Galatia

Galatia


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Galatia je bila regija v severni osrednji Anatoliji (današnja Turčija), ki so jo naselili Keltski Gali c. Ime izhaja iz grščine za "Galijo", ki so jo latinski pisatelji ponovili kot Galli. Kelte je regijo ponudil kralj sosednje Bitinije Nikomed I. (r. 278–255 pr. N. Št.) In se uveljavil v treh provincah, sestavljenih iz štirih kantonov (oddelkov), sestavljenih iz mestnih držav (znanih kot oppidum) pod vodstvom treh plemen, ki so sestavljala začetno skupino: Tectosages, Trocmil in Tolistogogii.

Galatski Kelti so sprva ohranili svojo kulturo in še naprej opazovali svoje starodavne verske praznike in obrede, vendar so se postopoma helenizirali do te mere, da so jih nekateri latinski pisatelji imenovali grško-gali. Rim jih je osvojil leta 189 pred našim štetjem in postal država stranka, vendar jim je bila pod vladavino Deiotarusa ("božanski bik", rc 105-c. 42 pr. N. Št.) Po Pompeju Velikem (l. 106-) podeljena določena stopnja avtonomije. 44 pr. N. Št.) Je leta 63 pred našim štetjem premagal Pontida Mitridata VI (r. 120–63 pr. N. Št.), Kasneje pa ga je Avgust Cezar leta 25 pr. Najbolj znano je iz svetopisemske knjige Galačanom, pisma, ki ga je tamkajšnji krščanski skupnosti napisal sveti Pavel.

Keltski vdor in ustanovitev

Keltska selitev je že potekala, ko je galski poglavar Brenn leta 390 pred našim štetjem opustošil Rim. Nadaljevalo se je vse do 4. stoletja pred našim štetjem, ko se je okoli leta 280 pred našim štetjem skupina Keltov iz Panonije spustila v regijo Grčije in ponudila svoje storitve kot najemniki (kot so to storili v Italiji skoraj sto let prej) in živela od dežele prek krmo in oropavanje mest in mest.

Galatija ni bila centralizirana država, niti Kelti niso bili zadovoljni s sedečim življenjem v kmetijstvu.

Leta 279 pred našim štetjem je en del te velike selitvene sile (pod drugim Brennusom, zaradi česar so znanstveniki ugibali, da je bil morda "Brennus" naslov, ne pa pravo ime) oropal sveto mesto Preročišča v Delfih in odnesel njegove zaklade. Brennus nato izgine iz zgodovine, a dva druga voditelja, Lutorius in Leonorius, sta bila bolj zainteresirana za iskanje stalnega doma za svoje ljudi kot za neprekinjeno vojskovanje in ropanje in sta začela iskati zemljo v ta namen.

Približno v istem času se je bitinijski kralj Nikomed I. (r. 278–255 pr. N. Št.) V Anatoliji boril s svojim bratom Zipoetom II., Ki je v Bitiniji ustanovil neodvisno kraljestvo, da bi izpodbijal legitimnost Nikomeda I. Nicomedes, ki je slišal za bojno moč Keltov, jih je povabil v Anatolijo, da mu pomagajo v njegovi vojni. Kelti so premagali Zipoetesa II, Nikomeda I. postavili za zakonitega kralja, nato pa so začeli pohajati po Anadoliji, izsiljevati denar za zaščito iz mest in vasi in uničevati tiste, ki niso plačali.

Nicomedes I, ki jim je njihova pomoč zelo koristila, jih ni več potreboval, vendar jih ni mogel prositi, naj odidejo. Znanstvenik Gerhard Herm komentira situacijo:

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Nicomedes je najel barbare; dali so mu manevrsko svobodo, ki jo je potreboval za zavarovanje lastne države, a se je nato soočil z vprašanjem, kaj naj zdaj stori z njimi. Da bi predvidel zahteve po plačilu ali kar koli drugega, je spretno delal na velikem hrepenenju, ki je tri plemena prisililo v njihovo potepanje; ponudil jim je ozemlje v tistem delu Anatolije vzhodno od svojih meja, območje okoli sodobne Ankare. Ta gambit je ponujal dvojno prednost: po eni strani bi se znebil teh gostov; na drugi strani bi med seboj in divjimi Frigijci ustvaril blažilno državo. Poleg tega dežela sploh ni bila njegova. (40)

Dežela je dejansko pripadala ali so jo vsaj uporabljali Frigijci, a zdi se, da je Nicomedes to rešil problem Keltov; kar so storili tako, da so se tam preprosto naselili in pregnali frigijske skupnosti. Ker so se navadili vojskovanja in preprosto vzeli, kar so hoteli od lokalnega prebivalstva, pa so nadaljevali občasne racije. V c. 275 pr.n.št., ki jih je morda spodbudil Nikomed, so napadli ozemlja Selevkidskega cesarstva in jih v bitki pri slonih premagal selevkidski kralj Antioh I. Soter (r. 281-261 pr. N. Št.). Tožili so za mir in postali dragoceni plačanci v vojski Antioha I.

Attalus I in Galatia

Ne glede na obliko skupnosti in vlade v Galatiji na tej točki ni jasno, vendar to ni bila centralizirana država, niti Kelti niso bili zadovoljni s sedečim življenjem v kmetijstvu. Medtem ko se je eno pleme še naprej borilo za Antioha I., je drugo postalo plačanci za Mitridata I. Ctita Pontskega (r. 281-266 pr. N. Št.) Proti Selevkidom. Hkrati je tretje pleme ali morda združena sila dveh ali vseh treh nadaljevalo z napadi na druga naselja in postalo resna skrb mesta Pergamon. Pergamon je bil pod nadzorom Lysimachusa, enega od Diadochijev ("naslednikov") Aleksandra Velikega, ki je imel po Aleksandrovi smrti Anatolijo in Trakijo. Umrl je v bitki leta 281 pr.

Lysimachus je prej Pergamon, mesto njegove velike zakladnice, zaupal enemu od svojih poveljnikov, Philetaerusu (r. 282-263 pr. N. Št.), Ki je varoval Lysimachusovo premoženje. Kmalu po Lizimahovi smrti je bil Seleuk I. umorjen in njegov naslednik Antioh I Soter ni vedel ničesar o zakladu (ki je po starodavnem zgodovinarju Strabonu znašal več kot 9000 talentov srebra). Namesto da bi denar ponudil svojemu novemu gospodarju, ga je Philetaerus diskretno porabil za izboljšanje ne le svojega mesta, ampak tudi mest svojih sosedov, tiho razširil svoje ozemlje, ko je z razkošnimi darovi kupil zvestobo okoliških skupnosti.

Attalus I je uradno priznal Galjsko regijo kot Gallo-Graecijo in jim podelil avtonomijo.

Evmen je v bitki pri Sardih leta 261 pred našim štetjem premagal Antioha I. Soterja s pomočjo Keltov, ki so ubili Antioha I. in osvobodili Pergamon izpod Seleukidovega nadzora. Eumenes je nato razširil svoja ozemlja in se lotil velikih gradbenih projektov, vendar so Kelti iz Galatije, ki so bili prej zaposleni pri Antiohu I. in so zdaj brez službe, saj Evmena niso zanimali nadaljnji vojaški pohodi, usmerili pozornost na napad na njegovo ozemlje. Edini način, da jih je Eumenes zadržal, je bil, da jim je plačal denar za zaščito.

Eumena je nasledil njegov bratranec in posvojenec Atal I (r. 241-197 pr. N. Št.), Ki ni hotel nadaljevati teh plačil in napadel Kelte ter jih do leta 232 pr. Leta 230 pr. Atal I. je nato proslavil svojo zmago s spomeniki in kipi, ki prikazujejo umirajoče in premagale Galije, ki jih je postavil v Pergamonskem templju v Ateni. Slavni kip Umirajoča Galija (danes v Kapitolinskem muzeju v Rimu) je poznejša rimska kopija enega od teh kipov, ki jih je naročil Atal I. Medtem ko so se njegova praznovanja in spomeniki dvigovali, je Atal I uradno priznal Galijo kot Gallo-Graecijo in jim podelil avtonomijo in jih spodbujal k ustanovitvi lastnega kraljestva.

Vlada in vera

Tri plemena, ki so bila hudo neodvisna in se niso hotela združiti, so v Galatiji ustanovila ločene pokrajine, ki so predstavljale majhna kraljestva. Trocmil je vzel vzhod, Tolistogogii zahod, Tectosages pa osrednjo regijo. Vsaka od teh provinc-kraljestev je bila razdeljena na štiri kantone, vsaka je bila pod vodstvom tetrarha s sodnikom pod njim, vojaškim vodjo pod sodnikom in dvema podrejenima poveljnikoma pod njim. Ljudje so pričakovali, da bodo živeli v skladu z zakoni, ki jih je oblikoval tetrarh (v bistvu njihov kralj) v posvetu s sodnikom, katerega pooblastila so bila pri določanju in izvrševanju zakona velika.

Da bi preprečil zlorabo sodniškega pooblastila, je bil odgovoren senatu 300 delegatov iz vseh treh kraljevskih provinc, ki bi odločali o pomembnih zadevah (zlasti o hudih kaznivih dejanjih, kot je umor), in ki so se redno sestajali na svetem mestu znano pri Drunemeton. Gerhard Herm komentira:

A nemeton je bil tudi v keltski Franciji in Veliki Britaniji miren, sveti kraj, ki približno ustreza temenosu ali prvotni obliki grškega templja: tu so vladali duhovniki in žrtvovali so se bogovom. Predpona dru-…[je prišel iz] drus, grško ime za hrast. Na keltskem Irskem je bila beseda za hrast daur, in tudi laiku mora biti očitno, da je ta beseda podobna grškemu ekvivalentu, kot so včasih oddaljeni bratranci. The Drunemeton je bil zato kraj čaščenja, ki ga spregledajo hrasti, tako sveti gaj kot zasenčeno postajališče: zato je moral biti galatski parlament sam po sebi sveti. (42)

Zdi se, da so pravne prakse izhajale iz kombinacije keltske in firgijske tradicije, vendar to ni jasno. Nekateri učenjaki pravijo, da je skupščina Drunemetona podobna keltski tuath (kar pomeni "ljudje", pa tudi "ozemlje" ali tisti, ki so odvisni od ozemlja ali poglavarja) v tem tuath sklicana tudi na zborih in veljavno pravo je na koncu izhajalo od bogov. Da je galatski zakon izhajal iz bogov, nakazuje bližina svetega mesta Pessinus, posvečenega boginji materi Kibeli in njeni družici Attis, blizu meje zahodnega dela Galatije, ki jo nadzirajo Tolistogogii. Strabon trdi, da je bil Pessin versko središče Galačanov, čeprav mesta niso obvladovali.

Pessinus je bilo starodavno mesto, ki je zraslo okoli velikega črnega kamna, ki naj bi padel z nebes in je simboliziral boginjo, ki so jo Galati častili pod njenim frigijskim imenom Agdistis. Med Agdistisovimi številnimi odgovornostmi so bile zaščita, zakon in red. Arheološki dokazi kažejo, da so Galati redno obiskovali Pessinusa in so morda celo kdaj zavzeli mesto, da bi s svojim nadzorom nad osrednjim verskim krajem dvignili svoj položaj v regiji.

Bitka pri Magneziji in Rimu

Galati so se postopoma asimilirali z okoliškimi ljudmi, prevzeli sirsko-grške in frigijske običaje in oblačila ter nadaljevali s svojo do zdaj tradicionalno vlogo plačancev za različna kraljestva in kneževine. Borili so se za seleukidskega kralja Antioha III. (Veliki, r. 223-187 pr. N. Št.) V njegovih kampanjah za ponovno združitev svojega cesarstva med c. 210-204 pr.

Antioh III so Rimljani leta 191 pred našim štetjem premagali pri Termopilah in ponovno v prelomni bitki pri Magneziji leta 190 pr.n.št., kjer so bile njegove sile močno premagane in ujete. Antiohu III. Ni preostalo drugega, kot da sprejme vse Rimske pogoje, določene v Apamejski pogodbi iz leta 188 pr.n.št., ki je med drugimi pogoji močno zmanjšala njegov imperij in Selevkidom položila veliko vojno odškodnino. Galačani so se zdaj znašli spet brezposelni, vendar je bil to njihov najmanjši problem.

Rimljani v Magneziji so bili povezani z Evmenom II Pergamonskim (r. 197-159 pr. N. Št., Sin Atala I), ki je bil prisiljen večkrat pregnati galatske vojne stranke-nedvomno jih je spodbujal Antioh III.-stran od svojega mesta. V Magneziji so Rimljani videli galatske bojevnike v boju, ki so služili kot pehota in lahka konjenica, iz prve roke in rimski konzul Gnej Manlij Vulso (ok. 189 pr. N. Št.) Je spoznal, da so lahko vredna vojaška sredstva.

Rimljani so v bitki pri gori Olimp premagali Kelte in spet pri Ankari.

Ker je bil Rim še vedno v zavezništvu z Eumenom II. In se mu je zdel koristen, Vulso ni mogel začeti pogajanj s svojimi sovražniki, ampak je lahko kaznoval Galačane, ker so oskrbovali Antioha III. Leta 189 pr. Deloval je po lastnem nagonu, ne da bi se posvetoval z rimskim senatom, zato je bil najprej obtožen oviranja miru, saj so s Selevkidi potekala pogajanja o njihovi predaji, Vulso pa je pravkar napadel seleukidske zaveznike. Ko je pojasnil svojo utemeljitev, je bil oproščen vseh obtožb in nagrajen s zmagoslavjem v Rimu. Galatia je bila zdaj država stranka Rimske republike s tetrarhijo, ki je v bistvu marionetna vlada Rima in galatski najemniki, ki so služili v rimski vojski.

Strabon (l. 63 pr. N. Št.-23 n. Š. N. Št.) Ugotavlja, da je do njegovega časa tetrarhija Galatije postopoma postala monarhija in največji njen kralj je bil Deiotarus, prijatelj Pompeja Velikega in govornika Cicerona (l. 106- 43 pr. N. Št.), Gostitelj Julija Cezarja (l. 100–44 pr. N. Št.), Ko je obiskal Galatijo, in kasneje sodelavec Marka Antonija (l. 83–30 pr. N. Št.). Deiotarus je sodeloval v Mitridatičnih vojnah kot Pompejev zaveznik, na strani Pompeja proti Cezarju v njihovi vojni, nato ga je Cezar pomilostil, na oblast pa ga je vrnil Mark Antonij po Cezarjevem atentatu, ko so ga drugi želeli odstaviti.

Deiotarus je vladal kraljestvo s svojim zetom Brogitarjem (r. 63-c.50 pr. N. Št.), Čigar sin Amyntas (okoli 38-25 pr. N. Št.) Bi bil zadnji kralj Galatije. Po porazu Marka Antonija z Oktavijanom v bitki pri Actiumu (31. pr. N. Št.) Je Oktavijan postal vrhovna sila v Rimu in do 27. pr. N. Št. Postal Avgust Cezar (r. 27. pr. N. Št.-14 n. Št.), Prvi cesar rimskega cesarstva. Ko je bil Amyntas umorjen leta 25 pred našim štetjem, je Avgust naredil Galacijo rimsko provinco.

Sveti Pavel in krščanstvo

Zdi se, da so Galati na začetku sprejeli čaščenje frigijskega boga neba Sabazija, vsemogočnega nebeškega konjenika, ki so ga v Anatolijo prinesli Frigijci, in je prikazan kot v periodičnem spopadu z domorodno boginjo Mati Kibelo. Kibela (prvotno Kybeleia, kar pomeni "gora") je bila boginja starih Luvijcev in Hatti v regiji že od c. 2500 pr. pri predpostavki, da to pomeni primat boga nad boginjo.

Sabiazos je upodobljen kot bojevnik na konju z palico ali sulico in tepta svetovno kačo, ki je simbolizirala kaos. Frigijci so ga klicali kot močnega vojnega boga in se nanj zanašali veliko bolj kot na Kibelo. Galati so morda šli v isto smer, a čeprav niso, so v času misijonarskega dela sv. Pavla (l. 5 - ok. 64 n. Št.) V Anadoliji sprejeli sporočilo enega samega vsemogočno moško božanstvo, ki je odrešilo z vero v svojega sina. Ker je bil Sabiazos povezan z Zeusom, Zevsov slavni sin Herakle (rimski Hercules) pa je bil že uveljavljen odrešenik v Anatoliji, spreobrnitev poganske paradigme v krščansko ne bi bila težka.

Pavel je to spreobrnitev najverjetneje spodbujal na enak način, kot ga vidijo v Knjigi apostolskih del in v pismih krščanske Nove zaveze, pri čemer je trdil, da je njegova nova vera preprosto dejanska resnica, ki so jo stari bogovi neustrezno predstavljali. Znano je, da je ta argument uporabil v Apostolskih delih 17: 16-34, ko je v Areopagu govoril z Atenskimi Grki in poudaril, kako je njihov "neznani bog" Jezus Kristus, ki ga predstavlja. Pavel sam pravi, da predstavlja sebe in svoje sporočilo občinstvu tako, da ga bodo razumeli v 1. Korinčanom 9:22, ko piše: »Vsem sem postal vse, da bi vsekakor lahko rešil nekaj« in ni razloga dvomiti, da je to isto filozofijo in argument uporabil v Galatiji, da bi ljudi pripeljal do Kristusa.

V svojem pismu Galačanom se neposredno sklicuje na njihovo znano ljubezen do svobode in neodvisnosti (5: 1) in svobodo duha po Kristusu vedno znova nasprotuje suženjstvu, ki ga ponuja svetovno zadovoljstvo. Natančno navaja celo vedenje in grehe, ki so že dolgo povezani z Galačani, kot so ljubosumje, pijanost, liberalna spolnost in malikovanje (5: 19-20), in jih primerja s svobodo pred poroko in pokvarjenostjo, ki jo ponuja krščanstvo (5: 22-24) . Njegovi pozivi so dobro delovali in Galačani so se spreobrnili in zamenjali Sabiazosovo in Kibelino zaščito z zaščito Jezusa Kristusa. Herm ugotavlja, da so »krščanske skupnosti pod jurisdikcijo Drunemetona med najstarejšimi, ki sta jih ustanovila« Pavel in Galacija, prerasle v eno najpomembnejših krščanskih središč v regiji (43).

Galati so bili do takrat skoraj temeljito helenizirani in so svoje keltsko-grške običaje dodatno nadomestili z rimskimi prepričanji in stališči. Krščanstvo je nadomestilo njihovo staro vero in templji so se spremenili v cerkve. Ta ista paradigma se je z vojaško silo ponovila po muslimanskem vdoru v Anatolijo leta 830 pred našim štetjem, ko se je prebivalstvo spreobrnilo v islam, cerkve pa so postale mošeje. Do takrat je ostalo malo od prvotne keltsko-grške kulture v Galatiji. Njegovo ime je danes ohranjeno predvsem po svetopisemski poslanici svetega Pavla in po možnosti predmestju Galata izven Istanbula v Turčiji.


1. Lightfoot identificira te ljudi s Kelti ali Galijami, ki so se preselili po Italiji, Makedoniji in Tesaliji do obale Helesponta čez morje v Malo Azijo, kjer so dali celotno celino zahodno od Taurusa v davek, da bi jih premagala Pergamena, postavljen v pas zemlje 200 kilometrov dolg od severovzhoda proti severozahodu in ustanovil tri mesta: Tavium, Ancyra in Pessinus 4

Čeprav se o tem razumevanju selitve ljudi strinjajo vsi, ni nujno, da so bili prejemniki tisti na severu, ker je bila severna regija Galacije pod kampanjo konzula Manlija leta 189 pred našim štetjem in 25. leta pr. postala rimska provinca s smrtjo Amyntosa pod Avgustom, vključno z zgornjo etnografsko regijo Galatijo, pa tudi Likaonejo, Isavrijo, jugovzhodno Pirgijo in delom Pisidije 5

2. Do osemnajstega stoletja je soglasno veljalo, da je severna regija 6

3. Lukina običajna praksa je uporaba geografskih izrazov 7

4. Luka ne omenja tistih, ki živijo v mestih Derbe, Lystra, Iconium in Pisidian Antiochia, kot Galačanov.

Luka uporablja geografske naslove (Dejanja 13: 13,14 14: 6). Zato Galatija v Apd 16: 6 18:23 ni politična 8

5. Stavek τὴν φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν (frigijsko in galatijsko območje) v Apd 16: 6 in 18:21 se nanaša na dva okrožja in ne na eno 9

6. Značilnosti Pavlovih bralcev so tiste, ki jih vidimo pri galskih narodih 10

7. Deležnik κωλυθέντες v Apd 16: 6 vztraja, da je Pavel odšel v severno Galatijo oznanjevati 11

1. Čeprav je bilo severno stališče do osemnajstega stoletja soglasno, ga je mogoče razložiti s skupno napako cerkvenih očetov, ki so jo nadaljevali komentatorji

Bruce poudarja, da se je 37. leta Likaonija Galacija ločila in združila s Kilikijo in Isavriko, da bi oblikovala razširjeno provinco Kilikijo, leta 297 pa je preostanek južne Galatije z nekaj sosednjimi ozemlji postala nova provinca Pisidija s Pizidejsko Antiohijo kot njeno glavno mesto in Ikonij kot drugo mesto 12

S tem dejanjem se je pokrajina Galatia spet zmanjšala na sever Galatije. Ko bi torej cerkveni očetje brali o cerkvah v Galatiji, bi seveda pomislili na Galatijo svojega časa-severno Galatijo

2. Slovnično se trdi, da odsotnost članka v besedni zvezi τὴν φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν v Apd 16: 6 in 18:23 povzroči, da so anarterični izrazi pridevniki in ne samostalniki, ki se tako glasijo "Frigijsko in galtsko območje." 13

3. Bruce dokazuje, da so bili geografski opisi dodani z deželnimi, kot je Pont Galaticus 14, s čimer dokazuje, da je Luka lahko deželni izraz geografsko spremenil z φρυγὶαν, s čimer je dal bolj geografsko izjavo, ki podpira Pavlovo gibanje na južnem območju pokrajine Galatia

4. Pomanjkanje podatkov v Svetem pismu o kakšnih cerkvah na severu Galacije, zlasti glede na omembo južno Galatskih cerkva v Apd 13–14, podpira južno teorijo

5. Območje severnega Galata je bilo izolirano in ker je bil Pavel ob odhodu tja bolan (Gal. 4), je malo verjetno, da bi šel tristo milj proti severu

Tudi Pavel se je na svojih potovanjih osredotočil na glavne ceste in komunikacijska središča v rimskih provincah in do leta 292 n.št. ni bilo glavne ceste proti severni Galatiji 15

6. Pavel je običajno uporabljal deželne naslove, saj je cerkve ene rimske province postavljal proti drugi. Tako bi 1. Korinčanom 16: 1 postala provincialna uporaba Galatije 16

7. "Galačani" je bil najboljši izraz za opis prebivalcev južnih okrožij, saj je vključeval vse brez etničnih razlik 17

8. Čeprav deležnik (κωλυθέντες) v Apd 16: 6 prisili Pavla na sever, ni nujno, da gredo celo do severne Galatije. Obstajajo še druge poti 18

9. Obstajajo še drugi argumenti, na primer Pavlova omemba Barnabe kot tiste, ki bi jo morali poznati (Gal 2), in dejstvo, da nobeden od Pavlovih spremljevalcev v Delih 20: 4 in dlje ni iz severne Galatije, ki podpirajo južno teorijo (vendar to so šibkejši argumenti)

Čeprav dokazi niso dokončni, jasna sklicevanja v Delih na cerkve v južni Galatiji, Pavlova uporaba deželnih naslovov in sprejemljiva uskladitev Lukovih geografskih izrazov z Apostolskimi deli 16: 6 in 18:23 povzročijo, da ta pisatelj pomisli na cerkve južni Galatiji, da bodo prejemniki Pavlove poslanice


Galatia - zgodovina

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Galatia

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Galatia je bila regija v severni osrednji Anatoliji (današnja Turčija), ki so jo naselili Keltski Gali c. 278-277 pr. Ime izhaja iz grščine za "Galijo", ki so jo latinski pisatelji ponovili kot Galli. Kelte je pokrajino ponudil kralj sosednje Bitinije Nikomed I. (r. 278–255 pr. N. Št.) In se uveljavil v treh provincah, sestavljenih iz štirih kantonov (oddelkov), sestavljenih iz mestnih držav (znanih kot oppidum). , tri plemena, ki so sestavljala začetno skupino: Tectosages, Trocmil in Tolistogogii.


Galatia - zgodovina

(dežela Galli, Gali). Rimsko provinco Galatia lahko grobo opišemo kot osrednjo regijo polotoka Male Azije, ki jo na severu omejujejo Bitinija in Paflagonija na vzhodu s Pontom na jugu s Kapadokijo in Likaonijo na zahodu s Frigijo. --Encyc. Britanka. Ime je dobil po galskih ali keltskih plemenih, ki so okoli leta 280 pred našim štetjem vdrla v Makedonijo in Trakijo. Končno je postala rimska provinca. Galatija Nove zaveze ima resnično "Galijo" na Vzhodu. Ljudje so bili vedno opisani kot "dovzetni za hitre vtise in nenadne spremembe, z nestanovitnostjo, ki je enaka njihovemu pogumu in navdušenju, in nenehno odgovornostjo do tega razhajanja, ki je plod pretirane nečimrnosti. -Galatske cerkve je ustanovil Pavel ob svojem prvem obisku, ko je bil med njimi pridržan zaradi bolezni, (Galačanom 4:13) med drugim misijonarskim potovanjem, okoli 51. leta n. št., jih je ponovno obiskal na svoji tretji misijonski poti.

Maloazijska provinca, ki leži južno in jugovzhodno od Bitinije in Paflagonije, zahodno od Ponta, severozahodno in severozahodno od Kapadokije ter severno in severozahodno od Kapadokije ter severno in severovzhodno od Likaonije in Frigije. Njegovo ime je izviralo iz Galov, od katerih sta se dve plemeni (Trocmi in Tolistoboii) preselili tja po opustošenju Rima s strani Brennusa in se pomešali s nekdanjimi prebivalci, vsi so se imenovali Gallogracci, pr.n.št. njihovi potomci vsaj do časa Jeronima, šeststo let po selitvi in ​​ti azijski Galci so obdržali tudi velik del živega in impulzivnega razpoloženja galske rase. Primerjaj Galačanom 1: 6 4:15 5: 7. Pod Avgustom, okoli B. C. 26, je bila ta država spremenjena v obliko rimske province in je upravljal lastnik. Galatijo so odlikovali po rodovitnosti tal in cvetočem stanju trgovine. To je bil tudi sedež kolonij iz različnih narodov, med katerimi je bilo veliko Judov in iz vseh teh se zdi, da je Pavel veliko spreobrnil v krščanstvo, 1 1 Korinčanom 16: 1. Njegov prvi obisk, Apostolska dela 16: 6, je verjetno potekal okoli A. D. 51-2, drugi, Apostolska dela 18:28, po katerem se zdi, da je bila napisana njegova poslanica Galačanom, nekaj let kasneje. Ob prvem obisku je bil bolan, vendar so ga sprejeli "kot angela božjega" in najbolj srčno sprejeli evangelij. Štiri ali pet let zatem so mednje prišli judovski učitelji, ki so izpovedovali krščanstvo in so zanikali Pavlovo apostolsko avtoriteto, povzdignili dela postave in izkrivili pravi evangelij, tako da so z njim mešali obrede judovstva. Pavel, ko je izvedel za njihovo stanje, verjetno v Korintu, A. D. 57-8, je napisal svojo poslanico Galačanom. Ogorčeno graja svoje otroke v Kristusu zaradi njihove nenadne odtujenosti od njega in od resnice potrjuje njegovo avtoriteto in njegov nauk kot apostol, s tem da pokaže, da jih je prejel od samega Kristusa in na silo predstavlja velik nauk krščanstva, opravičilo po veri, z njen odnos do zakona na eni strani in do svetega življenja na drugi. Splošna tema poslanice je enaka kot poslanica Rimljanom in zdi se, da je bila napisana približno istočasno s tem. Cerkve v Galatiji se v cerkveni zgodovini omenjajo približno devetsto let.

Ta provinca Galatia, v mejah katere so bila omejena ta keltska plemena, je bila osrednja regija Male Azije.

Pavel je v času svojega drugega misijonarskega potovanja v spremstvu Sile in Timoteja (Apd. 16: 6) obiskal »območje Galatije«, kjer ga je zadrževala bolezen (Galačanom 4:13), in jim tako dal daljšo priložnost, da jim pridiga evangelij. Na svoji tretji poti je prehodil "vso deželo Galatijo in Frigijo" (Apd. 18:23). Krescenca je tja poslal Pavel proti koncu svojega življenja (2. Timoteju 4:10).

2. Vprašanja, na katera je treba odgovoriti

III. PRIPOVED LUKE

1. Faze evangelizacije province

IV. PAULOVA UPORABA "GALATIJANOV"

"Galatia" je bilo ime, ki se je v prvem stoletju po Kristusu uporabljalo v dveh različnih pomenih:

Za označbo države na severnem delu osrednje planote Male Azije, ki se dotika severne Paflagonije in Bitinije, zahodne in južne Frigije, Kapadokije in Ponta jugovzhodno in vzhodno, o izvirih Sangariosa in srednjem toku Halys

Označiti veliko provinco rimskega cesarstva, vključno ne le z državo Galatijo, ampak tudi s Paflagonijo in deli Ponta, Frigije, Pisidije, Likaonije in Izavrije. Ime se pojavlja v 1. Korinčanom 16: 1 Galačanom 1: 2 1 Petru 1: 1 in morda v 2. Timoteju 4:10. Nekateri pisci domnevajo, da je Galatija omenjena tudi v Apd 16: 6 Apostolska dela 18:23, toda tamkajšnji Grk ima besedno zvezo "Galatijsko območje" ali "ozemlje", čeprav ima angleška različica Svetega pisma "Galatijo" in tega ne gre domnevati brez dokazov, da je "Galatična regija" sinonim za "Galatijo". Če npr. sodobna pripoved omenja, da je popotnik prečkal britansko ozemlje, vemo, da to pomeni nekaj povsem drugega kot prečkanje Britanije. "Galatično območje" ima drugačno konotacijo kot "Galatia" in čeprav smo ugotovili, da je geografsko enakovreden, je imel pisatelj razlog za uporabo te posebne oblike.

2. Vprašanja, na katera je treba odgovoriti:

Vprašanja, na katera je treba odgovoriti, so: (a) V katerem od obeh pomenov Pavel in Peter uporabljata "Galatijo"? b) Kaj je Luka mislil z Galatijsko regijo ali ozemljem? Ta vprašanja nimajo zgolj geografskega pomena, temveč jih imajo najbolj tesno in imajo odločilen vpliv na mnoge točke v biografiji, kronologiji, misijonarskem delu in Pavlovih metodah.

II. Izvor imena "Galatia".

Ime je bilo vneseno v Azijo po 278-277 pr. v okrožje, za njih pa so bile meje določene po letu 232 pr Tako je nastala neodvisna država Galatia, v kateri živijo tri galska plemena, Tolistobogioi, Tektosages in Trokmoi, s tremi mestnimi središči, Pessinus, Ankyra in Tavia (Tavion v Strabonu), ki so s seboj pripeljali svoje žene in družine. še naprej izrazita galska rasa in zaloga (kar bi bilo nemogoče, če bi prišli kot preprosti bojevniki, ki so vzeli žene od osvojenih prebivalcev). Galski jezik je bil očitno vsiljen vsem starim prebivalcem, ki so v državi ostali kot manjvredna kasta. Galataji so kmalu prevzeli podeželsko vero, poleg slednje so jo ohranili vsaj v 2. stoletju po Kristusu, vendar je bilo zanje politično pomembno ohraniti in izvajati pooblastila starega duhovništva, kot pri Pessinu, kjer Galatai so pisarno delili s starimi duhovniškimi družinami.

Galatska država treh plemen je trajala do 25 pr.n.št. Of these, Deiotaros succeeded in establishing himself as sole king, by murdering the two other tribal kings and after his death in 40 B.C. his power passed to Castor and then to Amyntas, 36-25 B.C. Amyntas bequeathed his kingdom to Rome and it was made a Roman province (Dion Cass. 48, 33, 5 Strabo, 567, omits Castor). Amyntas had ruled also parts of Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycaonia and Isauria. The new province included these parts, and to it were added Paphlagonia 6 B.C., part of Pontus 2 B.C. (called Pontus Galaticus in distinction from Eastern Pontus, which was governed by King Polemon and styled Polemoniacus), and in 64 also Pontus Polemoniacus. Part of Lycaonia was non-Roman and was governed by King Antiochus from 41 to 72 A.D. Laranda belonged to this district, which was distinguished as Antiochiana regio from the Roman region Lycaonia called Galatica.

This large province was divided into regiones for administrative purposes and the regiones coincided roughly with the old national divisions Pisidia, Phrygia (including Antioch, Iconium, Apollonia), Lycaonia (including Derbe, Lystra and a district organized on the village-system), etc. See Calder in Journal of Roman Studies, 1912. This province was called by the Romans Galatia, as being the kingdom of Amyntas (just like the province Asia, which also consisted of a number of different countries as diverse and alien as those of province Galatia, and was so called because the Romans popularly and loosely spoke of the kings of that congeries of countries as kings of Asia). The extent of both names, Asia and Galatia, in Roman language, varied with the varying bounds of each province. The name "Galatia" is used to indicate the province, as it was at the moment, by Ptolemy, Pliny v.146, Tacitus Hist. ii0.9 Ann. xiii. 35 later chroniclers, Syncellus, Eutropius, and Hist. Aug. Max. et Balb. 7 (who derived it from earlier authorities, and used it in the old sense, not the sense customary in their own time) and in inscriptions CIL, III, 254, 272 (Eph. Ep. v.51) VI, 1408, 1409, 332 VIII, 11028 (Mommsen rightly, not Schmidt), 18270, etc. It will be observed that these are almost all Roman sources, and (as we shall see) express a purely Roman view. If Paul used the name "Galatia" to indicate the province, this would show that he consistently and naturally took a Roman view, used names in a Roman connotation, and grouped his churches according to Roman provincial divisions but that is characteristic of the apostle, who looked forward from Asia to Rome (Acts 19:21), aimed at imperial conquest and marched across the Empire from province to province (Macedonia, Achaia, Asia are always provinces to Paul). On the other hand, in the East and the Greco-Asiatic world, the tendency was to speak of the province either as the Galatic Eparchia (as at Iconium in 54 A.D., CIG, 3991), or by enumeration of its regiones (or a selection of the regiones). The latter method is followed in a number of inscriptions found in the province (CIL, III, passim). Now let us apply these contemporary facts to the interpretation of the narrative of Luke.

III. The Narrative of Luke.

1. Stages of Evangelization of Province:

The evangelization of the province began in Acts 13:14. The stages are:

(1) the audience in the synagogue, Acts 13:42

(2) almost the whole city, 13:44

(3) the whole region, i.e. a large district which was affected from the capital (as the whole of Asia was affected from Ephesus 19:10)

(4) Iconium another city of this region: in 13:51 no boundary is mentioned

(5) a new region Lycaonia with two cities and surrounding district (14:6)

(6) return journey to organize the churches in (a) Lystra, (b) Iconium and Antioch (the secondary reading of Westcott and Hort, (kai eis Ikonion kai Antiocheleian), is right, distinguishing the two regions (a) Lycaonia, (b) that of Iconium and Antioch)

(7) progress across the region Pisidia, where no churches were founded (Pisidian Antioch is not in this region, which lies between Antioch and Pamphylia).

Again (in Acts 16:1-6) Paul revisited the two regiones:

(1) Derbe and Lystra, i.e. regio Lycaonia Galatica,

(2) the Phrygian and Galatic region, i.e. the region which was racially Phrygian and politically Galatic. Paul traversed both regions, making no new churches but only strengthening the existing disciples and churches. In Acts 18:23 he again revisited the two regiones, and they are briefly enumerated:

(1) the Galatic region (so called briefly by a traveler, who had just traversed Antiochiana and distinguished Galatica from it)

(2) Phrygia. On this occasion he specially appealed, not to churches as in 16:6, but to disciples it was a final visit and intended to reach personally every individual, before Paul went away to Rome and the West. On this occasion the contribution to the poor of Jerusalem was instituted, and the proceeds later were carried by Timothy and Gaius of Derbe (Acts 20:4 Acts 24:17 1 Corinthians 16:1) this was a device to bind the new churches to the original center of the faith.

These four churches are mentioned by Luke always as belonging to two regiones, Phrygia and Lycaoma and each region is in one case described as Galatic, i.e. part of the province Galatia. Luke did not follow the Roman custom, as Paul did he kept the custom of the Greeks and Asiatic peoples, and styled the province by enumerating its regiones, using the expression Galatic (as in Pontus Galaticus and at Iconium, CIG, 3991) to indicate the supreme unity of the province. By using this adjective about both regiones he marked his point of view that all four churches are included in the provincial unity.

From Paul's references we gather that he regarded the churches of Galatia as one group, converted together (Galatians 4:13), exposed to the same influences and changing together (Galatians 1:6, 8 Galatians 3:1 Galatians 4:9), naturally visited at one time by a traveler (Galatians 1:8 Galatians 4:14). He never thinks of churches of Phrygia or of Lycaonia only of province Galatia (as of provinces Asia, Macedonia, Achaia). Paul did not include in one class all the churches of one journey: he went direct from Macedonia to Athens and Corinth, but classes the churches of Macedonia separate from those of Achaia. Troas and Laodicea and Colosse he classed with Asia (as Luke did Troas Acts 20:4), Philippi with Macedonia, Corinth with Achaia. These classifications are true only of the Roman usage, not of early Greek usage. The custom of classifying according to provinces, universal in the fully formed church of the Christian age, was derived from the usage of the apostles (as Theodore Mopsuestia expressly asserts in his Commentary on First Timothy (Swete, II, 121) Harnack accepts this part of the statement (Verbreitung, 2nd edition, I, 387 Expansion, II, 96)). His churches then belonged to the four provinces, Asia, Galatia, Achaia, Macedonia. There were no other Pauline churches all united in the gift of money which was carried to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4 Acts 24:17).

IV. Paul's Use of "Galatians."

The people of the province of Galatia, consisting of many diverse races, when summed up together, were called Galatai, by Tacitus, Ann. xv0.6 Syncellus, when he says (Augoustos Galatais phorous etheto), follows an older historian describing the imposing of taxes on the province and an inscription of Apollonia Phrygiae calls the people of the city Galatae (Lebas-Waddington, 1192). If Paul spoke to Philippi or Corinth or Antioch singly, he addressed them as Philippians, Corinthians, Antiochians (Philippians 4:15 2 Corinthians 6:11), not as Macedonians or Achaians but when he had to address a group of several churches (as Antioch, Iconium, Derbe and Lystra) he could use only the provincial unity, Galatae.

All attempts to find in Paul's letter to the Galatians any allusions that specially suit the character of the Gauls or Galatae have failed. The Gauls were an aristocracy in a land which they had conquered. They clung stubbornly to their own Celtic religion long after the time of Paul, even though they also acknowledged the power of the old goddess of the country. They spoke their own Celtic tongue. They were proud, even boastful, and independent. They kept their native law under the Empire. The "Galatians" to whom Paul wrote had Changed very quickly to a new form of religion, not from fickleness, but from a certain proneness to a more oriental form of religion which exacted of them more sacrifice of a ritual type. They needed to be called to freedom they were submissive rather than arrogant. They spoke Greek. They were accustomed to the Greco-Asiatic law: the law of adoption and inheritance which Paul mentions in his letter is not Roman, but Greco-Asiatic, which in these departments was similar, with some differences on this see the writer's Historical Commentary on Galatians.

1054. Galatikos -- belonging to Galatia
. belonging to Galatia. Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: Galatikos Phonetic
Spelling: (gal-at-ee-kos') Short Definition: belonging to the province .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1054.htm - 6k

2430. Ikonion -- Iconium, a city of Galatia
. Iconium, a city of Galatia. Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter Transliteration: Ikonion
Phonetic Spelling: (ee-kon'-ee-on) Short Definition: Iconium Definition .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/2430.htm - 6k

1052. Galates -- a Galatian
. Galates Phonetic Spelling: (gal-at'-ace) Short Definition: a Galatian Definition:
a Galatian (meaning any inhabitant of the Roman province Galatia). .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/1052.htm - 6k

3071. Lukaonia -- Lycaonia, a region in Asia Minor
. Definition: Lycaonia Definition: Lycaonia, the country of the Lykaones, a district
of Asia Minor, comprised within the Roman province Galatia and including the .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3071.htm - 6k

5435. Phrugia -- Phrygia, a region of Asia Minor
. an ethnic district in Asia Minor, the north-western part of which was in the Roman
province Asia and the south-eastern part in the Roman province Galatia. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/5435.htm - 6k

3082. Lustra -- Lystra, a city of Lycaonia
. Lustra Phonetic Spelling: (loos'-trah) Short Definition: Lystra Definition: Lystra,
a Lycaonian city in the southern part of the Roman province Galatia. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/3082.htm - 6k

490. Antiocheia -- Antioch, the name of two cities
. Antioch, (a) Antioch on the river Orontes, capital of the Province Syria, (b) Pisidian
Antioch, not in Pisidia, but near Pisidia, in the Roman Province Galatia .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/490.htm - 6k

4899. suneklektos -- chosen together with
. 1 Pet 1:1,2: " 1 To those who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia,
Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, , by the sanctifying work of the Spirit .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4899.htm - 7k

4099. Pisidia -- Pisidia, a region of Asia Minor
. Spelling: (pis-id-ee'-ah) Short Definition: Pisidia Definition: Pisidia, a country
of Asia Minor, being the south-western part of the Roman province Galatia. .
//strongsnumbers.com/greek2/4099.htm - 6k

Apostasy in Galatia
. Lesson 36 Apostasy in Galatia. [This chapter is based on the Epistle to
the Galatians.] While tarrying at Corinth, Paul had cause .
/. /white/the acts of the apostles/lesson 36 apostasy in galatia.htm

His Peculiar Caricature of the Bishops, Eustathius of Armenia and .
. Book I. Section 5. His peculiar caricature of the bishops, Eustathius of
Armenia and Basil of Galatia, is not well drawn. But, not .
/. /gregory of nyssa dogmatic treatises etc/section 5 his peculiar caricature.htm

The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Galatians
. [Sidenote: To whom written.]. "Unto the Churches of Galatia." What is the meaning
of the name "Galatia& quot? Students are still divided on the question. .
/. /pullan/the books of the new testament/chapter xii the epistle of.htm

The Epistle to the Galatians
. There were those in the churches of Galatia who perverted the doctrine of the
cross and called the apostolic authority of Paul in question. .
/. /drummond/introduction to the new testament/the epistle to the galatians.htm

V. .
. V.1, 2. Peter an Apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered abroad in Pontus,
Galatia, Capadocia, Asia and Bithynia, elect according to the .
/. /the epistles of st peter and st jude preached and explained/chapter i v .htm

1 Kor xvi. 1
. Homily XLIII. 1 Kor xvi. 1. 1 1 Corinthians 16:1 Now concerning the collection
for the saints, as I gave order to the Churches of Galatia, so also do ye. .
/. /homilies on the epistles of paul to the corinthians/homily xliii 1 cor xvi.htm

Monks of Edessa: Julianus, Ephraim Syrus, Barus, and Eulogius .
. Syrus, Barus, and Eulogius Further, the Monks of Coele-Syria: Valentinus, Theodore,
Merosas, Bassus, Bassonius and the Holy Men of Galatia and Cappadocia .
/. /chapter xxxiv monks of edessa julianus.htm

Efforts of Julian to Establish Paganism and to Abolish Our Usages. .
. emperor himself on the subject. He writes as follows: [1403] " "To Arsacius,
High-Priest of Galatia. Paganism has not yet reached .
/. /the ecclesiastical history of sozomenus/chapter xvi efforts of julian to.htm

Early Mentions of Christianity in Britain. --King Lucius. --Origin .
. The Gauls of Galatia, as we have seen, were of kin to the Britons and while the
Britons were being almost entirely saved from harm by Constantius, their .
/. /lecture ii early mentions of.htm

General Character of Christians.
. The malice and errors of those deceitful workers, and the mischief which they
occasioned at Galatia, caused the writing of this epistle: which, like the other .
/. /lee/sermons on various important subjects/sermon xi general character of.htm

Lycaonia (2 Occurrences)
. Easton's Bible Dictionary An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of
Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province .
/l/lycaonia.htm - 10k

Derbe (4 Occurrences)
. missionary journeys respectively), and it may now be regarded as highly probable
that he passed through it on his third journey (to the churches of Galatia). .
/d/derbe.htm - 15k

Galatian (3 Occurrences)
. (a.) of or pertaining to Galatia or its inhabitants. -- A native or inhabitant of
Galatia, in Asia Minor a descendant of the Gauls who settled in Asia Minor. .
/g/galatian.htm - 7k

Pisidia (2 Occurrences)
. Antony gave Antioch to Amyntas of Galatia in 39 BC, and hence it was included in
the province Galatia (glej GALATIA) formed in 25 BC out of Amyntas' kingdom. .
/p/pisidia.htm - 21k

Galatians (2 Occurrences)
. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia
were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6 Galatians 1:8 4:13, 19). .
/g/galatians.htm - 43k

Antioch (21 Occurrences)
. Antony gave Antioch to Amyntas of Galatia in 39 BC, and hence it was included in
the province Galatia (glej GALATIA) formed in 25 BC out of Amyntas' kingdom. .
/a/antioch.htm - 27k

Pontus (3 Occurrences)
. Pontus proper extended from the Halys River on the West to the borders of Colchis
on the East, its interior boundaries meeting those of Galatia, Cappadocia and .
/p/pontus.htm - 16k

Traveled (104 Occurrences)
. (See NIV). Acts 16:6 When they had gone through the region of Phrygia and Galatia,
they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia. (See NIV). .
/t/traveled.htm - 32k

Phygellus (1 Occurrence)
. fiery trial" which is trying them (1 Peter 4:12), and those whom he thus addresses
were the members of the church throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia .
/p/phygellus.htm - 10k

Acts 16:6
When they had gone through the region of Phrygia and Galatia , they were forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Acts 18:23
Having spent some time there, he departed, and went through the region of Galatia , and Phrygia, in order, establishing all the disciples.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Corinthians 16:1
Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commanded the assemblies of Galatia , you do likewise.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

Galatians 1:2
and all the brothers who are with me, to the assemblies of Galatia :
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

2 Timothy 4:10
for Demas left me, having loved this present world, and went to Thessalonica Crescens to Galatia , and Titus to Dalmatia.
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)

1 Peter 1:1
Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as foreigners in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia , Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
(WEB KJV WEY ASV BBE DBY WBS YLT NAS RSV NIV)


A Timeline of Paul’s Ministry in Galatians and Acts

“The Cities of Galatia” (from Nelson’s Complete Book of Bible Maps and Charts, Revised, 1996, Logos Edition)

Galatians is probably Paul’s earliest letter, written around AD 48 to the churches in southern Galatia and not to Gentiles in northern Galatia (the first conclusion among several debated issues, as you will see).

Assuming some dates (these dates can be debated) and matching Paul’s biographical details their parallels in Acts, Paul persecuted the church (Gal 1:13–14 Acts 9:1–2 AD 34), was converted (Gal 1:15–16a Acts 9:3–19a AD 34), preached in Arabia and Damascus for three years (Gal 1:17 Acts 9:19–22 AD 34–37), visited Peter and James in Jerusalem after these three years (Gal 1:18–20 Acts 9:26–29 AD 37), and preached in Judea for about ten years (Gal 1:21–24 Acts 9:30–31 AD 37–47).

Fourteen years after his conversion (so it seems cf. Gal 2:1), Paul took Barnabas and Titus to visit Jerusalem again for a private meeting with Peter, James, and John (Gal 2:1–10), which may or may not be recorded in Acts (if so, Acts 11:27–30 AD 47 this conclusion is debated and hinges on another―see comments on Gal 2:1–10 and Acts 15:1–29 below).

Paul then went on his first missionary journey, which included planting churches in southern Galatia (Acts 13–14 AD 47–48). It is not clear when Peter came to Antioch and was confronted by Paul (Gal 2:11–14), but (making yet another conclusion) perhaps it was after Paul had planted the Galatian churches (thus, AD 48). Maybe Peter wanted to follow up on the gospel’s spread to the Gentiles as he had done earlier in Samaria (Acts 8:14) or visited while traveling to minister to the churches in general (cf. Acts 9:32).

Paul then went to the Jerusalem council in Acts 15:1–29 a year or so later (AD 49), an event probably not the same as what Paul records in Gal 2:1–10 (another debated issue). This conclusion is supported in that (1) Paul does not mention the Acts 15 conclusions in Galatians and (2) Luke describes the Acts 15 council as public (cf. Acts 15:6, 12, 22) while Paul describes Gal 2:10 as a private meeting (cf. Gal 2:2).

Paul then visited the Galatian churches two more times at the beginnings of his second (Acts 16:6 cf. cf. 15:40–18:22 AD 49) and third (Acts 18:23 cf. 18:23–21:17 AD 52) missionary journeys (AD 49–51 and 52–57, respectively).

On a pastoral level, for as strong as Paul was in his letter to the Galatians, we can be encouraged that the churches corrected themselves and persevered, implied by the fact that Paul visited them in his second and third missionary journeys. While these churches were swayed for a time, Paul’s strong and swift denunciation of a false gospel grounded them in the true gospel again, leaving them strengthened in the end.

So, if you are keeping track, (tentative) conclusions made were the following:

(1) Paul wrote the churches in southern and not northern Galatia (i.e., the ones in Acts 13–14).

(2) Paul visited Jerusalem a second time fourteen years after his conversion and not fourteen years after his first visit to Jerusalem (Gal 2:1).

(3) Paul’s visit to Jerusalem in Gal 2:1–10 could be the one recorded by Luke in Acts 11:27–30.

(4) Pauls’ visit to Jerusalem in Gal 2:1–10 was probably not the one recorded by Luke in Acts 15:1–29.

(5) Peter visited Paul in Antioch (Gal 2:11–14) after Paul’s return to the city after Paul had planted several churches, some being in southern Galatia (Acts 13:1–14:28).

(6) The years are exactly as stated above. (As one can see, it is sometimes very difficult to identify Paul’s locations and the times he was there with certainty and precision.)

While it is not imperative to figure out the timing of (5) (i.e., before or after Acts 13–14), it does seem that a combination of (1), (2), (3), (4), and (6) lean upon one another and, if one conclusion is made, so also are the others in this combination.

The chart below is my own and gives a tentative timeline for how one could match the details of Paul’s life in Galatians to Acts. It also adds some semi-related events that Acts mentions besides (i.e., Paul’s other visits to Galatia).

Datum Opis Galatians Dejanja
AD 34 Saul (not yet Paul) persecuted the church. 1:13–14 9:1–2
AD 34 Saul was converted. 1:15–16a 9:3–19a
AD 34–37 Saul preached in Arabia and Damascus. 1:17 9:19–22 cf. 9:27
AD 37 Saul visited Jerusalem three years after his conversion. 1:18–20 9:26–29
AD 37–47 Saul preached in Syria and Cilicia. 1:21–24 9:30–31
AD 47 Saul visited Jerusalem fourteen years after his conversion. 2:1–10 11:27–30?
AD 47–48 Saul became Paul and with Barnabas planted churches in Gentile territory, Galatia included, during Paul’s first missionary journey. 13:1–14:28
AD 48 Peter visited Antioch and was confronted by Paul. 2:11–14
AD 48 Paul wrote Galatians. 1:1–6:18
AD 49 Paul participated in the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem. 15:1–29
AD 49–51 Paul and Silas visited the Galatian churches during Paul’s second missionary journey. 16:6 cf. 15:40–18:22
AD 52–57 Paul visited the Galatian churches for the last time recorded in Scripture. 18:23 cf. 18:23–21:17

About David Huffstutler

David pastors First Baptist Church in Rockford, IL, serves as a chaplain for his local police department, and teaches as adjunct faculty at Bob Jones University. David holds a Ph. D. in Applied Theology from Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. His concentration in Christian Leadership focuses his contributions to pastoral and practical theology.


Keeping the law does not save us. Paul countered the claims of Jewish teachers that we need to obey the law in addition to faith in Christ. The law serves to reveal our inadequacy to obey.

Faith in Jesus Christ alone saves us from our sins. Salvation is a gift from God, Paul taught. We cannot earn righteousness through works or good behavior. Belief in Christ is the only way to become accepted by God.

True freedom comes from the gospel, not from legalism. Christ instituted a new covenant, freeing his followers from the bondage of Jewish law and tradition.

The Holy Spirit works in us to bring us to Christ. Salvation is not by our doing but by God's. Further, the Holy Spirit enlightens, guides, and empowers us to live the Christian life. God's love and peace flow through us because of the Holy Spirit.


Key Themes

  1. In his sin-bearing death, Christ is a substitute for all Christians. He brings them into a new realm of freedom and life (1:4 2:20 3:13).
  2. The gospel of Christ comes from God alone—not from any human source. Paul himself is a living example of this. His conversion to Christ and his apostleship were not through human means. They came through direct revelation from Christ (1:1, 11–12, 15–20).
  3. Salvation comes not by works of law but by faith, which leads to justification (2:16).
  4. To require circumcision and other Mosaic laws as a supplement to faith is to fall back from the realm of grace and freedom and to come under the whole law and its curse, since perfect observance of the law is impossible (2:12–14, 16 3:10 4:10 5:3).
  5. Old Testament Scripture itself testifies to the truth of justification by faith (Gen. 15:6 Hab. 2:4).
  6. Believers have died with Christ to sin and therefore have renounced the flesh (Gal. 5:24 6:14).
  7. The Spirit is the source of power and guidance in the Christian life. He produces love and faith in the believer (5:6, 16, 18, 25).
  8. The Christian life is one of pleasing Christ. This requires willingness to suffer persecution for the sake of his cross (1:10 6:12, 14).

Galatia

has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him in his wars. There they ultimately settled, and being strengthened by fresh accessions of the same clan from Europe, they overran Bithynia, and supported themselves by plundering neighbouring countries. They were great warriors, and hired themselves out as mercenary soldiers, sometimes fighting on both sides in the great battles of the times. They were at length brought under the power of Rome in B.C. 189, and Galatia became a Roman province B.C. 25.

This province of Galatia, within the limits of which these Celtic tribes were confined, was the central region of Asia Minor.

During his second missionary journey Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy ( Acts 16:6 ), visited the "region of Galatia," where he was detained by sickness ( Galatians 4:13 ), and had thus the longer opportunity of preaching to them the gospel. On his third journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order" ( Acts 18:23 ). Crescens was sent thither by Paul toward the close of his life ( 2 Timothy 4:10 ).

Te slovarske teme so iz
M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Ilustrirani biblijski slovar, tretja izdaja,
izdal Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, prosto kopirajte. [N] označuje, da je bil ta zapis naveden tudi v Navejevi aktualni Bibliji
[H] označuje, da je bil ta vnos tudi v Hitchcockovih biblijskih imenih
[S] označuje, da je bil ta vnos tudi v Smithovem biblijskem slovarju
Bibliografske informacije

Easton, Matthew George. "Entry for Galatia". "Eastonov biblijski slovar". .

Hitchcock, Roswell D. "Entry for 'Galatia'". "Interpretacijski slovar lastnih imen Svetega pisma". . New York, NY, 1869.

( land of the Galli, Gauls ). The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia on the east by Pontus on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the west by Phrygia. --Encyc. Brit. It derived its name from the Gallic or Celtic tribes who, about 280 B.C., made an irruption into Macedonia and Thrace. It finally became a Roman province. The Galatia of the New Testament has really the "Gaul" of the East. The people have always been described as "susceptible of quick impressions and sudden changes, with a fickleness equal to their courage and enthusiasm, and a constant liability to that disunion which is the fruit of excessive vanity. --The Galatian churches were founded by Paul at his first visit, when he was detained among, them by sickness, ( Galatians 4:13 ) during his second missionary journey, about A.D 51. He visited them again on his third missionary tour. [N] indicates this entry was also found in Nave's Topical Bible
[E] označuje, da je bil ta zapis naveden tudi v Easton's Bible Dictionary
[H] označuje, da je bil ta vnos tudi v Hitchcockovih biblijskih imenih
Bibliografske informacije

Smith, William, Dr. "Entry for 'Galatia'". "Smithov biblijski slovar". . 1901.

2. Questions to Be Answered

III. THE NARRATIVE OF LUKE

1. Stages of Evangelization of Province

IV. PAUL'S USE OF "GALATIANS"

"Galatia" was a name used in two different senses during the 1st century after Christ:

To designate a country in the north part of the central plateau of Asia Minor, touching Paphlagonia and Bithynia North, Phrygia West and South, Cappadocia and Pontus Southeast and East, about the headwaters of the Sangarios and the middle course of the Halys

To designate a large province of the Roman empire, including not merely the country Galatia, but also Paphlagonia and parts of Pontus, Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycaonia and Isauria. The name occurs in 1 Corinthians 16:1 Galatians 1:2 1 Peter 1:1, and perhaps 2 Timothy 4:10. Some writers assume that Galatia is also mentioned in Acts 16:6 18:23 but the Greek there has the phrase "Galatic region" or "territory," though the English Versions of the Bible has "Galatia" and it must not be assumed without proof that "Galatic region" is synonymous with "Galatia." If e.g. a modern narrative mentioned that a traveler crossed British territory, we know that this means something quite different from crossing Britain. "Galatic region" has a different connotation from "Galatia" and, even if we should find that geographically it was equivalent, the writer had some reason for using that special form.

2. Questions to Be Answered:

The questions that have to be answered are:

(a) In which of the two senses is "Galatia" used by Paul and Peter? (b) What did Luke mean by Galatic region or territory? These questions have not merely geographical import they bear most closely, and exercise determining influence, on many points in the biography, chronology, missionary work and methods of Paul.

II. Origin of the Name "Galatia."

The name was introduced into Asia after 278-277 BC, when a large body of migrating Gauls (Galatai in Greek) crossed over from Europe at the invitation of Nikomedes, king of Bithynia after ravaging a great part of Western Asia Minor they were gradually confined to a district, and boundaries were fixed for them after 232 BC. Thus, originated the independent state of Galatia, inhabited by three Gaulish tribes, Tolistobogioi, Tektosages and Trokmoi, with three city-centers, Pessinus, Ankyra and Tavia (Tavion in Strabo), who had brought their wives and families with them, and therefore continued to be a distinct Gaulish race and stock (which would have been impossible if they had come as simple warriors who took wives from the conquered inhabitants). The Gaulish language was apparently imposed on all the old inhabitants, who remained in the country as an inferior caste. The Galatai soon adopted the country religion, alongside of their own the latter they retained at least as late as the 2nd century after Christ, but it was politically important for them to maintain and exercise the powers of the old priesthood, as at Pessinus, where the Galatai shared the office with the old priestly families.

The Galatian state of the Three Tribes lasted till 25 BC, governed first by a council and by tetrarchs, or chiefs of the twelve divisions (four to each tribe) of the people, then, after 63 BC, by three kings. Of these, Deiotaros succeeded in establishing himself as sole king, by murdering the two other tribal kings and after his death in 40 BC his power passed to Castor and then to Amyntas, 36-25 BC. Amyntas bequeathed his kingdom to Rome and it was made a Roman province (Dion Cass. 48, 33, 5 Strabo, 567, omits Castor). Amyntas had ruled also parts of Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycaonia and Isauria. The new province included these parts, and to it were added Paphlagonia 6 BC, part of Pontus 2 BC (called Pontus Galaticus in distinction from Eastern Pontus, which was governed by King Polemon and styled Polemoniacus), and in 64 also Pontus Polemoniacus. Part of Lycaonia was non-Roman and was governed by King Antiochus from 41 to 72 AD Laranda belonged to this district, which was distinguished as Antiochiana regio from the Roman region Lycaonia called Galatica.

This large province was divided into regiones for administrative purposes and the regiones coincided roughly with the old national divisions Pisidia, Phrygia (including Antioch, Iconium, Apollonia), Lycaonia (including Derbe, Lystra and a district organized on the village-system), etc. See Calder in Journal of Roman Studies, 1912. This province was called by the Romans Galatia, as being the kingdom of Amyntas (just like the province Asia, which also consisted of a number of different countries as diverse and alien as those of province Galatia, and was so called because the Romans popularly and loosely spoke of the kings of that congeries of countries as kings of Asia). The extent of both names, Asia and Galatia, in Roman language, varied with the varying bounds of each province. The name "Galatia" is used to indicate the province, as it was at the moment, by Ptolemy, Pliny v.146, Tacitus Hist. ii.9 Ann. xiii. 35 later chroniclers, Syncellus, Eutropius, and Hist. Aug. Max. et Balb. 7 (who derived it from earlier authorities, and used it in the old sense, not the sense customary in their own time) and in inscriptions CIL, III, 254, 272 (Eph. Ep. v.51) VI, 1408, 1409, 332 VIII, 11028 (Mommsen rightly, not Schmidt), 18270, etc. It will be observed that these are almost all Roman sources, and (as we shall see) express a purely Roman view. If Paul used the name "Galatia" to indicate the province, this would show that he consistently and naturally took a Roman view, used names in a Roman connotation, and grouped his churches according to Roman provincial divisions but that is characteristic of the apostle, who looked forward from Asia to Rome (Acts 19:21), aimed at imperial conquest and marched across the Empire from province to province (Macedonia, Achaia, Asia are always provinces to Paul). On the other hand, in the East and the Greco-Asiatic world, the tendency was to speak of the province either as the Galatic Eparchia (as at Iconium in 54 AD, CIG, 3991), or by enumeration of its regiones (or a selection of the regiones). The latter method is followed in a number of inscriptions found in the province (CIL, III, passim). Now let us apply these contemporary facts to the interpretation of the narrative of Luke.

III. The Narrative of Luke.

1. Stages of Evangelization of Province:

The evangelization of the province began in Acts 13:14. The stages are:

(1) the audience in the synagogue, Acts 13:42

(2) almost the whole city, 13:44

(3) the whole region, i.e. a large district which was affected from the capital (as the whole of Asia was affected from Ephesus 19:10)

(4) Iconium another city of this region:

in 13:51 no boundary is mentioned

(5) a new region Lycaonia with two cities and surrounding district (14:6)

(6) return journey to organize the churches in (a) Lystra, (b) Iconium and Antioch (the secondary reading of Westcott and Hort, (kai eis Ikonion kai Antiocheleian), is right, distinguishing the two regions (a) Lycaonia, (b) that of Iconium and Antioch)

(7) progress across the region Pisidia, where no churches were founded (Pisidian Antioch is not in this region, which lies between Antioch and Pamphylia).

Again (in Acts 16:1-6) Paul revisited the two regiones:

(1) Derbe and Lystra, i.e. regio Lycaonia Galatica,

(2) the Phrygian and Galatic region, i.e. the region which was racially Phrygian and politically Galatic. Paul traversed both regions, making no new churches but only strengthening the existing disciples and churches. In Acts 18:23 he again revisited the two regiones, and they are briefly enumerated:

(1) the Galatic region (so called briefly by a traveler, who had just traversed Antiochiana and distinguished Galatica from it)

(2) Phrygia. On this occasion he specially appealed, not to churches as in 16:6, but to disciples it was a final visit and intended to reach personally every individual, before Paul went away to Rome and the West. On this occasion the contribution to the poor of Jerusalem was instituted, and the proceeds later were carried by Timothy and Gaius of Derbe (Acts 20:4 24:17 1 Corinthians 16:1) this was a device to bind the new churches to the original center of the faith.

These four churches are mentioned by Luke always as belonging to two regiones, Phrygia and Lycaoma and each region is in one case described as Galatic, i.e. part of the province Galatia. Luke did not follow the Roman custom, as Paul did he kept the custom of the Greeks and Asiatic peoples, and styled the province by enumerating its regiones, using the expression Galatic (as in Pontus Galaticus and at Iconium, CIG, 3991) to indicate the supreme unity of the province. By using this adjective about both regiones he marked his point of view that all four churches are included in the provincial unity.

From Paul's references we gather that he regarded the churches of Galatia as one group, converted together (Galatians 4:13), exposed to the same influences and changing together (Galatians 1:6,8 3:1 4:9), naturally visited at one time by a traveler (Galatians 1:8 4:14). He never thinks of churches of Phrygia or of Lycaonia only of province Galatia (as of provinces Asia, Macedonia, Achaia). Paul did not include in one class all the churches of one journey:

he went direct from Macedonia to Athens and Corinth, but classes the churches of Macedonia separate from those of Achaia. Troas and Laodicea and Colosse he classed with Asia (as Luke did Troas Acts 20:4), Philippi with Macedonia, Corinth with Achaia. These classifications are true only of the Roman usage, not of early Greek usage. The custom of classifying according to provinces, universal in the fully formed church of the Christian age, was derived from the usage of the apostles (as Theodore Mopsuestia expressly asserts in his Commentary on First Timothy (Swete, II, 121) Harnack accepts this part of the statement (Verbreitung, 2nd edition, I, 387 Expansion, II, 96)). His churches then belonged to the four provinces, Asia, Galatia, Achaia, Macedonia. There were no other Pauline churches all united in the gift of money which was carried to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4 24:17).

IV. Paul's Use of "Galatians."

The people of the province of Galatia, consisting of many diverse races, when summed up together, were called Galatai, by Tacitus, Ann. xv.6 Syncellus, when he says (Augoustos Galatais phorous etheto), follows an older historian describing the imposing of taxes on the province and an inscription of Apollonia Phrygiae calls the people of the city Galatae (Lebas-Waddington, 1192). If Paul spoke to Philippi or Corinth or Antioch singly, he addressed them as Philippians, Corinthians, Antiochians (Philippians 4:15 2 Corinthians 6:11), not as Macedonians or Achaians but when he had to address a group of several churches (as Antioch, Iconium, Derbe and Lystra) he could use only the provincial unity, Galatae.

All attempts to find in Paul's letter to the Galatians any allusions that specially suit the character of the Gauls or Galatae have failed. The Gauls were an aristocracy in a land which they had conquered. They clung stubbornly to their own Celtic religion long after the time of Paul, even though they also acknowledged the power of the old goddess of the country. They spoke their own Celtic tongue. They were proud, even boastful, and independent. They kept their native law under the Empire. The "Galatians" to whom Paul wrote had Changed very quickly to a new form of religion, not from fickleness, but from a certain proneness to a more oriental form of religion which exacted of them more sacrifice of a ritual type. They needed to be called to freedom they were submissive rather than arrogant. They spoke Greek. They were accustomed to the Greco-Asiatic law:

the law of adoption and inheritance which Paul mentions in his letter is not Roman, but Greco-Asiatic, which in these departments was similar, with some differences on this see the writer's Historical Commentary on Galatians.


The Galatians Series

With this background in mind, we will attempt, in our next lesson, to outline Paul&rsquos letter to the Galatians, as a preparation for studying the text of the letter .

In the following lessons, we will look at its structure, at the salutation, doxology, and benediction. Then we will consider five special appeals Paul makes at intervals throughout the letter.

These appeals mark out the main sections of the letter. Next we will think about the main issue in Galatians, namely that Christians are not under law but under grace. Our last four lessons will look at the four main sections of the letter in detail .


Poglej si posnetek: Heirs Faction Focus: Galatia: Total War Rome 2


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