Opus sektilna tla [rozete]

Opus sektilna tla [rozete]



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Rimski mozaiki

Rimski mozaiki so bili skupna značilnost zasebnih domov in javnih zgradb po cesarstvu od Afrike do Antiohije. Mozaiki niso le lepa umetniška dela, ampak so tudi neprecenljiv zapis takšnih vsakdanjih predmetov, kot so oblačila, hrana, orodje, orožje, rastlinstvo in živalstvo. Odkrivajo tudi veliko o rimskih dejavnostih, kot so tekmovanja gladiatorjev, šport, kmetijstvo, lov, včasih pa celo ujamejo same Rimljane v podrobnih in realističnih portretih.

Rimski talni mozaik iz leta 350 in 375 n.št., ki prikazuje ribe. Hrana je bila v času rimskih časov priljubljena tema pri mozijih. Poreklo: Toragnola, Rim. (Vatikanski muzeji, Rim).

Tehnika

Mozaiki, sicer znani tudi kot opus tesellatum, so bili narejeni z majhnimi črnimi, belimi in barvnimi kvadrati, ki običajno merijo med 0,5 in 1,5 cm, vendar so bile drobne podrobnosti pogosto upodobljene z uporabo celo manjših kosov velikosti le 1 mm. Ti kvadrati (tesserae ali tessellae) so bili izrezani iz materialov, kot so marmor, ploščice, steklo, smalto (steklena pasta), keramika, kamen in celo školjke. Najprej je bila pripravljena podlaga s svežo malto in tesserae postavljeni čim bližje skupaj s prazninami, ki jih nato napolnimo s tekočo malto v postopku, znanem kot fugiranje. Celoto so nato očistili in polirali.

Izvor in vplivi amp

Talne obloge z drobnimi kamenčki so bile v bronasti dobi uporabljene tako v minojski civilizaciji, ki temelji na Kreti, kot v mikenski civilizaciji v celinski Grčiji. Ista ideja, vendar reprodukcijski vzorci, je bila uporabljena na Bližnjem vzhodu v 8. stoletju pr. V Grčiji so prve prodnate talne obloge, ki so poskušale oblikovati, iz 5. stoletja pred našim štetjem s primeri v Korintu in Olintu. Ti so bili običajno v dveh odtenkih s svetlimi geometrijskimi vzorci in preprostimi figurami na temnem ozadju. Do konca 4. stoletja pred našim štetjem so bile uporabljene barve in veliko lepih primerov je bilo najdenih v Pelli v Makedoniji. Ti mozaiki so bili pogosto ojačani z vloženimi trakovi iz terakote ali svinca, ki so se pogosto uporabljali za označevanje obrisov. Dejansko so šele v helenističnih časih v 3. stoletju pred našim štetjem mozaiki resnično postali umetniška oblika in podrobne plošče z uporabo tesserae namesto kamenčkov so se začeli vključevati v vzorčna tla. Mnogi od teh mozaikov so poskušali kopirati sodobne stenske slike.

Rimski talni mozaik iz 3. stoletja našega štetja, ki prikazuje Bacchusa, boga vina. Od via Flaminia, Rim. (Palazzo Massimo, Rim).

Ko so se mozaiki razvijali v 2. stoletju pred našim štetjem, so bili manjši in natančneje izrezani tesserae so bile uporabljene, včasih tako majhne, ​​kot 4 mm ali manj, in modeli so uporabili široko paleto barv z barvno injekcijo, ki se ujema z okolico tesserae. Ta posebna vrsta mozaika, ki je s prefinjenim barvanjem in senčenjem ustvaril učinek, podoben sliki, je znan kot opus vermiculatum in eden njegovih največjih obrtnikov je bil Sorus iz Pergama (150-100 pr. Poleg Pergama, izjemni primeri helenistike opus vermiculatum so jih našli v Aleksandriji in Delosu na Kikladih. Zaradi dela pri izdelavi teh kosov so bili pogosto majhni mozaiki 40 x 40 cm, položeni na marmorni pladenj ali pladenj z obrobo v specializirani delavnici. Ti deli so bili znani kot emblemata saj so jih pogosto uporabljali kot osrednje dele za pločnike s preprostejšimi oblikami. Ta umetniška dela so bila tako dragocena, da so jih pogosto odstranili za ponovno uporabo drugje in generacijo v družinah predali generacijam. Več emblemata lahko sestavljajo en sam mozaik in postopoma, emblemata so začeli bolj spominjati na svojo okolico, ko so jih takrat poznali kot plošče.

Evolucija v oblikovanju

Z motivom, kot so mozaiki, pri katerih obstajajo težave pri zmenku, velika razlika v umetniški kakovosti, okusu javnosti in regionalnih konvencijah, je težko opisati strogo linearni razvoj umetniške oblike. Opozoriti pa je treba na nekatere pomembne točke spremembe in regionalne razlike.

Podrobnosti o Aleksandrovem mozaiku, ki predstavlja Aleksandra Velikega na konju Bucefalu med bitko pri Isu. Iz Faunove hiše v Pompejih.

Sprva se Rimljani niso oddaljili od temeljev helenističnega pristopa do mozaikov, res pa so bili močno podvrženi vsebini in#8211 morskim motivom ter prizorom iz grške mitologije – in samim umetnikom, kot so mnogi podpisali rimske mozaiki pogosto nosijo grška imena, kar dokazuje, da so tudi v rimskem svetu v mozaiku še vedno prevladovali Grki. Eden najbolj znanih je Aleksandrov mozaik, ki je bil kopija helenistične izvirne slike Filoksena ali Aristeida iz Teb. Mozaik je iz hiše Faun v Pompejih in prikazuje Aleksandra Velikega, ki jezdi na Bucefalu in se sooča z Darijem III na svojem vojnem vozu v bitki pri Isu (333 pr. N. Št.).

Rimski talni mozaik iz 4. stoletja n.št., ki prikazuje Dioniza v boju z Indijanci. Dionis je bil zelo priljubljena tema v rimskih mozaikih. Poreklo: Villa Ruffinella, Rim. (Palazzo Massimo, Rim).

Rimski mozaiki so pogosto kopirali prejšnje barvne, vendar so Rimljani razvili lastne sloge in po vsem imperiju so se razvile produkcijske šole, ki so gojile svoje posebne želje in#8211 obsežne lovske prizore ter poskuse perspektive v afriških provincah, impresionistično vegetacijo in opazovalec v ospredju v mozaikih Antiohije ali evropska naklonjenost figurnim ploščam, na primer.

Rimski talni mozaik iz 3. stoletja našega štetja, ki prikazuje enega od štirih letnih časov. Črno -beli mozaiki so bili v rimskem obdobju v Italiji zelo priljubljeni. Provence: prek Prenestine, Rim. (Palazzo Massimo, Rim)

Prevladujoč (vendar ne izključujoč) rimski slog v Italiji je uporabljal samo črno -belo tesserae, okus, ki je preživel tudi v 3. stoletju našega štetja in je bil najpogosteje uporabljen za predstavljanje morskih motivov, še posebej, če so ga uporabljali za rimske kopeli (tisti iz prvega nadstropja kopeli Caracalla v Rimu so odličen primer). Prednost so imeli tudi bolj dvodimenzionalne upodobitve in poudarek na geometrijskih oblikah. V c. 115 n.š. v Buticosovih kopališčih v Ostiji je najzgodnejši primer človeške figure v mozaiku, v 2. stoletju pred našim štetjem pa so postale silhuetirane figure. Sčasoma so mozaiki postajali vse bolj realistični pri upodabljanju človeških figur, natančni in podrobni portreti pa so vse pogostejši. Medtem so se v vzhodnem delu cesarstva in zlasti v Antiohiji v 4. stoletju n.š. razširili mozaiki, ki so z dvodimenzionalnimi in ponavljajočimi se motivi ustvarili učinek 'preproge', slog, ki bi močno vplival na poznejše krščanske cerkve in judovske sinagoge.

Rimski talni mozaik v geometrijski zasnovi iz poznega 1. stoletja našega štetja. Iz vile v bližini gradu Guido, blizu Rima. (Palazzo Massimo, Rim).

Drugi modeli talnih oblog

Tla bi lahko položili tudi z večjimi kosi, da bi ustvarili modele v večjem obsegu. Opus signinum talne obloge iz barvnega agregata (običajno rdečega) z belo tesserae postavljeni za ustvarjanje širokih vzorcev ali celo naključno razpršeni. Križi z uporabo petih rdečih tesserae in centralno tesserae v črni barvi so bili zelo pogost motiv v Italiji v 1. stoletju pred našim štetjem in so se nadaljevali v 1. stoletju n.š.

Opus sectile je bila druga vrsta talnih oblog, ki je uporabljala velike barvne kamnite ali marmorne plošče, razrezane v posebne oblike. Opus sectile je bila še ena tehnika helenističnega izvora, vendar so jo Rimljani razširili tudi na dekoracijo sten. Uporabljali so ga v številnih javnih zgradbah, šele v 4. stoletju n.š. so ga začeli pogosteje uporabljati v zasebnih vilah in pod egipčanskim vplivom začeli uporabljati neprozorno steklo kot primarni material.

Rimski talni mozaik iz 1. stoletja pred našim štetjem, ki prikazuje Nike. Iz rimske vile blizu Via Ruffinella, Rim. (Palazzo Massimo, Rim).

Druge uporabe mozaika

Mozaiki nikakor niso bili omejeni na tla. Oboki, stebri in fontane so bili pogosto okrašeni z mozaikom (opus musivum), še posebej v kopelih. Najzgodnejši primer te uporabe je iz sredine 1. stoletja pred našim štetjem v nimfeju "Vile Ciceron" v Formiaeju, kjer so uporabljali sekance marmorja, plovec in školjke. Na drugih lokacijah so bili dodani tudi koščki marmorja in stekla, kar je dalo učinek naravne jame. Do 1. stoletja našega štetja so bile podrobnejše mozaične plošče uporabljene tudi za okrasitev nimfej in vodnjakov. V Pompejih in Herkulanumu so tehniko uporabljali tudi za pokrivanje niš, sten in pedimentov, te freske pa so znova pogosto posnemale izvirne slike. Stene in oboki kasnejših cesarskih rimskih kopališč so bili okrašeni tudi v mozaiku s steklom, ki je odsevalo sončno svetlobo, ki je padala na bazene, in ustvarjalo svetleč učinek. Tla samih bazenov so bila pogosto postavljena z mozaikom, prav tako tla mavzoleja, včasih celo s portretom pokojnika. Znova je rimska uporaba mozaikov za okrasitev stenskega prostora in obokov vplivala na notranje okrasje krščanskih cerkva iz 4. stoletja n.


Arheologi so ob pomoči matematika obnovili tla na dvorišču drugega templja

Arheologi iz Jeruzalemskega projekta Temple Mount Sewing Project so prepričani, da so uspešno obnovili edinstven arhitekturni element drugega templja: vrsto kraljevsko okrašenih talnih ploščic, ki so krasile portike na vrhu tempeljske gore, ki so bile verjetno vidno vidne na dvoriščih drugega templja v času vladavine kralja Heroda v Jeruzalemu (37 do 4 pr. n. št.).

Frankie Snyder, član raziskovalne skupine projekta Temple Mount Sewing Project in strokovnjak za tla v starodavnem herodijskem slogu, je dejal, da mu je uspelo obnoviti okrašene vzorce ploščic "z uporabo geometrijskih načel in s podobnostmi pri oblikovanju ploščic, ki jih je Herod uporabil pri druga spletna mesta. " Snyder, ki ima študij matematike in judaistike, je pojasnil, da je ta vrsta talnih oblog, imenovana ‘opus sectile, "latinščina za" rezano delo ", zelo draga in je veljala za veliko bolj prestižno kot mozaik keramična tla. "

Izbor Herodijskih talnih ploščic / Vljudnostno mesto David

“ Doslej nam je uspelo obnoviti sedem potencialnih zasnov veličastnih talnih oblog, ki so okrasile stavbe tempeljske gore, "je dejal Snyder, ki je opozoril, da v času izraelskega kralja Heroda ni bilo opusnih nadstropij . "Segmenti ploščic so bili popolnoma vloženi, tako da med njih ni bilo mogoče vstaviti niti ostrega rezila. ”

“Omogoča nam predstavo o neverjetnem sijaju templja, "#je dejal dr. Gabriel Barkay, soustanovitelj in direktor projekta presejanja templja. Obnovljene ploščice bodo širši javnosti predstavljene 8. septembra na 17. letni arheološki konferenci City of David.

Zigzag modul, Herodijske talne ploščice / Ljubezensko mesto Davida

"To je prvič, ko je arheologom uspelo uspešno obnoviti element iz kompleksa Herodian Second Temple," je dejal soustanovitelj in direktor projekta presejanja templja Temple Mount Zachi Dvira.

Projekt presejanja tempeljske gore je bil ustanovljen kot odgovor na nezakonito odstranitev ton zemlje, bogate s starinami, s tempeljske gore s strani islamskega vakufa leta 1999. Nahaja se v narodnem parku doline Tzurim in ga podpira Fundacija mesta David in Izraelska arheološka fundacija. Pobuda poteka pod okriljem Univerze Bar-Ilan in Izraelske uprave za parke in naravo.

Do danes je bilo odkritih približno 600 barvnih segmentov kamnitih talnih ploščic, od katerih jih je več kot 100 dokončno datiranih v obdobje Herodijevega drugega templja. Ta slog talnih oblog je skladen s tistimi, ki jih najdemo v Herodovih palačah v Masadi, Herodianu in Jerihonu ter v veličastnih palačah in vilah v Italiji, pripisanih tudi Herodovemu času. Segmenti ploščic, večinoma uvoženi iz Rima, Male Azije, Tunizije in Egipta, so bili ustvarjeni iz poliranih, večbarvnih kamnov, razrezanih v različnih geometrijskih oblikah. Ključna značilnost Herodijskih ploščic je njihova velikost, ki ustreza rimski meri ene noge, približno 29,6 cm.

Herodijske talne ploščice Zbirka Opus / Ljubezensko mesto Davida

Možnost, da so velika območja tempeljske gore v času drugega templja pokrita z opus sektilnimi tlemi, je leta 2007 najprej izrazila arheologinja in direktorica nacionalnega parka Jeruzalemsko obzidje pri izraelski upravi za naravo in parke Assaf Avraham.

Avrahamova teorija je temeljila na opisu romsko-judovskega zgodovinarja Jožefa Flavija (1. stoletje n. Št.), Ki je napisal, da je "odkrito [dvorišče na tempeljski gori] popolnoma tlakovano s kamni različnih vrst in barv ... ”" (Judovska vojna 5: 2). Poleg tega Talmudska literatura beleži veličastno gradnjo tempeljske gore, ki opisuje vrste marmorja v različnih barvah - zeleni, modri in beli.

“ Zdaj smo zaradi matematičnih spretnosti Frankieja Snyderja uspeli poustvariti dejanske vzorce ploščic, "je dejal dr. Barkay in poudaril, da “ to prvič vidimo na lastne oči sijaj talnih oblog, ki so okrasile Drugi tempelj in njegove prizidke pred 2000 leti. "

Barkay je povedal, da pri opisu templja, ki ga je Herod zgradil, Talmud pravi, da ‘ Kdor še ni videl Herodove stavbe, v svojem življenju ni videl lepe stavbe, ” tako da čeprav naša generacija še ni zaslužila da vidimo tempelj v njegovem sijaju “ z odkritjem in restavriranjem teh edinstvenih talnih ploščic lahko zdaj bolje razumemo in cenimo drugi tempelj, tudi po tej edinstveni značilnosti. ”

Od začetka projekta sejanja templja leta 2004 je pri presejanju sodelovalo več kot 200.000 prostovoljcev z vsega sveta, kar predstavlja fenomen brez primere na področju arheoloških raziskav.


Klasični arheolog Darius Arya

Darius na lokaciji Hagia Sofia v Istanbulu v Turčiji med snemanjem starodavnih nevidnih mest PBS ’.

Nič ni novega kot pogled na preteklost ali vsaj tako razmišlja rimski arheolog Darius Arya. Za Dariusa je Rim več kot starodavna zgodovina, njegova živa zgodovina in stalna zgodba, ki jo Darius popelje v predavalnice, na teren in na ekrane- velike in majhne.

𠇎Vsi so sanjali, da bi bili Indiana Jones, ” pove Dariusu, “I sem mislil, da bom to storil. Želel sem biti do kolen pri starodavnih napisih in podzemnih straneh, zato sem začel z latinščino. ” Med študijem klasičnih študij na Univerzi v Pensilvaniji je bil Darius sprejet na semester v Rimu v Medkolegiatnem centru za klasične študije, ljubljeno znan študentom in študentom v Centru. Medtem ko se je osredotočal na grško in latinsko, je bil Darius navdušen nad aktivno zgodovino okoli sebe in nadaljeval z magisteriji in magisteriji/doktorati iz klasične arheologije na Univerzi v Teksasu v Austinu in prejel Fullbright štipendijo in štipendijo na Ameriški akademiji v Rimu.

Kar je Dariusa zasidralo in še vedno sidra v večno mesto, je edinstveno soočenje preteklosti in sedanjosti v svoji umetnosti, arhitekturi in kulturi. “I ponavadi gledajo na Rim iz preteklosti, tako kot pred 2500 leti, in nenehno opazujejo te niti v sodobnem življenju tukaj in po svetu. ” Njegova strast do klasičnih študij in arhitekture je neustavljiva in v preteklosti dve desetletji v Rimu je naredil vse, da bi ga delil. Kot direktor Ameriškega inštituta za rimsko kulturo, neprofitne organizacije, ki spodbuja pogovor o izredni kulturni dediščini Rima z izobraževanjem, ozaveščanjem in pripovedovanjem zgodb na več platformah, je Darius ustvaril številne izobraževalne in nove medijske pobude ter kot ustvarjalec dokumentarnih filmov, gosti 2018 ’s �revna nevidna mesta ” (PBS) in tekoče italijanske televizijske serije “Pod Italijo ” (RAI5).

Konzervatorji, ki pokrivajo starodavno steno pri izkopavanju Arya's pri Parco dei Ravennati v Ostii Antici. Izkop je vključeval pregled grobnic, ki se nahajajo ob starodavni cesti ob reki Tiber, pa tudi odkritje poznoantične hiše.

Z Dariusom smo se usedli, da bi ugotovili, kako je živeti, delati in kopati v Rimu.

1 Že 15 let koordinirate izkopavanja v Rimu. Na katera presenečenja ste naleteli ’ve? Kateri je bil vaš najbolj uspešen projekt do sedaj?Ne glede na to, koliko načrtujete in študirate, boste ob končnem izkopavanju neizogibno našli stvari, o katerih niste ’ pričakovali, o katerih niste niti sanjali. Prišel sem čez pokopališče iz obdobja cesarstva brez dokumentov in odkril nedotaknjeno tla iz opusa. Meni osebno najljubši in verjetno najbolj izpolnjujoč je bil izkopavanje v parku akvaduktov, javnem parku manj kot osem kilometrov od središča Rima. Sam park je neverjeten s svojo miljo dolgo arkado starodavnega akvadukta Aqua Claudia. Že tretje poletje smo bili pri izkopavanjih in že odkrili 50.000 kvadratnih čevljev razkošnega kompleksa za kopanje in več zgodb in sob ter veliko marmornih oblog in situ. Na polovici dneva smo že odkrili lepe fragmente kipov (jasni znaki poznoantične pokvarjenosti), ko smo odkrili obarvano marmorno glavo. Ko smo napredovali, smo spoznali, da imamo celoten nedotaknjen kip najvišje kakovosti iz#stoletja našega štetja iz 2. stoletja našega štetja iz rdečega marmorja, ki prikazuje Marsijo, vezano na drevo, s čudovito podrobno muskulaturo in enim preostalim bronastim očesom. Ko sem jo našel, sem bil tako paranoičen, da sem se tisto noč odločil, da bom spal v jarku z Marsiasom v strahu pred plenilci (vedno resna grožnja za vsa izkopavanja). Kip smo naslednje jutro z majhnim žerjavom izvlekli in ga odpeljali v skladišče za nadzornike. Po temeljiti obnovi in ​​čiščenju je naša Marsija na ogled javnosti v galeriji Capitoline Museums Montemartini.


Vsebina

V zgodovini rimske civilizacije je bilo veliko kurij, veliko jih je obstajalo hkrati. Curia pomeni preprosto "hiša srečanj". Medtem ko se je senat redno sestajal pri kuriji v komitijskem prostoru, je bilo oblikovanih veliko drugih struktur, ki so se lahko srečale, ko se je pojavila potreba: na primer srečanje z nekom, ki ni smel vstopiti v posvečene kurije senata.

Curia Julia je tretja imenovana kurija v okviru komitija. Vsaka zgradba je bila večkrat obnovljena, vendar izvira iz enega samega etruščanskega templja, zgrajenega v čast premirja v konfliktu Sabine. Ko je bil ta prvotni tempelj uničen, ga je Tullus Hostilius obnovil in mu dal ime. Trajalo je nekaj sto let, dokler kurijo ni uničil ogenj na improviziranem pogrebu Publija Klodija Pulcherja. Nova struktura je bila namenjena njenemu finančnemu dobrotniku Faustusu Corneliusu Sulli.

Pravzaprav je struktura, ki je zdaj na forumu, druga inkarnacija Cezarjeve kurije. Od 81 do 96 je bila Kurija Julija obnovljena pod Domicijanom. Leta 283 ga je v času cesarja Karina močno poškodoval požar. [2] Od 284 do 305 je Kurijo nato obnovil Dioklecijan. To so ostanki Dioklecijanove stavbe, ki stoji danes. Leta 412 je Kurijo ponovno obnovil, tokrat mestni prefekt Annius Eucharius Epiphanius.

10. julija 1923 je italijanska vlada od Collegio di Spagna za približno 16.000 funtov kupila Curia Julia in sosednji samostan cerkve sv. Adriana. [3]

Zunanjost Curia Julia je opremljena z opečnim betonom z ogromno oporo pod vsakim kotom. Spodnji del sprednje stene je bil okrašen z marmornimi ploščami. Zgornji del je bil prekrit s štukaturo imitacije belih marmornih blokov. Do bronastih vrat vodi ena sama stopnica. Sedanja bronasta vrata so sodobne replike, prvotna bronasta vrata je papež Aleksander VII leta 1660 prenesel v baziliko sv. Janeza Lateranskega. [5]

Med prenosom so v vratih našli kovanec. [6] To je arheologom omogočilo, da so datirali popravila senatske hiše in dodali bronasta vrata kralju cesarja Domicijana (81–96). Prvotni videz senatske hiše je znan po cesarju Avgustu denariju iz leta 28 pred našim štetjem, ki prikazuje verando, ki jo na sprednji steni stavbe držijo stebri. [7]

Notranjost Curia Julia je precej stroga. Dvorana je dolga 25,20 m in široka 17,61 m. Obstajajo trije široki koraki, ki bi lahko namestili pet vrstic stolov ali skupaj približno 300 senatorjev. [5] Stene so odtrgane, vendar so bile prvotno furnirane v marmorju dve tretjini poti navzgor. Dve glavni značilnosti notranjosti Kurije Julije sta oltar zmage in vpadljivo dno.

Na skrajnem koncu dvorane je bil "Oltar zmage". [5] Sestavljen je iz kipa Viktorije, poosebitve zmage, ki stoji na globusu in podaljšuje venec. Oltar je Avgust postavil v kurijo, da bi proslavil vojaško moč Rima, natančneje svojo zmago v bitki pri Actiumu, leta 31 pr. Oltar je bil odstranjen leta 384 n.št., kot del splošne reakcije proti poganskim tradicijam starega Rima po vzponu krščanstva. [8]

Druga glavna značilnost notranjosti Curie, tla, je v nasprotju z brezbarvno zunanjostjo stavbe. Na tleh je predstavljena rimska umetniška tehnika opus sectile, v kateri se materiali razrežejo in vstavijo v stene in tla, da nastanejo slike vzorcev. Claridge je to opisal kot "stilizirane rozete v kvadratih, ki se izmenjujejo z nasprotnimi pari prepletenih rogov v pravokotnikih, ki so vsi delovali v zeleni in rdeči porfir na ozadjih numidijansko rumene frigijske vijolične". [5]

V njegovem Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Augustus o projektu piše: "Zgradil sem senatski dom. Z močjo države v celoti v mojih rokah s splošnim soglasjem, pogasil sem ogenj državljanskih vojn in nato prepustil svoj nadzor ter republiko prenesel nazaj v oblast senat in rimsko ljudstvo. Za to službo sem bil po dekretu senata imenovan Augustus ". [9] Pravzaprav je bil odpoved oblasti resničnejša kot beseda, kot pa je na delu gradnja Jurije Jurije sovpadala s koncem republikanskega Rima.

V preteklosti sta bili Curia Hostilia in Comitium "orientirani po kardinalnih točkah kompasa, ki ju je morda označil za posebej poudarjen prostor in jih vsekakor poševno oddaljil od pravokotnika foruma, ki je nastal skozi stoletja". Julius Caesar je prekinil tradicijo, zato jo je Jurius Caesar preusmeril "na bolj" racionalne "črte, jo poravnal s pravokotnimi črtami foruma in še tesneje s svojim novim forumom, ki mu je novi senatski dom bolj predstavljal arhitekturni dodatek. v skladu z naraščajočo podrejenostjo senata ". Zmanjšana moč rimskega senata v cesarskem obdobju se odraža v manj vidni lokaciji in usmerjenosti kurije Julije. [10]

Kljub temu sta bili obe stavbi podobni. Tako Tabula Valeria Kurije Hostilije kot Oltar zmage Kurije Julije v Kuriji Julija potrjujeta trajno prevlado rimske vojske kljub zmanjšani vlogi senata.

17. februar 2012. Pogled na rimski forum, viden z okna Palazzo Senatorio: v sredini cerkev sv. Martina in Luce, v spodnjem desnem kotu lok Septimija Severa

13. november 2013 Pogled na kurijo Julije in cerkev sv. Martine in Luce


Pietra dura v Italiji

The Tribuna v galeriji Uffizi v Firencah. Upoštevajte marmorna intarzirana tla in osmerokotno osrednjo mizo z vrhom pietra dura. & kopirajte Marta de Bortoli prek Wikimedia Commons

Glavni zagon za razvoj pietre dure v Italiji je bila vladajoča družina Medici. Medicisi so bili ena najmočnejših trgovskih družin italijanske renesanse in najplodnejši pokrovitelji umetnosti.

Leta 1588 je veliki vojvoda Ferdinando I de Medici ustanovil Galleria dei Layori, morda prva delavnica v Evropi, specializirana za rezbarjenje iz trdih kamnov. Upal je, da bo nova delavnica lahko okrasila njegova stanovanja opus sectile trdo kamnito delo kot rimske palače v antiki.

V tej delavnici so začeli izdelovati prve predmete pietra dura. Obrtniki so se razširili zunaj področja arhitekturnih značilnosti Galleria začel graditi skrinje, mize in celo omare. Vsi ti so bili uporabljeni za opremljanje obsežnih palač Medici.

Ko se je umetnost razvijala v 16. stoletju v Firencah, je bila znana kot opera di commessi (dobesedno & & lsquofitted skupaj deluje & rsquo), kjer je sodobno italijansko ime commesso prihaja iz.

Ti zgodnji kosi pietre dure so bili dragi: kamenje, kot so jaspis, porfir, kremen in ahat, so morali izkopati in odpremiti iz oddaljenih kotičkov sveta, preden so ga sestavili v commesso ploščo.

Zaradi te eksotike in razkošja v kombinaciji s tehničnim znanjem, potrebnim za dokončanje takšnega dela, je pietra dura kmalu postala zelo zaželena med najpomembnejšimi zbiratelji v Evropi.

Morda največji dosežek florentinske delavnice so bili okraski v sobi, znani kot Tribuna v galeriji Uffizi v Firencah, nekdanjem upravnem središču Medici & rsquos.

The Tribuna kjer je družina Medici tradicionalno hranila svoje najpomembnejše zbirke slik in starin, vključno z deli Michelangela in da Vincija.

Osmerokotna tla v sobi so bila v 1580 -ih letih okrašena z izdelano polikromirano marmorno vložkom iz pietre dure, prvotno pa je bila opremljena z veliko omarico iz pietre dure, ki je bila pozneje uničena. Središče sobe trenutno zaseda velika osmerokotna miza pietra dura iz 17. stoletja.

Delavnica v Firencah, ki je zgradila elemente pietra dura za Uffizi in druge palazzos v mestu bi delovalo neverjetno do dvajsetih let 20. stoletja. Njihovo delo pietra dura bi postalo še posebej priljubljeno zbirateljsko in rsquo predmetov za velike turiste v 18. in 19. stoletju.

Pietra dura v Indiji

Nekatera izdelana pietra dura delajo na Taj Mahalu. Upoštevajte svetle barve dragih kamnov, kot je zeleni malahit. & kopirajte Teufel1987 prek Wikimedia Commons

Od 16. stoletja dalje se je znanje o tehniki razširilo tudi iz Firenc in segalo celo do indijske podceline.

Pietra dura bi imela velik vpliv na Indijo 16. in 17. stoletja. To je bilo obdobje imperija Mughal v Indiji, obdobje, povezano z razcvetom umetnosti in arhitekture.

Vladajoči Mughali so občudovali novo odkrito tehniko in naročili izdelana dela v delih: nastali slog pietra dura ali parchin kari je bil po svoji podobi in uporabi izrazito neevropski.

Indijsko delo parchinkari je bilo spet večinoma uporabljeno v arhitekturnih in ne dekorativnih okoljih: eden prvih primerov je znamenita grobnica cesarja Humayuna (1508-1556) v Delhiju, ki je bila dokončana leta 1569-70.

Morda je najbolj znana indijska stavba, v kateri je prikazano delo s vložkom pietra dura, Tadž Mahal, morda ikonična podoba mogolske arhitekture zlate dobe. Nekatera dela s vložkom pietra dura so prikazana zgoraj.

Taj Mahal je bogato okrašen s cvetnimi vložki iz pietra dure na notranjih stenah, tleh in v mavzoleju ter uporablja redke drage kamne, kot so karneol, lapis lazuli, turkiz in malahit.


Dekoracija vložka iz polikromiranih kamnov

Opus sectile je način izdelave okraskov z uporabo natančno izrezanih kosov polikromiranega kamna, običajno marmorja, za izdelavo vzorcev in figur na ravnih površinah.

Opus sectile so uporabljali pri tlakovanju, stenah in manjših površinah, kot so mize.

Tehnika je bila zelo draga in je bila uporabljena le v kontekstih visokega statusa, kjer polikromirani mozaiki in slike niso bili primerni.

V vili Romana del Casale, zelo bogati rimski podeželski vili na Siciliji iz 4. stoletja n.št. z več kot 3500 m 2 polikromiranimi geometrijskimi in figurativnimi mozaiki, je bila le ena soba, glavna dvorana za občinstvo, v kateri je hišni gospodar sprejemal goste nadstropje v opus sectile.


Poznorimska in bizantinska mesta v Istanbulu

Admiral Constantine Lips je leta 907-908 zgradil samostan, posvečen Teotokos Panachrantos (Brezmadežni Materi Božji). Pri odprtju je sodeloval cesar Leon VI. Modri ​​in kmalu je samostan postal eden največjih v Carigradu.

Ta samostan sestavljata dve cerkvi.

Cerkev Theotokos Panachrantos (severna cerkev)

The katholikon samostana je bil verjetno zgrajen na ostankih cerkve iz 6. stoletja. Pri gradnji so uporabili nagrobnike iz rimskega pokopališča.

Cerkev je bila drugič v Carigradu sprejel križni kvadratni načrt (prva je Nea Ekklesia Velike palače iz leta 880) in je najstarejša cerkev s tem načrtom, ki je preživela v mestu. Ima a naosrazdeljen na devet zalivov. Osrednji zaliv pokriva kupola, ki so jo podpirali štirje stebri. Sedanja kupola z osmimi okni je iz osmanskega obdobja, prav tako dva koničasta oboka, ki segata po celotni cerkvi in ​​nadomeščata stebre. Podstavki treh stolpcev so ostali na prvotnih položajih. Obokani kraki jedra s križem v kvadratu se končajo v ogromnih trojnih oknih na severni in južni fasadi. The naos na vzhodu doseže vrhunec s tristranskostjo bemain na zahodu s tremi zalivi narteksa. Apside cerkve so visoke in prekinjene z okni: s trojnim oknom na osrednji apsidi in z enojnimi okni na stranskih apsidah.

Ta cerkev je poleg tega imela šest kapelic. V pritličju sta bili pred kapelo dve kapeli proteza in diaconicon. Nenavadno so bile na štirih robovih stavbe tudi majhne strešne kapele: dve nad zahodnimi vogalnimi zalivi naos, ena nad proteza, in ena nad diaconicon. Iz ene od teh kapelic so v 20. stoletju našli marmorno ikono mučenika Evdokije iz Heliopolisa iz 10. stoletja.

Zidanje je sestavljeno iz izmeničnih slojev opeke in majhnih kamnitih blokov. Opeke se pogreznejo v debelo plast malte, kar je značilno za bizantinsko arhitekturo iz 10. stoletja. V notranjosti je bila cerkev okrašena z marmornimi ploščami in barvnimi ploščicami, oboki pa so bili pokriti z mozaiki. Izstopajo okenski podstavki, vence in cerkve cerkve, okrašeni z različnimi motivi (kot so listje, palmete, rozete, čudovite rastline, križi, pavi in ​​orli). Ti tvorijo tisto, kar je ena najvidnejših zbirk srednjebizantinskega kiparskega okrasja v mestu.

Archivolt with the busts of the Apostles, from the Church of Theotokos Panachrantos of the Monastery of Constantine Lips (late 13th or early 14th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos (south church)

The Monastery of Lips was restored by Theodora, the widow of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos, between 1281 and 1304. She had another church erected south of the existing church. Dedicated to Saint John the Forerunner, that church served as a mausoleum for the members of the Palaiologan dynasty, starting with Theodora herself.

The south church is a notable example of Palaiologan architecture. Its centerpiece is a simple square bay crowned by a dome. The central bay is surrounded on three sides by an ambulatory and further on the west by a narthex (originally domed). These spaces were filled with tombs. The ambulatory is lower than the domed core and the bema, providing access of light through triple windows on three sides of the central bay.

The walls and vaults of the church were covered with mosaics. The floor of the naos was paved in the opus sectile technique. The bema has a marble floor, which has been preserved.

On the three apses of the south church, niches and windows of various sizes can be seen. More attention gets the attractive brickwork of the apses. The bricks are arranged to form various interesting patterns, like arches, hooks, meanders, sun crosses, and fans. Between these patterns there are white bands of stone separated by two to five courses of bricks. Such decorations, showing the influence of the East, became common in the Late Byzantine architecture.

Exonarthex-parecclesion

In the early 14th century, in order to create space for additional burial sites, a long exonarthex was added to the two churches, together a with parecclesion of the south church. These were interconnected, forming a space that surrounds the complex on the west and south sides. The tombs were placed in the arcosolia, built along the outer walls of the structure. The façades of the exonarthex in parecclesion closely follow the style of the two churches.

44-45. Rotunda and Church of Myrelaion

Aksaray Caddesi, Mesihpaşa Caddesi, Laleli Caddesi & Şair Haşmet Sokak, Laleli

We can distinguish two surviving structures in the Myrelaion complex: a rotunda (cistern) and a church (mosque).

44. Rotunda of Myrelaion

5th century converted into a cistern in early 10th century

In around 920, Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos bought a property in the Myrelaion neighbourhood of Constantinople. (Myrelaion means ‘place of myrrh’ in Greek.) His intention was to build here a new imperial residence, as a replacement of the Great Palace.

On the site that he acquired stood a giant rotunda from the 5th century. With its diameter of 41.8 m, it was the largest circular building in the city in second largest in the ancient world (after the Pantheon of Rome, which measures 43.3 m). The identity and the original function of the rotunda is unclear. It has been suggested that it was the palace of the Theodosian princess Arcadia. Its sigma-shaped portico (destroyed) may be identified as the Amastrianon, which served as a market and a place for public executions in the Medieval period.

The rotunda was converted, possibly by Romanos himself, into a cistern. Its dome was destroyed, and its surface was levelled. The interior was filled with stolpci to support a vaulted system. This structure can be visited in the bazaar that it houses. The capitals of the columns are very beautiful, especially when considering their current surroundings.

On the surface of the cistern Romanos built the Palace of Myrelaion. It resembled a Roman corridor villa and was much smaller than the rotunda. Later he turned the palace into a nunnery and the substructure into a burial chapel. Almost nothing remains of the palace today.

In the 1960s, archaeologists discovered a fragment of a porphyry sculpture from the rotunda. It turned out to be the missing heel of the Portrait of the Tetrarchs, which had been stolen from Constantinople and brought to Venice during the Fourth Crusade (now displayed at a corner of the façade of St Mark’s Basilica). This statue probably originates from the Philadelphion, a square close-by, where the Mese branched in two, considered the physical centre, or the mesomphalos, of the city.

45. Church of Myrelaion

A church was attached to the Palace of Myrelaion. In 922, Theodora, the wife of Romanos, died and was buried here, followed in 931 by his eldest son and co-emperor Christopher. By burying his family in the Church of Myrelaion, Romanos broke a tradition that had started from Constantine the Great, whereby all the Byzantine emperors were supposed to be laid to rest in the Church of the Holy Apostles. In 948, Romanos himself was buried here. His example was followed by later Komnenian and Palaiologan emperors, who, too, preferred private burial churches.

The Church of Myrelaion is one of the first churches in the city with the cross-in-square plan, after the Nea Ekklesia of the Great Palace and the northern church of the Monastery of Lips.

The church has a naos surmounted by a dome with a fluted surface, forming the so-called umbrella dome, ali pumpkin dome. The cross arms of the naos are topped by groin vaults. The naos was originally partitioned by four columns (replaced by piers in the Ottoman period). To the east is a sanctuary with three polygonal apses (the bema, prothesis, in diaconicon). To the west is a narthex with a dome on its central bay. Originally, the church also had an exonarthex, but that was replaced by a wooden portico in the Ottoman era. The mosaics and marble that decorated the interior have totally disappeared.

On the outside, unusual elements include semi-cylindrical buttresses, which create a flowing effect on the façades, and small rounded windows. Rare is also the fact that the masonry is entirely made of bricks.

In around 1500 the church was converted into a mosque and named after its substructure (‘bodrum’ means basement in Turkish).

46-47. Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

In the 9th and 10th century there was a monastery near the Cistern of Aetius on the Sixth Hill of Constantinople. It has been, for long time, identified as the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra, but there is no conclusive evidence to prove that. The structures today known as the Odalar Mosque, Kasım Ağa Mosque and İpek Bodrum Cistern were probably all part of that monastery, with the first being its katholikon, the second an annex, and the third its water source.

46. Katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Odalar Mosque
Müftu Sokaĝi 20-22, Karagümrük
First church – 9th or 10th century second church – mid- or late-12th century

Prvi katholikon of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra was erected in the 9th or 10th century. It had a square plan with three apses. Under it was a basement composed of 24 vaulted rooms and a vaulted crypt with an apse. These spaces may have had a profane use before. These were later turned into a cistern.

The second church was built in the middle or at the end of the 12th century. It used 16 rooms of the basement of the old church as a substructure, and its floor was 3.3 m above that of the first church. The plan was cross-in-square, with the typical dome, four columns, tripartite naos and narthex. Atypical was the diaconicon, which was larger than the prothesis. The walls were build up of stone and bricks, the recessed-brick technique being used with the latter.

Several frescoes survive from the two churches, depicting the Theotokos Enthroned, the Deesis, the Prophets, the Life of Mary, and Saint Mercurius. Some are now in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

In 1475, when the Ottomans conquered the Genovese city of Caffa (today Feodosia) in Crimea, this neighbourhood was populated with Christian settlers. The church was given to the Dominicans, who had brought a large icon of the Hodegetria type with them and who dedicated the church to Saint Mary of Constantinople. By the beginning of the 16th century, the area had become predominantly Italian. Sultan Murad IV decided to move all the foreigners that were not Ottoman subjects to Galata and Pera, as a result of which, in 1636, the church was closed and, in 1640, turned into a mosque. The icon found its way to the Church of SS Peter and Paul in Galata. The mosque got its current name after 1782, when married Janissaries moved to the neighbourhood (with ‘oda’ meaning ‘room’ in Turkish). The building was destroyed in a fire in 1919 and has fallen in ruin since then.

47. Annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra

Kasım Ağa Mosque
Koza Sokak, Karagümrük
13th-15th century

This small building was probably an annex of the Monastery of Theotokos in Petra. It was roughly square in plan, with a single nave preceded by an atrium in the north east and a projecting room in the east. It has no apse. Its masonry suggests that it was a Palaiologan structure, but also that there were different construction phases. It seems to have fallen in ruins by 1453, and a mosque was built in its place in 1460 or 1506.

48. Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae

Atik Mustafa Paşa Mosque / Hazreti Cabir Mosque
Çember Sokak, Ayvansaray
Mid-9th century 1059

For a long time it was thought that this church was dedicated to Saints Peter and Mark. It is more probable, however, that it is, instead, the Church of Hagia Thekla of the Palace of Blachernae.

In the middle of the 9th century, Princess Thekla, a daughter of Emperor Theophilus (829-842), is known to have enlarged an oratory located some hundred meters east of the Church of the Saint Mary of Blachernae and dedicated it to her patron saint. Because the church displays many archaic elements it is sometimes suggested that it dates from that time. Examples of the archaic elements include the L-shaped piers, which form the internal side of the cross to support the dome, and simple, barrel-vaulted corner bays. If the church can be dated to this period, it would be the earliest surviving post-Iconoclast church and the first cross-in-square type of a church in the city.

It is known that in 1059, Isaac I Komnenos built a larger church around here, to commemorate his surviving a hunting accident. That church was famous for its frescoes and mosaics. Anna Komnene writes that her grandmother Anna Dalassene used to come here often to pray. It may be that the church as we see it today dates from this (or an even later) period.

The church is oriented to north-east and south-west. On the south-east side it has three polygonal apses. Originally the church looked much lighter than today, as the floor was 1.50 metres lower and the dome was taller and filled with windows. The dome was heavily damaged in the 1509 earthquake, after which the church was turned into a mosque. The current dome is from the Ottoman period, as are the roof, the cornice, and the porch. The windows were later thoroughly reworked. The interior was plastered over as well, including the early-15th-century frescoes depicting the Archangel Michael and Saints Cosmas and Damian.

The mosque is important for Muslims, because of the türbe attributed to a companion of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (Eyüp), who fell during the First Arab Siege of Constantinople (674-678).

49. Church of Saint Mary of the Mongols

Tevkii Cafer Mektebi Sokak 1, Fener
Original church – 11th century narthex – 1281-1285 current modification – 18th century

This church stands near the Phanar Greek Orthodox College. Its earliest stage is the 11th century, when it was part of a male monastery dedicated to Theotokos Panagiotissa. Bil je tetraconch church with a central dome. Each of the four sides of the central square were flanked with semicircular apses, each having three apsidioles. This type of a ground plan is uncommon in the area around Constantinople, but it is still not the only example: the Church of Panagia Kamariotissa on Heybeliada is also a tetraconch church.

The monastery was abandoned after the Fourth Crusade. In 1261 it was re-established by Isaac Doukas, uncle of Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos. The complex was renovated in 1266-1267. In 1281, it was renovated again by Maria Palaiologina, illegitimate daughter of Michael VIII, who established it as a nunnery. She added a three-bay narthex to the church and 33 cells, a bath, gardens, and vineyards for the nuns. Maria had been a consort of Abaqa Khan, the second ruler or the Mongol Il-khanate, from which the Greek name of the church, Panagia Mouchliotissa, derives.

This church is known in Turkish as Kanlı Kilise (the Bloody Church). The name comes from the fact that the last resistance of the Byzantines against the Ottomans took place on May 29, 1453 in its surroundings.

Tradition has it that Sultan Mehmed II gave the church to the mother of Atik Sinan, or Christodoulos, the Greek architect of the Fatih Mosque, in acknowledgment of his work. The grant was later confirmed by Sultan Bayezid II. Copies of the firmans ensuring its survival are still preserved inside the church. Even though there were some later attempts to convert the church into a mosque, the earlier grants prevented it from falling from the hands of the Greeks. That makes it the only church in Istanbul that has been continuously used by the Greek Orthodox Church.

The church was modified heavily in the 18th century. It lost its southern semi-dome and the southern bay of the narthex, over which three aisles were built. The only surviving Byzantine features are the eastern and northern apses and the two northern bays of the narthex.

The original interior of the church is gone as well. A mosaic icon of the Panagia Mouchliotissa is housed in the church, dating from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The traces of the mural painting visible today, depicting the Last Judgment, originate from the post-Byzantine period.

50. Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes

Eski Imaret Mosque
Küçük Mektepli Sokak 11, Zeyrek
1085

This church was the katholikon of a monastery established by Anna Dalassene in around 1085. Dedicated to Christ the All-Seeing, it is unique in the Byzantine history in that, as far as it is known, no other monastery in the empire of all those dedicated to Christ ever bore this epithet. For Anna Dalassene, the monastery was a major symbol of his family’s struggle for supremacy, which had culminated in the accession to power of his son Alexios I Komnenos in 1081. As an extremely powerful woman and the mother of the Komnenoi, she was also called Pantepoptes by her descendants. She later retired in this monastery, where she died and was buried.

The church has a cross-in-square plan, with four vaulted crossarms. It has two narthexes: the esonarthex is original, while the exonarthex may be a Palaiologan addition, replacing an open portico. Over the narthex and the two western bays of the quincunx runs a gallery, probably built for the private use of Anna Dalassene. It was endowed with two rooms and possibly connected with outside structures. Chapels may have stood above the prothesis in diaconicon. Of the original interior nothing remains, except for some red marble around the doorways and some columns.

In the exterior, elements typical of Byzantine architecture under the Macedonian dynasty (867-1056) co-exist with innovations which where to become commonplace in the Komnenian era (1081-1185). The scalloped roofline of the 12-sided dome, for example, is typical of the Macedonian architecture, while the small recessed niches in the walls represent the Komnenian period.

This church is the oldest extant building in Istanbul where the use of the recessed-brick technique je lahko viden. This technique, a trademark of the middle-period Byzantine architecture, means the placement of a band of bricks in a way that it is slightly recessed, while placing another band, as usual, on the outer line of the wall. The recessed bricks are covered with mortar, which creates the alternation of red (brick) and light-coloured (mortar) bands on the walls. In the upper parts, stone is used.

The church is also notable for the use of cloisonné masonry, i.e dressed stones laid in regular courses and framed by bricks horizontally and vertically. This technique was typical in Greek architecture of the period (cf. the Byzantine churches of Athens ), but virtually unknown in Constantinople. Decorative motifs such as sunbursts, meanders and basket-weave patterns can be found on the façades. Dog-tooth frets decorate the cornices. Unique is also the brick-tiled roofing, as in Constantinople churches were normally roofed with lead.

After the conquest of 1453, the complex was known for the soup kitchen (imaret) it housed. The mosque that the church has been converted to is still called Eski İmaret Camii, or the Mosque of the Old Soup Kitchen.

51. Chapel of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora / Chapel of the Monastery of Kyra Martha

Manastır Mescidi (Monastery Mosque)
Turgut Özal Millet Caddesi & Karanfilli Çavuş Sokak, Topkapı
Late 11th century or the Palaiologan era

It has been speculated that this cute building, located near the Gate of Saint Romanos, was part of the Monastery of Menodora, Metrodora and Nymphodora. Others have suggested that it was an annex of the Monastery of Kyra Martha. Its size indicates that it was a chapel within a monastery rather than its katholikon.

The original plan of the building is not known. The current structure has a single nave, a tripartite bema in the east and a vaulted narthex in the west. Two carved capitals separate the naos from the narthex. Foundations of columns have been found in the naos, which may suggest that it was originally a cross-in-square building. It may have also had an exonarthex, a chapel in the south (with its own narthexes on three sides), and an open portico.

52. Church of Hagia Theodosia / Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio / Church of Christos Euergetes

Gül Mosque
Vakıf Mektebi Sokak 16, Ayakapı
Late 11th or early 12th century

This church has traditionally been identified as the church of the Monastery of Hagia Theodosia. Theodosia was one of the nuns who gathered on January 19, 729 to prevent the removal of the icon of Christ which stood over the Chalke Gate at the Great Palace of Constantinople. She let the man executing the order given by Emperor Leo III the Isaurian to fall from the ladder, causing his death. She was captured and executed. After the end of Iconoclasm, Theodosia was recognised as a martyr, and she soon became one of the most venerated saints in Constantinople.

It has also been argued that the building was the Church of Hagia Euphemia in Petrio. Some suggest that the church was part of the Monastery of Christos Euergetes (Christ the Benefactor).

The church lies on a high vaulted basement, which gives it an impressive look. Its masonry shows the use of the technique of the recessed brick, which makes it probable that it dates from the late 11th or early 12th century. Another element that contributes to the credibility of this dating are its side apses, which consist of five niches divided into four tiers and decorated with ornamental brickwork and a cornice. This makes the church stylistically very similar to the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, which was built between 1118 and 1136. The plainer central apse is probably a later Byzantine reconstruction.

The church has a cross-domed plan (cf. the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa). It is surmounted by five domes, one big in the centre and four smaller ones at the corners. The central dome, which has a low external drum and no windows, and the broad pointed arches that carry it are from the Ottoman period.

Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome was supported by piers, and not columns. The eastern piers are interesting because they contain both a small chamber. One of them may have contained the tomb of Saint Theodosia, but later also the tomb of the Ottoman saint Gül Baba according to some. (The more famous türbe of Gül Baba is located in the Rózsadomb neighbourhood in Budapest.) The inscription in Ottoman Turkish above the entrance (‘Tomb of the Apostle, disciple of Jesus, peace with him’), bears witness to the religious syncretism of the 16th-century Constantinople.

Another interesting elements is the upper gallery. It occupies three walls of the naos, running from the chapel located atop the prothesis to the one that lies above the diaconicon. It is possible that the gallery is a Palaiologan addition.

The church was turned into a mosque in around 1490. It became to be known as the Gül Mosque. That name may be explained by the presence of the tomb of Gül Baba or, more probably, by the fact that during the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 the church was adorned with garlands of roses (‘gül’ means ‘rose’ in Turkish). The night before, Emperor Constantine XI and Patriarch Athanasius II had participated at the feast of Saint Theodosia in the church and prayed for the city. The next morning, the Ottomans found many people still gathered in the church. They took them as prisoners of war, threw away the relics and cast the body of the saint to the dogs.

53.(-55.) Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Zeyrek Mosque
İbadethane Arkası Sokak, İbadethane Sokak & Fazilet Sokak, Zeyrek
1118-1136

In 1118, Empress Irene of Hungary founded a monastery dedicated to the Christ Pantocrator on an eastern slope of the Fourth Hill of Constantinople. To the north of its katholikon, Emperor John II Komnenos soon added another church, dedicated to the Theotokos Eleousa (Merciful Mother of God). He also built a large funerary chapel, dedicated to Archangel Michael, to connect the two churches. These three structures must have been completed by October 1136, when the typikon of the monastery, one of the very few surviving, was issued.

The monastery is special in that no other Byzantine church, only the Church of the Holy Apostles excluded, received as many imperial burials. Both John II and Irene were buried here (in 1143 and 1134, respectively), followed by Emperor Manuel I (1180) and Empress Bertha of Sulzbach (1159). The tradition continued in the Palaiologan era, when emperors Manuel II (1425) and John VIII (1448) were laid to rest here. The typikon of the monastery describes the funerary chapel as a heroon, a term reserved for the mausoleum of Constantine the Great and his successors at the Church of the Holy Apostles, showing the imperial ambitions of the Komnenoi. The reputation of the monastery was further raised, when the icon of the Theotokos Hodegetria – the city’s most revered icon – was brought here.

The complex of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator is the second largest religious edifice built by the Byzantines still standing.

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Church of Christ Pantocrator (south church)

Chapel of Archangel Michael (on the left) and Church of Theotokos Eleousa (north church on the right)

The churches are both typical examples of the Middle Byzantine architecture. They have a cross-in-square plan: a nine-bay naos, a central dome supported by four columns (changed in the Ottoman era), a tripartite bema, and a narthex. They both had a matroneum, or a women’s gallery, above the narthex. In the south church, the central bay of the matroneum is also covered by a dome. The north church has only one dome, which is oval.

The Chapel of Archangel Michael has two bays. It is possible that the bay on the east functioned as a liturgical area, while the one on the west was a funerary space. The both bays of the chapel are capped by an elliptical dome.

All the three structures have polygonal apses with windows and niches. The south church, which is larger, also has an exonarthex and a courtyard, which were added together with the north church and the chapel.

The masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. It is slightly sloppy, incorporating bricks of different sizes. This may be explained by the fact that the building material comes from a much older structure, as hinted by the many Early Byzantine brick stamps that have been found here.

Brickwork on the apses of the chapel and the north church

Brickwork on the apse of the chapel

The two churches and the chapel were richly decorated. The most beautiful decorative element that remains is the colourful opus sectile nadstropje, covering the naos of the southern church. Motifs that are commonly found in imperial palaces can be seen here, such as birds of prey, fantastic beasts, and the wheel of the zodiac. Scenes from the life of Samson are also displayed. The floor is now, unfortunately, hidden under the carpet of the mosque.

Fragments of coloured glass have been found from the south church as well, suggesting the presence of stained-glass windows. The north church has intricate sculptural decorations, for example, on the capitals and cornices, which show traces of Armenian bole and gold leaf. Some traces of mosaics can also be found in the complex. Tukaj so tudi spolia from the Church of Saint Polyeuctus.

Cornice and traces of mosaics in the north church

Capitals in the north church

Marble revetments in the south church

Glede na typikon, the monastery complex included a 50-bed hospital, a home for 24 elderly men, a medical school, and a leprosarium.

It has been suggested that, during the Fourth Crusade, the treasury of the monastery was raided and its contents was carried off to Venice. It may be that some panels of the Pala d’Oro, now serving as the altar retable in Saint Mark’s Basilica in Venice, comes from the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. During the Latin occupation in 1204-1261, the monastery served as the Venetian headquarters of Constantinople.

54. Library of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator

Şeyh Süleyman Mosque
Zeyrek Caddesi 24, Zeyrek

The library of the monastery may have located 120 m south-west of the katholikon, in a building known today as the Şeyh Süleyman Mosque.

It is not clear when that building was constructed. It consists of a square substructure and a hexagonal superstructure with a dome supported by pendentives. The lower part is made of ashlar masonry, while in the upper part bricks are used. It is sometimes argued that it is a Palaiologan structure, but the masonry indicates that it is an older building. It may have been an Early Byzantine mausoleum. The pointed arches on the façade are part of an Ottoman renovation.

55. Pantocrator Cistern / Unkapanı Cistern

Atatürk Bulvarı, northeast of the katholikon
6th or early 12th century

The monastery was supplied with water by a number of cisterns. The largest of them covers an area of 18 m and 55 m. It is built inside a hill, and it has an exposed wall with a series of niches. According to some, its roots go back to the 6th century. The other cisterns here were built at the same time with the monastery.

56. Church of Hagios Ioannis Prodromos in Troullo

Hirami Ahmet Paşa Mosque
Koltukçu Sokak 4, Çarşamba
9th or 12th century

This small church dedicated to John the Baptist is located near the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos in the conservative Çarşamba neighbourhood of Istanbul. Its appellation ‘en to Troullo’ (‘trullus’ means ‘dome’ in Latin) may be related to the vicinity of a domed palace.

The church is usually dated to the 12th century. Je cross-in-square church with a tripartite bema and a narthex. Four columns support an octagonal drum which bears the dome. The arms of the cross to the north and south are covered with barrel vaults. The central apse, which projects boldly outside, is opened by a large window, divided in three by two pillars with capitals. There are other tripartite windows that lit the interior.

Some date the church to the 9th century. This may be due to the unadorned semicircular apses in circular drum of the dome, which were common in the provinces in the 9th and 10th centuries. Verjetno je, da bema extended west in some period, to include the three eastern bays of the naos. Another factor that contributes to an earlier dating is the alternation of bands of ashlar and brick, which was typical in Constantinople from the 8th to the 10th century, but not thereafter, when the recessed-brick masonry dominated.

The church had primarily a funerary purpose. The narthex had at least four arcosolia. Two more arcosolia were located in the naos.

Since 1456 the church served as a convent for nuns who had been evicted from the nearby Church of Pammakaristos, which had been made the seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. It was converted into a mosque between 1587 and 1598. The mosque has no minaret.

57. Church of Hagios Theodoros in Karbounaria

Vefa Mosque / Molla Gürani Mosque
Tirendaz Sokak, Molla Şemsettin Cami Sokak & Divan Efendi Sokak, Vefa
Church proper – 11th or 12th century exonarthex – 13th or 14th century

This church, located in the Byzantine neighbourhood named after the coal market (karbounaria), is traditionally identified as the Church of Hagios Theodoros. It is a typical middle-Byzantine church. Ima a cross-in-square plan. Its masonry shows the use of the recessed-brick technique. The exterior has occasional decorative motifs, such as snake patterns. The apse is interrupted by windows and niches.

Several structures were added to the church in the Palaiologan era. The most important of them was the five-bay exonarthex. It has a bipartite façade. The lower part has triple arcades (originally open), while on the upper part there are windows framed by large semicircular blind arcades. The masonry consists of alternating courses of red bricks and white stones, especially remarkable on the north façade.

The exonarthex has three domes. All of these were originally covered with mosaics, traces of which survive. The best preserved is the image of the Theotokos with Child Christ surrounded by eight prophets on one of the domes. The exonarthex is further decorated with columns, capitals, and closure slabs – all reused material from the Early Byzantine period.

To the south-west corner of the church a belfry was added at the same time with the exonarthex. Similarly to the Chora Church, a two-storey annex on the north side can be found. Remains of underground cisterns have also been found under the south and west sides of the church, hinting to the existence of a monastery in the Byzantine period.

58. Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa

Kalenderhane Mosque
16 Mart Şehitleri Caddesi & Medrese Sokak, Vefa
1190s sanctuary – 6th-12th centuries

This church, constructed at the end of the 12th century, was most probably dedicated to Theotokos Kyriotissa (Enthroned Mother of God). It is one of the most impressive Middle Byzantine buildings in Istanbul.

Je cross-domed church (like the church housing the Gül Mosque and Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki). The central bay of the naos is covered by a dome with the diameter of 8 m and with 16 ribs. Because of the larger scale of the church, the dome is supported by four massive piers instead of four slender columns as in a typical cross-in-square church. Deep barrel vaults form the side-arms of the cross. In the west, there is a narthex, which was originally surmounted by an upper gallery, like in the churches of the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator. An exonarthex was later added to the structure.

The interior is dominated by polychrome marble panels and mouldings. Only a third of these seen today are original. The rest is either secondary revetment or plaster imitating marble.

The masonry of the church is made of alternating layers of brick and stone.

The oldest parts of the church are the bema, the prothesis, in diaconicon. The prothesis is the apse of a church that was built on this site in the 6th century. That church may have been connected to a 4th- or 5th-century bathhouse. The bema of the 12th-century church uses the apse from a church which was built in the 7th century south of the older church. The diaconicon consists of two chapels, known as the Francis Chapel in Melismos Chapel, built in the Middle Byzantine period before the main church. The masonry of the Francis Chapel is similar to that of the northern church of the Monastery of Lips. The Melismos Chapel is made in the recessed-brick technique, which was common from the late 11th century on.

The bema was home to a mozaik representing the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple. It probably comes from the earlier church and dates back to the 6th or 7th century, being the only surviving religious mosaic from the pre-Iconoclastic period in Constantinople, in earliest surviving representation of the hypapante in Byzantine art.

Mosaic of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple from the Church of Theotokos Kyriotissa (late 6th or early 7th century Istanbul Archaeology Museum)

The Francis Chapel housed a fresco cycle portraying the life of Saint Francis of Assisi. It is the oldest representation of the saint, painted only some years after his death, in the mid-13th century, when the church was being used by the Franciscans. The fresco cycle, too, can be found in the Istanbul Archaeology Museums.

After the Fall of Constantinople the church was given by Sultan Mehmed II to the Kalenderi sect of dervishes, after whom today’s mosque is named.


Opus Sectile Flooring [Rosettes] - History

A reconstructed tile from the Second Temple.. (photo credit:ZACHI DVIRA/TEMPLE MOUNT SIFTING PROJECT)

For the first time since its destruction at the hands of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago, archaeologists announced on Tuesday that they have reconstructed several floor tiles from Jerusalem’s Second Temple’s courtyard.

According to Dr. Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Dvira, co-founders and co-directors of the Temple Mount Sifting Project, the reconstruction is unprecedented.

“This represents the first time that archaeologists have been able to successfully restore an element from the Herodian Second Temple complex,” said Dvira at an unveiling of the tiles at the project’s headquarters in Tzurim Valley National Park, located on the western slopes of Mount Scopus.

The regally-designed ancient tiles likely featured prominently in the courtyards of the holy Temple during King Herod’s reign between 37 to 4 BCE, added Barkay.

“It enables us to get an idea of the Temple’s incredible splendor,” he said.

The Temple Mount Sifting Project, supported by the City of David Foundation and the Israel Archaeology Foundation, was established in response to the illegal removal of tons of antiquities-rich earth from the Temple Mount by the Islamic Waqf in 1999.

It is run under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University and the Israel Parks & Nature Authority.

Frankie Snyder, a member of the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s team of researchers, and an expert in the study of ancient Herodian-style flooring, said they succeeded in restoring the ornate tile patterns using geometric principles, and through similarities found in tile design used by Herod at other sites.

“This type of flooring, called ‘opus sectile’ (Latin for ‘cut work’) is very expensive, and was considered to be far more prestigious than mosaic tiled floors,” said Snyder, who has an academic background in mathematics and Judaic Studies.

“So far, we have succeeded in restoring seven potential designs of the majestic flooring that decorated the buildings of the Temple Mount,” added Snyder, noting that there were no opus sectile floors in Israel prior to the time of King Herod.

“The tile segments were perfectly inlaid, such that one could not even insert a sharp blade between them,” he explained.

To date, approximately 600 colored stone floor tile segments have been uncovered, with more than 100 of them definitively dated to the Herodian Second Temple Period.

“This style of flooring is consistent with those found in Herod’s palaces at Masada, Herodian, and Jericho, among others – as well as in majestic palaces and villas in Italy, also attributed to the time of Herod,” said Snyder.

The tile segments – mostly imported from Rome, Asia Minor, Tunisia, and Egypt – were created from polished multicolored stones, cut in a variety of geometric shapes.

“A key characteristic of the Herodian tiles is their size, which corresponds to the Roman foot, approximately 29.6 cm,” noted Snyder.

The possibility that large expanses of the Temple Mount during the Second Temple Period were covered with opus sectile flooring was first raised in 2007 by archaeologist Assaf Avraham, director of the Jerusalem Walls National Park, with the Israel Nature and Parks Authority.

Avraham’s theory was based on a description given by the Romano-Jewish historian Josephus (1st Century CE), who wrote, “…the uncovered [Temple Mount courtyard] was completely paved with stones of various types and colors… (The Jewish War 5:2).”

Moreover, Talmudic literature records the meticulously-planned construction of the Temple Mount, describing rows of marble in different colors, including green, blue and white.

“Now, as a result of Frankie Snyder’s mathematical skills, we have succeeded in recreating the actual tile patterns,” said Barkay.

“Referring to the Temple that Herod built, the Talmud says that, ‘Whoever has not seen Herod’s building, has not seen a beautiful building in his life,’” he continued. “Though we have not merited seeing the Temple in its glory, with the discovery and restoration of these unique floor tiles, we are now able to have a deeper understanding and appreciation for the Second Temple, even through this one distinctive characteristic.”

Since the Temple Mount Sifting Project’s inception in 2004, more than 200,000 volunteers from around the world have taken part in the sifting, representing an unprecedented phenomenon in the realm of archaeological research.

The restored tiles will be presented to the general public on Thursday at the 17th Annual City of David Archaeological Conference.


Mus e de Beaux-Arts et d'Arch ologie de Vienne: bronze statue of Caius Julius Pacatianus (?) and an ivory jewel box in the foreground

The museums of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Romain-en-Gal are not the only ones at Vienne which show works of art of the Roman period. A limited number of relatively small exhibits are on display in a museum which was inaugurated in 1895 mainly to house paintings and faience. The statue of Pacatianus was found in 1874 broken into very many small pieces. Similar to that of the God of Coligny at Lyon it was reassembled. The head is clearly too small for the body, so either the fragments belonged to two statues or the head (which is less old than the body) replaced a previous one. A separate bronze inscription which was found in the same location suggested that the statue portrayed Caius Julius Pacatianus, a magistrate from Vienne who held many offices at the time of Emperor Septimius Severus and was the patron of Italica, but the inscription could refer to another statue.