parts of the U.S., between roughly 12:55 a.m. EST and 1:04 a.m. EST (0555 GMT and 0604 GMT), Apophis will pass in front of a star. The broad sweep of terrain where the event will be visible extends through Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana, and perhaps some bordering areas as well. A map and more details on calibrating a Unistellar eVscope are available in a company blog post.

Scientists love to use these close flybys to scan space rocks with radar to learn more about the asteroids' shape and rotation. Unfortunately, Earth's most powerful radar system is permanently offline, since the Arecibo Observatory radio telescope in Puerto Rico collapsed in December and is being dismantled.

The interim replacement is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California, which was scheduled to begin observations of the asteroid Wednesday (March 3) and continue through March 14. The space-based asteroid-hunting NEOWISE mission may also be able to spot the asteroid later in April, principal investigator Amy Mainzer told Space.com.

"I'm hoping we can get some details of the surface roughness, the thickness of any rocks and dust on the surface of the object," Mainzer said earlier this month, adding that the data would come from combining NEOWISE observations gathered in December 2020 and April 2021. "It may help us learn quite a bit more about it, if we're very lucky," she added.

While Apophis is not an imminent threat to Earth, scientists are running a planetary defense scenario pretending that they just spotted it in the sky in December, to prepare for a possible situation in the future. But you can rest easy, as there are no imminent threats known to Earth at this time — and NASA and its partners continue to scan the sky and practice disaster management, just in case.

Follow Elizabeth Howell on Twitter @howellspace. Sledi nam on Twitter @Spacedotcom and on Facebook.



Komentarji:

  1. Ap Owen

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  2. Dorr

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  3. Berne

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  4. Mejar

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