Republikanska konvencija iz leta 1924 - zgodovina

Republikanska konvencija iz leta 1924 - zgodovina



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Republiška konvencija iz leta 1924

Cleveland, OH
10. do 12. junija 1924

Nominirano: Calvin Coolidge iz Massachusettsa za predsednika
Nominirano: Charles G Dawes iz Ill za podpredsednika

Do takrat, ko so se republikanci srečali v Clevelandu, se je predsednik Coolidge uspešno uveljavil kot vodja stranke. Nominiran je bil brez nasprotovanja. Tema konvencije- "ostani kul s Coolidgeom."


Starinski oglasi z republikanskih nacionalnih konvencij iz leta 1936 in 1924 v Clevelandu (diaprojekcija)

CLEVELAND, Ohio - Med republiškimi nacionalnimi konvencijami 1924 in 1936 je vrsta oglasov v The Plain Dealer uporabljala politične teme. Danes razkrivajo koščke zgodovine Clevelanda, ki nas popeljejo v preteklost.

Politično tekmovanje v Clevelandu leta 1936 je bilo omembe vredno, ker se je guverner Alf Landon iz Kansasa boril proti senatorju Williamu Borahu iz Idaha za nominacijo GOP.

Leta 1924 je bil predsednik Calvin Coolidge že zagotovljen za imenovanje. Posebnost tistega leta je bila konvencija vključitev žensk v volilni proces.

Diapozitivi se začnejo z oglasi iz leta 1936 in sledijo z oglasi iz leta 1924.

Navadni trgovec, junij 1936

Nekonvencionalni oglasi v času republikanskih nacionalnih konvencij v Clevelandu in preteklosti

Ta navaden trgovec za hotel Hollenden prikazuje le najbolj prijazen vidik RNC iz leta 1936. Antropomorfna zgradba v roki pozdrava predstavniku republikanske stranke v obliki slona.

Navadni trgovec, junij 1936

Novinarji Crackerjacka

Leta 1936 je The Plain Dealer ponudil & quotonprecenceledly pokrivnost & quottaff of news jastrebov, piscev in zbiralcev slik. & Quot; Ta oglas na prvi strani je bralcem povedal, da lahko pričakujejo zgodbe od uslužbencev Washingtonskega urada, državnega političnega poročevalca, lokalnih fotografov in novinarjev, pa tudi konvencijski risar.

Navadni trgovec, junij 1936

Ameriško kongresno mesto

Oglaševalci, vključno s tem operaterjem oglasnih panojev, so med RNC leta 1936 kupili prostor na straneh The Plain Dealer. Delčki zgodovine Clevelanda so razkriti v oglasih, ki sledijo.

Navadni trgovec, junij 1936

Tovornjaki in avtobusi, proizvedeni v Clevelandu, so dostavljeni na štiri konce sveta '

Vpliv Streamline Moderne je viden v oblikovanju vozil, prikazanih v oglasu, ki ga je objavila družba The White Motor Co.

Navadni trgovec, junij 1936

Bencin Blue Flash morda ni znano ime, toda Lubrizol s sedežem v Wickliffeju v Ohiu je bil odgovoren za dodatek gorivu, zaradi katerega je bil "kvotprečiščen". & Quot; Oglas za bencin prikazuje slona pep-steppin ' za RNC iz leta 1936.


Kako so družbeni mediji širili zgodovinsko laž

V začetku tega meseca se je na Twitterju znašel hashtag: "#triggeraliberalin4words."

Kambree Kawahine Koa, katere biografija jo identificira kot "sodelavko političnih novic", je s svojo ponudbo, ki je zbrala skoraj 10.000 všečkov in skoraj 1000 odgovorov, dosegla velik uspeh. "Demokrati so ustvarili KKK," je na Twitterju objavila fotografijo pohoda klana: "Ta fotografija je bila posneta na Demokratični konvenciji leta 1924. Znan je bil kot "Klanbake" (za vsak slučaj, če ga želite poiskati na Googlu). "

Edini problem? Na demokratskem zborovanju leta 1924 ni bilo nobenega pohoda klana - fotografija je bila dejansko posneta v Wisconsinu - niti konvencija nikoli ni bila dejansko znana kot »Klanbake«.

Konvencija je bila res razvpita, saj je vzela 103 glasovnice in več kot dva tedna predlagala predsedniškega kandidata Johna W. Davisa. Delegati so se prepirali o številnih spornih vprašanjih, med njimi tudi Klan.

Pred kratkim pa je postalo nič v spletni kampanji, ki napačno predstavlja zgodovino Demokratične stranke kot edinstveno okuženo z rasizmom. Škodljiv vzdevek - "Klanbake" - je postal, čeprav zgrešeno, spletna stenografija, ki je povzela vse, kar pravi sovraži glede demokratov, predvsem hinavščino. ("#Klanbake. To je vse," je bil prebran v enem nedavnem tvitu v odgovor na predlog, da so sodobni lastniki orožja v veliki večini beli.)

Resnico o zapletenih rasnih zapuščinah obeh strank-in vplivu Klana nanje leta 1924-so pogubno izkrivili aktivisti, ki uporabljajo digitalne zvijače, ki so jih (pogosto nevede) podprli dobronamerni akterji, kot so akademiki, novinarji in prostovoljni uredniki Wikipedije. Preostalo je lažno zgodovinsko "dejstvo", ki so ga "preverile" zmogljive digitalne lastnosti, kot so Google, Facebook, Wikipedia in različni spletni založniki, ne da bi bilo res. Kar odraža eno dejansko resnico: zdaj lahko partizani in zlonamerni igralci izdelujejo lažne novice, ampak lahko ponaredijo tudi zgodovino.

Hitra osvežitev leta 1924

Prvotni Ku Klux Klan je bil ustanovljen po državljanski vojni, da bi teroriziral nekdanjo zasužnjeno stran in se zoperstavil prizadevanjem za ustvarjanje večrasne Amerike. To, kar zgodovinarji imenujejo Drugi Ku Klux Klan, se je začelo leta 1915 in je vrhunec svoje moči doseglo sredi 1920-ih, ko je imelo globok kulturni in politični vpliv po vsej državi. Pravni center Southern Poverty Law Center, neprofitna organizacija za državljanske pravice, ki sledi skupinam sovražnikov, ocenjuje, da je imel Klan na svojem vrhu do 4 milijone aktivnih članov v ZDA, kar je približno 5 odstotkov odraslega prebivalstva.

Klanci so bili v notranjosti vplivni oboje velike stranke, ki spodbujajo rasizem, nativizem, prepoved in zlasti protikatolicizem. Na jugu so demokrati, ki podpirajo Jim Crow, naravno ustrezali KKK. Toda v industrijskih mestih na srednjem zahodu, polnih priseljenih katoličanov in Judov, ki so glasovali za demokracijo, se je Klan v veliki meri ukoreninil med republikanci. Klan je bil demokratičen v Oregonu in republikanski v Indiani - dveh največjih trdnjavah. Do konca desetletja je organizacija, katere članstvo je ostalo napol tajno, zahtevala 11 guvernerjev, 16 senatorjev in kar 75 kongresnikov-v celoti razdeljenih med republikance in demokrate.


Kratka zgodovina norosti demokratične in republikanske konvencije (fotografije)

Ni jasno, kaj se bo zgodilo na republikanski državni konvenciji, vendar glede na kaos, ki se je že sprožil v tem volilnem ciklu, obstaja velika verjetnost, da bo stranka Donalda Trumpa dodala zgodovino kaotičnih trenutkov, ki so opredelili ta čuden vidik našega volilnega procesa. Nekatere konvencije so vsebovale nekatere znane gafe, druge pa so postale žarišče jeze in nasilja.

Demokratska konvencija iz leta 1924-Predstavljajte si, če bi v našem 24-urnem svetu novic konvencija trajala več kot dva tedna. To se je zgodilo leta 1924, ko se je nasprotnik Prepovedi Al Smith spopadel z Williamom McAdoom, ki ga je podpiral Ku Klux Klan.

McAdoo se je poskušal distancirati od Klana, vendar brez uspeha, kot skandi "Ku Ku McAdoo!" in "Booze! Booze! Booze!" letela sem in tja, ko je minilo na desetine krogov glasovanja. Po 103 glasovnicah so se Dems odločili za kompromisnega kandidata Milquetoast Johna W. Davisa, ki je bil novembra zdrobljen.

Republikanska konvencija iz leta 1964-sredi obdobja državljanskih pravic so nadkonzervativci potisnili Barryja Goldwaterja do republikanske nominacije, kar je povzročilo konvencijo, ki je razcepila republikansko stranko.

Med razpravo o priseljevanju na platformi se je skoraj izbruhnil pest boj, privrženci Goldwatera pa so med svojim govorom zasmehovali zmernega tekmeca Nelsona Rockefellerja. Toda taborišče Goldwater se je izkazalo za zelo glasno, a zelo majhno manjšino, saj je Lyndon B. Johnson na splošnih volitvah zavzel 44 držav.

Demokratska konvencija iz leta 1968 - Ker sta bila MLK in RFK mrtva, študentski protesti po vsej državi in ​​vietnamska vojna postajali vse bolj nepriljubljeni, je bila odločitev demokratov, da se ne bodo uprli politiki Lyndona Johnsona v jugovzhodni Aziji, za nekatere zadnja kap. Protestniki so se odpravili na konvencijo v Chicagu, policija pa jih je brutalno premagala, ko so se vrtele televizijske kamere.

Republikanska konvencija leta 1972-protesti v vietnamski vojni so se nadaljevali na naslednjih volitvah, ko je Richard Nixon svojo kampanjo za ponovno izvolitev prinesel v Miami Beach. Zunanji prizor je znova izbruhnil v nasilje, novinar Gonzo Hunter S. Thompson pa je bil ujet v navzkrižni ogenj, čeprav je opozoril, da ga je ena nenasilna skupina najbolj prizadela:

"V vsem, kar so vietnamski veterani proti vojni storili v Miamiju, je obstajal zlovešč občutek dostojanstva," je zapisal Thompson. "Redko so namigovali na nasilje, vendar je bila njihova prisotnost grozljiva na ravni, do katere se ulični norci sploh niso približali, kljub vsemu vpitju in razbijanju."

Demokratična konvencija leta 1980 - Nepojasnjeno je, da je en demokratski delegat glasoval za Georgea Orwella, ki bo zastopnik Jimmyja Carterja. Avtor "Živalske farme" je bil mrtev 30 let.

Toda to ni bilo nič v primerjavi z izjemno nerodnim zaključkom konvencijskega govora predsednika Jimmyja Carterja, ki ni zbral demokratov, ki so podpirali Teda Kennedyja. Carter je upal, da se mu bo Kennedy pridružil na odru v navdušenem izkazovanju solidarnosti, le da bo dobil polovično rokovanje, ko se je s špirovcev slišalo nekaj balonov. Sporočilo je bilo jasno: Carter ni imel možnosti proti Ronaldu Reaganu.

Demokratična konvencija leta 2000-Medtem ko je Al Gore sprejemal nominacijo v Staples Centru v Los Angelesu, je nu-metal skupina Rage Against The Machine priredila protestni koncert čez cesto. Koncert je pritegnil protestnike, razočarane v dvostranski sistem, in kandidate, ki sta jih predlagali obe stranki. Koncert se je končal, ko so napetosti med oboževalci skupine in policijo naraščale, saj so zvok prerezali in uporabili gumijaste krogle.

Demokratična konvencija iz leta 2004 - Podobno kot pri balonu, ki je motil govor Jimmyja Carterja, se baloni po govoru Johna Kerryja niso spustili. Tokrat pa se je incident ujel na CNN, skupaj z zvokom paničnega glasu producenta šova Don Mischerja, ki so ga pobrali mikrofoni: "Kaj se dogaja z baloni? Nič ne pade. Kaj za vraga, fantje delaš tam gor ?! "

Republikanska konvencija 2012 - Donald Trump načrtuje, da bo na letošnjo konvencijo povabil več slavnih govornikov, čeprav je težko verjeti, da bo kdo izmed njih imel tako čuden govor, kot ga je imel Clint Eastwood pred štirimi leti. Eastwood je improviziral govor, v katerem se je pogovarjal s praznim stolom, ki je predstavljal Baracka Obamo. Govor je zaslužil pohvale z desne in posmeh z leve, čeprav je Bill Maher pohvalil Eastwooda, ker je prinesel spontanost v močno zapisano afero, ki so zdaj postale politične konvencije.


PREVERJANJE DEJSTVA: Trditve virusne podobe kažejo, da KKK maršira na demokratski nacionalni konvenciji leta 1924

Slika, dana na Facebooku, domnevno prikazuje parado članov Ku Klux Klana (KKK) na Demokratični nacionalni konvenciji leta 1924.

Sodba: napačna

Slika posname pohod KKK proti pogrebu umorjenega policista 2. decembra 1924.

& ldquoTa fotografija je bila posneta na Demokratski državni konvenciji leta 1924, & rdquo piše napis. & ldquoTo je bilo znano kot & lsquoKlanbake & rsquo (za vsak slučaj, če ga želite poiskati na Googlu). & rdquo

Demokratska nacionalna konvencija leta 1924, ki je 16 dni in 103 glasovanja izbrala predsedniškega kandidata, je potekala v New Yorku od 24. junija do 9. julija istega leta. Po raziskavah novinarke Jennifer Mendelsohn in akademika Petra Shulmana sta ga že nekaj desetletij popularno opisovali kot & ldquoKlanbake & rdquo, ki sta izvor izraza izsledila iz sodobnega poročila o konvenciji iz New York Daily News. Po poročanju JSTOR Daily se je kot delegati udeležilo na stotine članov KKK.

Posnetek je bil napačno identificiran, ko so se na konvenciji udeležili klansmenci, dejansko pa ga je približno pet mesecev pozneje v Madisonu v Wisconsinu posnel fotograf Wisconsin State Journal Arthur M. Vinje. Prikazuje parado klanov na poti na pogreb umorjenega policista decembra istega leta.

& ldquoKu Klux Klan (KKK), ki nosi konične maske in bele obleke, ki se po King Streetu odpravijo do pogrebnega zavoda Schroeder na pogreb policista Herberta Dregerja, & rdquo bere napis na spletni strani Zgodovinskega društva Wisconsin & rsquos. & ldquoDreger je bil 2. decembra 1924 ustreljen v & lsquoDeath & rsquos Corner & rsquo (ulica South Murray). & rdquo

Konzervativci so v zadnjih nekaj letih uporabili podobo v poskusu diskreditacije demokratov. Konzervativni politični komentator Dinesh D & rsquoSouza je na primer tvitnil sliko leta 2017. Shulman ga je pozneje popravil in pokazal na spletno stran zgodovinske družbe.

Imate predlog za preverjanje dejstev? Pošljite ideje na [email  protected].


Volitve 2016

Novembra 2015 je republikanski svetovalec Karl Rove napovedal, da bo leta 2016 možna posredovana konvencija zaradi velikega republikanskega polja, števila držav, ki sorazmerno podeljujejo delegate, in "tekoče sile" nepovezanih nadrejenih. Zagovarjal je v op Wall Street Journal da imajo Jeb Bush, Ben Carson, Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio in Donald Trump "sporočilo, denar, organizacijo in številke anket za dolgo igro", kar bi povečalo možnost posredovane konvencije. ⎜ ]

10. decembra 2015 je Washington Post poročali, da se je republikanski nacionalni odbor začel pripravljati na morebitno posredovano konvencijo. Na sestanku 20 strankarskih uradnikov 7. decembra 2015 so domnevno razpravljali o "temeljih talnega boja" proti Trumpu. Trump je v odgovor dejal, da bi bil "prikrajšan", če bi se to zgodilo. "Šel bi proti fantom, ki so odraščali drug z drugim, ki se dobro poznajo in ne vem, kdo so, v redu? To je velika pomanjkljivost," je pojasnil Trump. ⎝ ]

Carson je v izjavi 11. decembra 2015 zagrozil, da bo zapustil republikansko stranko, če se bo vodstvo stranke ponovno sestalo in razpravljalo o uporabi posredovane konvencije za vodenje izida prvih volitev. "Če je bil to začetek načrta za spodkopavanje volje volivcev in njihovo nadomestitev z voljo politične elite, vam zagotavljam, da Donald Trump ne bo edini, ki bo zapustil stranko," je zapisal Carson. V intervjuju o Fox News pozneje čez dan je Carson pojasnil, da ne bo kandidiral kot kandidat tretje osebe. ⎞ ] ⎟ ]

Podporniki Mitta Romneyja naj bi po besedah ​​republikancev, ki so bili seznanjeni s pogovori, "začrtali strategijo za pozen vstop, da bi pobrali delegate in se potegovali za nominacijo v konvencijskem boju." ⎠ ]

3. marca 2016 je Romney javno obsodil Trumpovo kandidaturo in volivce spodbudil, naj podprejo Marca Rubia in Johna Kasicha v njunih matičnih državah Florida in Ohio. Reuters poročali: "Romney je s pozivom k ciljnemu glasovanju določil možnost izpodbijane konvencije, ko se republikanci sredi julija zberejo v Clevelandu, da izberejo svojega kandidata za novembrske volitve, ki bodo nasledili demokratskega predsednika Baracka Obamo. To bi lahko ustvarilo pot do zanikanja. Trump je za imenovanje potrebnih 1.237 delegatov. " ⎡ ]

Naslednji dan je Ted Cruz nasprotoval posredovani konvenciji. Rekel je: "Konvencija, ki je bila posredovana, so sanje Washingtonove ustanove. Upajo, da bodo ljudem iztrgali to nominacijo. Če bodo snovalci dogovorov iz Washingtona poskušali ljudem ukrasti nominacijo, bo to to bo katastrofa. To bo povzročilo upor. " ⎢ ]

Zdi se, da je John Kasich med pogovorom z novinarji 7. marca 2016. podpiral možnost posredovane konvencije. Rekel je, da mu ne bo treba več delegatov, da bi bili konkurenčni za republikansko predsedniško nominacijo. "Delegati bodo pametni in to bodo ugotovili. Bil sem na konvenciji, na kateri je Ronald Reagan izpodbijal Geralda Forda. Ford je zmagal in stranka je bila enotna. Ampak, veste, reči - imam več od vas, zato Moral bi ga dobiti? Pojdi ven in si zasluži! Ne jokaj, kako bo delovalo. Pojdi po tisto, kar potrebuješ, da boš zakoniti zmagovalec! " Je dejal Kasich. ⎣ ]


Volitve od leta 1924 do 1964

Ta razdelek vsebuje informacije in spominke o volitvah od 1924 do 1964. Pomaknite se navzdol po strani, če želite izvedeti več o določenih volilnih letih.

Volitve leta 1924

Podpredsednik Calvin Coolidge je postal predsednik po nenadni smrti Warrena Hardinga leta 1923. Kmalu zatem so bila razkrita poročila o vladnih škandalih. Preiskave so pokazale, da so člani Hardingove uprave prejemali podkupnino za najem zalog nafte na vladnem premoženju v Teapot Domeu v Wyomingu za zasebne naftne delavce. Coolidge ni bil vpleten v svoj ugled integritete in poštenost je ostala nedotaknjena. Z lahkoto je dobil republikansko nominacijo na konvenciji leta 1924. Demokratična stranka je bila razdeljena na dve močni frakciji. Južno in zahodno krilo sta podpirala zeta in zakladnika Woodrowa Wilsona, Williama Mc Adoa iz Kalifornije. Na to frakcijo je vplival novoustanovljeni Ku Klux Klan, ki je bil proti imigraciji in zaradi prepovedi. Medtem so na severno in vzhodno frakcijo stranke vplivali politični stroji velikih mest, ki je močno podpirala priseljevanje in nasprotovala prepovedi. Njihov kandidat, katoliški guverner New Yorka Al Smith, je bil za južne demokrate nesprejemljiv. Rezultat tega je bila sporna nacionalna konvencija. Zahteval je 103 glasovnice in je trajal 17 dni, preden je bil nominiran kompromisni kandidat, kongresnik in nekdanji odvetnik Wall Streeta John W. Davis. Napredna stranka se je ponovno združila kot koalicija kmetov, delavcev in socialistov, ki so na platformo za reformo podjetij imenovali republikanskega senatorja Roberta LaFolletteja iz Wisconsina.

Coolidge ni naredil veliko dejanske kampanje, medtem ko je Davis obiskal državo in kritiziral Coolidgeov molk in škandale prejšnje uprave. "Tihi Cal" je bil človek z malo besedami. "Jaz sem za gospodarstvo" in "posel Amerike je posel" sta bili njegovi osnovni nesporni temi. Na koncu ga je Coolidgejeva priljubljenost v kombinaciji z razkolom v demokratični stranki in splošno blaginjo v državi težko premagala. Volitve so povzročile še en republikanski plaz. Coolidge je prejel 382 volilnih glasov na 136 za Davisa in 13 za LaFollette. Ljudstvo je glasovalo 54 odstotkov republikancev, 30 odstotkov demokratov in 16,6 odstotka naprednjakov. Virginia je oddala 12 volilnih glasov za Johna Davisa.

Volitve leta 1928

Kljub svoji nenehni priljubljenosti in splošni blaginji držav je predsednik Calvin Coolidge zavrnil kandidaturo za nov mandat. Republikanska stranka se je namesto tega obrnila na Herberta Hooverja, nekdanjega inženirja, samozaposlenega milijonarja in sekretarja za trgovino. Hoover je bil pri svoji stranki priljubljen zaradi svojih prizadevanj za humanitarno pomoč med prvo svetovno vojno in po njej. V bistvu ni bilo nobene opozicije. Ker William McAdoo ni hotel kandidirati, guverner New Yorka Al Smith ni imel resne konkurence za demokratsko nominacijo. Južna frakcija Demokratične stranke je še vedno gledala na Smitha kot na odgovornost zaradi njegovega katolicizma in njegovih pogledov proti prepovedi. Za pomiritev južnega krila stranke, ki je podpiralo prepoved, je bil senator iz Arkansasa Joseph Robinson izbran za Smithovega tekmeca.

Hooverjeva akcija je poudarjala blaginjo države. Republikanci so obljubili "piščanca v vsakem loncu in dva avtomobila v vsaki garaži." Obe strani sta radio uporabljala tudi za kampanjo, čeprav je Smitha nacionalno prizadel njegov regionalni naglas v New Yorku in občasno slaba slovnica. Glede na to, da je bilo proti njemu toliko dejavnikov, se je Smith izjemno dobro odrezal, zlasti v velikih mestih in urbanih območjih. Končni volilni glas je bil 444 za Hooverja (z 58,2 odstotka glasov glasov) proti 44 volilnim glasom za Smitha (s 40,8 odstotka glasov glasov). Virginia je oddala 12 volilnih glasov za Herberta Hooverja.

Volitve leta 1932

Zlom borze in posledična depresija sta se začela le osem mesecev po inavguraciji predsednika Herberta Hooverja leta 1929. Njegovi poskusi izboljšanja gospodarstva so se izkazali za neuspešne. Do predsedniških volitev leta 1932 je bila zaradi propadov podjetij in kmetij razširjena brezposelnost. V nekaterih mestih so imeli brezposelni samo zatočišče v spodnjih kolibah so ta območja poimenovali "Hoovervilles". Hooverjeva nekoč pozitivna podoba humanitarnega in uspešnega upravitelja je izginila. Kljub temu, ker ni bilo nobenega drugega sposobnega kandidata in upa, da bo obrnil gospodarske neuspehe, je republikanska stranka imenovala Hooverja na prvem glasovanju svoje konvencije. Demokrati so zaznali priložnost, da ponovno zavzamejo Belo hišo. Čeprav je Al Smith in številni drugi zahteval nominacijo, je bil nekdanji podpredsedniški kandidat in guverner New Yorka Franklin Delano Roosevelt nominiran na četrtem glasovanju demokratske konvencije. Roosevelt je postal prvi kandidat, ki je sprejel sprejemni govor na nacionalni konvenciji, ki jo je v imenu ameriškega ljudstva pozval k "novemu dogovoru".

Obe stranki sta med kampanjo radijsko uporabljali radio. Kljub temu pa je Roosevelt deloma dokazal svojo moč in vitalnost, kljub temu, da je imel pohabljeno otroško paralizo, obširno govoril po državi. Zaskrbljenost zaradi gospodarstva in očitna nezmožnost Hooverja, da bi rešil krizo, sta pripeljala do zmage Roosevelta (472 volilnih glasov proti 59). Američani so upali, da bo nova uprava našla rešitev za depresijo. Virginia je oddala 11 volilnih glasov za Franklina Roosevelta.

Volitve leta 1936

Do leta 1936 je načrt "New Deal" predsednika Franklina D. Roosevelta za boj proti gospodarski krizi povzročil bistveno izboljšanje, v katerem je država upala na popolno okrevanje. Velika depresija pa ni končal. Brezposelnost je ostala visoka, državni dolg pa se je povečeval. S platformo Demokratične stranke za razširitev New Deal je bil Roosevelt zlahka nominiran za drugi mandat. Republikanci so izbrali Alfa Landona, konzervativnega guvernerja Kansasa, ki je uravnotežil proračun svoje države, a je bil tudi naprednjak "Bull Moose". Platforma republikanske stranke, čeprav se je strinjala z nekaterimi programi New Deal, je napadla neuravnotežen proračun in "potratno" porabo. Privrženci proti novemu dogovoru nedavno preminulega guvernerja Louisiane Huey Long in priljubljenega katoliškega duhovnika očeta Charlesa Coughlina so podprli kandidata stranke Union Union Williama Lemkeja. Delo je s programi New Deal prejelo ugodno zakonodajo in je zato začelo igrati vlogo v demokratični politiki. Organizirano delo je prvič podprlo kandidata, ko je novi kongres industrijskih organizacij (CIO), ki ga je vodil predsednik Združenih delavcev v rudniku John L. Lewis, ustanovil politično akcijsko skupino, imenovano Laburistična nestrankarska liga.

Strategije kampanje leta 1936 so vključevale obsežno uporabo radia. Predsednik Roosevelt je nadaljeval klepete "ob ognju". Republikanci so se pritoževali, da to daje predsedniku nepravično prednost, in zahtevali svoj brezplačen čas oddajanja. Kampanje so začele uporabljati tudi oglaševalske strokovnjake in raziskave javnega mnenja. Z velikim podjetjem, ki podpira republikance, in delavci, ki podpirajo demokrate, sta imeli obe strani precejšnja sredstva. Rezultat volitev je bila velika zmaga Roosevelta in Demokratične stranke. Roosevelt je dobil več kot 60 odstotkov glasov ljudi in volilno razliko 523 proti 8. Landon je dobil le zvezni državi Maine in Vermont. Demokrati so z veliko mero nadzirali tudi senat in predstavniški dom. V demokratični volilni enoti so zdaj bili sindikati, industrijski delavci, kmetje, brezposelni, liberalci, južni belci, starejši (zlasti s sprejetjem zakona o socialni varnosti) in prvič temnopolti Američani. Virginia je uvrstila 11
volilni glasovi za Franklina Roosevelta.

Volitve 1940

Čeprav je brezposelnost ostala visoka in oživitev gospodarstva ni bila dosežena, je bilo glavno vprašanje volitev leta 1940 vojna v Evropi. Republikanska stranka je imenovala Wendell Willkieja, nekdanjega odvetnika na Wall Streetu in predsednika podjetja za javne službe. Kot izrazit, karizmatičen, nepolitičen nekdanji poslovnež je postal ljubljenec strokovne skupnosti, ki se je naveličal New Deal. Čeprav Franklin D. Roosevelt navzven ni iskal nominacije za tretji mandat, so se njegovi bližnji zavedali, da bo kandidaturo sprejel, če jo bo pripravila konvencija. Roosevelt je z lahkoto dobil nominacijo na prvem glasovanju in je nerad izbral Henryja Wallacea za svojega tekmeca.

Willkie se je podal na obsežno govorilno turnejo po državi in ​​napadel Rooseveltovo kandidaturo za tretji mandat ter neuspehe njegove politike New Deal, hkrati pa spodbujal ameriško nevtralnost glede vojne v Evropi. Čeprav Roosevelt ni osebno vodil kampanje tik pred volitvami, so njegovi podporniki napadli Willkieja. Willkie je pred volitvami opozoril, da bo Rooseveltova zmaga povzročila vpletenost Amerike v vojno. V zadnjem govoru je Roosevelt trdil, da "vaših fantov ne bodo poslali v tuje vojne". Čeprav je bila njegova zmagovita zmaga manjša kot leta 1936, je bil Franklin Roosevelt izvoljen za tretjič brez primere. Prejel je 54 odstotkov glasov. Rooseveltova zmaga na volitvah je bila 449 proti Willkiejevi 82. Virginia je oddala 11 volilnih glasov za Franklina Roosevelta.

Volitve leta 1944

Z vojno Ameriko je predsednik Franklin D. Roosevelt aktivno iskal nominacijo za četrti mandat brez primere. Drugih demokratičnih kandidatov, ki bi zamenjali vrhovnega poveljnika, ni bilo, zato je bil izbran na prvem glasovanju. Zaskrbljeni zaradi slabega zdravja Roosevelta, se je večina voditeljev Demokratične stranke zavzela za zamenjavo ultraliberalnega Henryja Wallacea kot podpredsedniškega kandidata. Za Wallacea je bil izbran senator Missourija Harry S. Truman zamenjavo. Republikanci so za predsednika predlagali guvernerja New Yorka in nekdanjega okrožnega državnega tožilca Thomasa Deweya. Takoj je izjavil, da bo vsaka negativna kampanja o vodenju vojne nepatriotska. Deweyjeva kampanja se je namesto tega osredotočila na napad na Rooseveltovo starost in zdravje ter spodbujanje polnejše zaposlitve z delom v zasebnem podjetju. Dewey je aktivno vodil kampanjo z govornimi ogledi in široko uporabo radijskih govorov. V nasprotju s tem je Roosevelt zavrnil kampanjo šele tik pred volitvami, ko je zaradi pomislekov, da bi njegovo pomanjkanje nastopov v kampanji zaupalo prepričanju, da njegovo zdravje ni dobro, podal vrsto govorov, ki so spodbudili demokratično kampanjo. CIO in organizirano delo sta ponovno podprla Roosevelta.

Izid volitev je bil podoben rezultatu leta 1940. Roosevelt je prejel 53,4 odstotka glasov ljudi in 432 volilnih glasov proti 99 za Deweyja. Najverjetneje je bila vojna odločilni dejavnik v kampanji. Večina Američanov ni želela zamenjati vodstva, medtem ko so se dogodki vojne leta 1944 kazali na uspešen zaključek. Po otvoritvi januarja je Roosevelt aprila 1945 doživel smrtno možgansko krvavitev, nasledil ga je Truman. Vojna se je končala pet mesecev kasneje. Virginia je oddala 11 volilnih glasov za Franklina Roosevelta.

Volitve leta 1948

Prvotna povojna priljubljenost predsednika Harryja S. Trumana je kmalu izginila zaradi razvijanja gospodarskih težav, ki so vključevale inflacijo, naraščajoče cene, višje davke in stavke delavcev. Po zmagah na volitvah v kongresu leta 1946 je bila republikanska stranka optimistična, da bo leta 1948. ponovno osvojila Belo hišo. Med kandidati za republikansko predsedniško nominacijo so bili Robert Taft, Harold Stassen in general Douglas McArthur. V prvi televizijski politični nacionalni konvenciji pa je GOP ponovno imenovala Thomasa Deweya. Demokrati so ob občutku poraza poskušali pripraviti priljubljenega generala Dwighta D. Eisenhowerja. Ko Eisenhower ni hotel kandidirati, se je zabava spet obrnila na Trumana. Po tem, ko je demokratična konvencija sprejela močno platformo za državljanske pravice, so delegati iz Alabame in Mississippija odšli in nekaj dni kasneje ustanovili stranko Pravice držav ali stranko "Dixiecrat". Njen predsedniški kandidat je bil guverner Južne Karoline Strom Thurmond. Poleg tega so levi demokrati in druge liberalne skupine, nezadovoljne s Trumanovo povojno politiko z Rusijo, ustanovile novo napredno stranko. Imenovala je moškega, ki ga je Roosevelt leta 1944 zamenjal s Trumanom, nekdanjim podpredsednikom Henryjem Wallaceom.

Med kampanjo se je Truman, ki je obljubil, da jim bo "dal pekel," odpravil na obsežno turnejo po vlaku "whistle stop". Namesto da bi napadel Deweyja, je Truman kritiziral republikanski kongres kot "brez računa, nič ne naredi, osemdeseti kongres". Kljub vse večji množici ljudi ob Trumanovih govorih, ko so se bližale volitve, so ankete še naprej kazale Deweyja v vodstvu. V pričakovanju zmage je naslov na Chicago Tribuneju zjutraj po volitvah glasil: "Dewey premaga Trumana." Toda v izjemnem vznemirjenju je Truman osvojil 303 volilnih glasov proti 189 za Deweyja in več kot 2 milijona glasov več ljudi. Stranka pravic držav je prejela 39 volilnih glasov, napredna stranka pa nobenega. Virginia je za Harryja Trumana oddala 11 volilnih glasov.

Volitve leta 1952

Trumanova administracija je izgubila priljubljenost zaradi nepriljubljene korejske vojne, širjenja komunizma na Kitajskem in škandalov s podkupovanjem v vladi. Ko je Harry Truman zavrnil ponovno kandidaturo, je Demokratska stranka za svojega kandidata predlagala Adlaija Stevensona, znanstvenega guvernerja Illinoisa in vnuka podpredsednika Groverja Clevelanda. Čeprav sta bili tako demokratična kot republikanska stranka prej zainteresirani za Dwighta D. Eisenhowerja za svojega kandidata, se je do leta 1952 razglasil za republikanca in je bil zlahka nominiran na njihovi konvenciji. Kampanja republikanske stranke je nameravala napasti demokrate s strategijo, imenovano formula "K1C2" (Koreja, komunizem, korupcija). Za podpredsednika je bil nominiran mlajši senator Richard M. Nixon, ki je bil aktiven pri protikomunističnih preiskavah.

Eisenhowerjeva akcija je bila skrbno načrtovana z nasveti oglaševalskih strokovnjakov. Telefonska kampanja in številne televizijske reklame so bile zasnovane tako, da so volivce dosegle na njihovih domovih. Poleg tega je Eisenhower potoval z letalom in govoril v štiriinštiridesetih državah. Republikanci so tudi aktivno iskali ženski glas z reklamami TV, ki temeljijo na družinskih vrednotah. Slogan demokrata je bil "nikoli ti ni bilo tako dobro", vendar v kampanji ni bilo načrtovanja in strategije republikancev. Stevenson je po državi potoval tudi z letalom, kjer je govoril inteligentno in duhovito, a na televiziji slabo projiciral. Eisenhowerjeva kampanja je doživela resen udarec, ko je časopisni članek obtožil Nixona, da je prejel in osebno uporabil tajni sklad političnega denarja. Nixon defended himself to a nationwide television audience claiming the money was used entirely for political purposes. He added that the only gift he received was a dog named Checkers that his children loved and he was going to keep. Following the “Checkers speech, ” the Republican National Committee received a deluge of positive mail supporting Nixon. Eisenhower agreed to keep him on the ticket.

Near the end of the campaign, Eisenhower announced that if elected, he would “go to Korea” to end the war. This pledge, along with his popularity as a military hero, led to a landslide victory. Along with 55 percent of the popular vote, Dwight Eisenhower received 442 electoral votes to 89 for Stevenson. Virginia cast its 12 electoral votes for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Election of 1956

The popular Dwight D. Eisenhower was easily nominated at the Republican convention in 1956. The country was at peace after the Korean War and enjoying economic prosperity. The only question was Eisenhower’s health following a heart attack he suffered in 1955, but his recuperation had been uneventful, and he was anxious to run for a second term. After some initial hesitancy, the controversial Richard Nixon was again nominated for vice president. The Democrats turned once again to Adlai Stevenson, who had defeated Tennessee governor Estes Kefauver in the party primaries. Despite some early support for young Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy, Kefauver was chosen as Stevenson’s running mate. Though Eisenhower did less traveling and active campaigning than in 1952, extensive use of television commercials promoted the Republican theme of “peace, progress, and prosperity.” Stevenson traveled extensively by plane, giving speeches at rallies across the country.

Democrats tried to use Eisenhower’s health, age, and the possibility of Richard Nixon replacing him as issues. Just before the election, the Soviet Union invaded Hungary, and British forces invaded Egypt over the rights to the Suez Canal. The voters trusted Eisenhower, with his military and international background, as the better candidate to handle this crisis. The president’s popularity combined with Stevenson’s divorce (at a time when Republicans were promoting family values), led to an overwhelming Eisenhower victory. Along with 57 percent of the popular vote, Eisenhower received 457 electoral votes to 73 for Stevenson. Virginia cast its 12 electoral votes for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Election of 1960

With the 22nd Amendment preventing President Dwight Eisenhower from seeking a third term, the Republicans designated Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge as their candidates for the 1960 election. Nixon promised to campaign in all fifty states. Although his bid to be vice president in 1956 was unsuccessful, John F. Kennedy had gained national recognition with that attempt combined with the popularity of his Pulitzer Prize–winning book, Pogumni profili. There was initial concern over his youth, Catholicism, and mediocre record as Massachusetts senator, but Kennedy was able to reassure the voters by defeating Hubert Humphrey in the Democratic primaries. At the age of forty-three, Kennedy was nominated for president at the Democratic convention. Lyndon Johnson was selected as the vice presidential candidate. Kennedy’s campaign committee, led by his younger brother Robert, was comprised of experts to help with speeches and strategic advice.

Despite all the traveling, speeches, and paraphernalia, it was television that had the greatest effect on the campaigns. For the first time, two presidential candidates met in a series of nationally televised debates. More than 70 million viewers tuned in to the first debate. Kennedy appeared the most photogenic, relaxed, and confident. Nixon, who had been ill, refused make-up he appeared tired, pale, and perspiring. Though many radio listeners thought that Nixon had won the debate, Kennedy’s television performance was a turning point in the campaign, as larger and larger crowds began to appear at his rallies.

With Alaska and Hawaii having been admitted to the Union in 1959, this was the first election for 50 states and the largest voter turnout to date. In a remarkably close election, Kennedy received 49.7 percent of the popular vote (303 electoral votes) to 49.6 percent for Nixon (279 electoral votes). Unpledged Electors from Mississippi and Alabama gave 15 electoral votes to Senator Harry Byrd of Virginia (and Strom Thurmond for vice president). Virginia cast its 12 electoral votes for Richard Nixon.

Election of 1964

On becoming president, following the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson embarked on a legislative agenda that involved civil rights and “New Deal” type welfare reforms. The goal was to create a “Great Society” where the government would improve the quality of life for everyone. The 1964 Democratic convention easily nominated Johnson for president and Hubert Humphrey for vice president. The party’s platform pledged to continue federal economic and social programs. The Republican convention selected ultra conservative Arizona senator Barry Goldwater rather than more liberal candidates, such as Governors Nelson Rockefeller and William Scranton. William Miller was nominated for vice president. During the campaign, Democrats attacked Goldwater as a reckless extremist conservative whose views could lead to nuclear war. A particularly effective television commercial featured a young girl counting daisy petals. As she counted down, the T.V. screen suddenly showed a mushroom cloud image of a nuclear explosion with Johnson’s voice proclaiming, “These are the stakes. We must all love each other or we will die.” Goldwater unsuccessfully tried to attack the Johnson administration’s financial scandals and LBJ’s reputation as a “wheeler-dealer.”

Voters, concerned over the nuclear war issue and possible loss of social security and other programs, gave an overwhelming victory to Lyndon Johnson (486 electoral votes to 52 for Goldwater). Johnson, who called the results a “mandate for unity,” received 61 percent of the popular vote. Virginia cast its 12 electoral votes for Lyndon Johnson.


Citizen Klan

Delegates to the Democratic Party's 1924 Convention from Washington State, Oregon, and Idaho unanimously opposed adding a plank to the Party Platform that would condemn Ku Klux Klan violence. Source: the national Klan newspaper, The Imperial Night-Hawk, July 2, 1924, p4.

David Leppert: Mayor of Kent and Seattle-area Ku Klux Klan Leader

Watcher on the Tower, Sept 1, 1923, p4.

Wapato School Director

Wapato Independent, Mar 12, 1925, p1.

The Ku Klux Klan was controversial in the 1920s not only because of its intolerance and promotion of vigilante violence, but also because of its entry into American politics. During the first half of the 1920s, the Klan, which had previously been associated with the South, came to thoroughly dominate electoral politics in Indiana, supposedly helped elect eleven Governors (including Oregon’s Walter Pierce), and briefly controlled State Legislatures in the Western States of Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and Oregon.

At the national level, the Klan is alleged to have elected dozens of Senators and Congressmen in the 1920s. Though at the local level Klan politicians were both Republicans and Democrats, nationally it was the Democratic Party that was most associated with the Klan because of intense infighting at its 1924 Presidential nominating convention. Klan allies fought tooth-and-nail to oppose the nomination of New York Governor Al Smith because he was Catholic, and conflict between delegates went from rhetoric to fistfights. The negative publicity from this infighting supposedly helped Republican Calvin Coolidge win the Presidency that year by a landslide.

In this context, the inroads made into electoral politics by Washington State’s Ku Klux Klan seem relatively mild. Voting patterns on the Klan’s anti-Catholic school bill in 1924 suggest that while the Klan had many members in big cities, its main voting power (which was not very large) resided in small farming towns. Yet on the other hand, at the Democratic Party Convention earlier that year, delegates from Washington state, along with those from Oregon and Idaho, were unanimous in opposing a plank to the Party platform which would have repudiated violence associated with the KKK.

Notable Klan members elected to public office in Washington State include the Mayor of Kent, David Leppert, and Bellingham City Attorney Charles B. Sampley. Politicians who were likely members of the Klan include the Mayor of Blaine, Alan Keyes, and Wapato’s Director of Schools, Frank Sutton. Given that the Klan was a secret society, it is hard to differentiate Klan allies from Klan members, and it is likely that many other local elected officials in Washington state were Klan members.

Congressman Albert Johnson

Certainly the biggest question with regard to the Washington state’s Klan’s influence on local and national electoral politics comes through its relationship to Congressman Albert Johnson, Representative to the United States House from Washington&rsquos Third Congressional District.

Congressman Johnson was a eugenics supporter and a national leader in demanding that the U.S. restrict most of its immigration to “Nordic” peoples. As Chair of the House’s Immigration Committee, he introduced and led a successful drive to pass what in 1924 became the most strict immigration law in American history. His intolerant views and political career grew independently of the Ku Klux Klan. He claimed to have been part of a mob that forced hundreds of South Asians out of Bellingham, Washington and into Canada in 1907, was elected in 1914 on an anti-immigrant platform, and played a leading role among Western Congressmen in calling for comprehensive anti-Japanese and anti-South Asian immigration restriction as soon as he arrived in the Capitol. Johnson was a member of the Freemasons, a group the Klan often sought to recruit from.

The Klan was public and effusive in its support of Albert Johnson. Time Magazine noted in 1924 that Johnson’s immigration restriction law was “generally supported by the West and South, admittedly with the backing of the Ku Klux Klan.” It reported in 1926 that one of the national KKK’s top four political priorities was the “Renomination and re-election of Representative Albert Johnson of Washington, so he can continue to be Chairman of the House Committee on Immigration and fight for restricted immigration laws.” The Klan wasn’t the only organization pushing immigration restriction, even though its spectacular growth in the early 1920s nationwide helped make its passage politically possible. We may never know whether Johnson was an ally of the Klan, a mentor, or even a member. But he certainly had the Klan’s admiration its support.

&ldquoThe Washington State Klan in the 1920s&rdquo by Trevor Griffey includes the following chapters:


Coolidge Easily Wins Election of 1924

STVARANJE NARODA - program Voice of America v posebni angleščini.

Vice President Calvin Coolidge moved to the White House in 1923 following the death of President Warren Harding. The new president quickly gained the trust of most Americans by investigating the crimes of Harding's top officials. And his conservative economic policies won wide support.

Coolidge had one year to prove his abilities to the American people before the 1924 election. That election is our story today.

Coolidge was a quiet man who believed in limited government policies. But his silence hid a fighting political spirit. Coolidge had worked for many years to gain the White House. He would not give it up without a struggle.

Coolidge moved quickly after becoming president to gain control of the Republican Party. He named his own advisers to important jobs. And he replaced a number of officials with people whose loyalty he could trust.

Most Republicans liked Coolidge. They felt his popular policies would make him a strong candidate in the presidential election. For this reason, Coolidge faced only one serious opponent for the Republican presidential nomination in 1924.

Coolidge's opponent was the great automobile manufacturer Henry Ford of Michigan.

Ford had been a Democratic candidate for the Senate in 1918. He lost that election. But after the election, some people in his company began to call for Ford to be the Republican presidential nominee in 1924.

Ford was one of history's greatest inventors and manufacturers. But he had limited skills in politics. Ford was poorly educated. He had extreme opinions about a number of groups. He hated labor unions, the stock market, dancing, smoking, and drinking alcohol. But most of all, Ford hated Jews. He produced a number of publications accusing the Jewish people of organizing international plots.

At first, Ford appeared to be a strong opponent to Coolidge. But soon, he realized that Coolidge was too strong politically. His economic policies were popular among the people. And the nation was at peace. The party could not deny Coolidge's nomination. Ford himself put an end to his chances by telling the nation that it was "perfectly safe with Coolidge."

Calvin Coolidge won the presidential nomination easily at the 1924 Republican convention in Cleveland, Ohio. The Republican delegates chose Charles Dawes of Illinois to run with him as the vice presidential candidate.

The Democratic Party was much more divided. Many of the groups that traditionally supported Democratic candidates now were fighting against each other. For example, many farmers did not agree on policies with people living in cities. The educated did not agree with uneducated people. And many Protestant workers felt divided from Roman Catholic and Jewish workers.

These differences made it hard for the Democratic Party to choose a national candidate. There was little spirit of compromise.

Two main candidates campaigned for the Democratic nomination. The first was former Treasury Secretary William McAdoo. McAdoo had the support of many Democrats because of his strong administration of the railroads during the world war. Democratic voters in southern and western states liked him because of his conservative racial policies and his opposition to alcohol.

The second main candidate was Alfred Smith, the governor of New York. Smith was a Roman Catholic. He was very popular with people in the eastern cities, Roman Catholics and supporters of legal alcohol. But many rural delegates to the convention did not trust him.

The Democratic Party convention met in New York City. It quickly became a battle between the more liberal delegates from the cities and the more conservative delegates from rural areas.

It was July. The heat was intense. Speaker after speaker appealed to the delegates for votes. One day passed. Then another. For nine days, the nation listened on the radio as the delegates argued about the nomination.

The delegates voted ninety-five times without success. Finally, McAdoo and Smith agreed to withdraw from the race. Even then, the delegates had to vote eight more times before they finally agreed on compromise candidates.

The Democratic delegates finally chose John Davis to be their presidential nominee. Davis was a lawyer for a major bank. He had served briefly under President Wilson as ambassador to Britain. The delegates also chose Charles Bryan to be the vice presidential candidate. Bryan was the younger brother of the famous Democrat and populist leader, William Jennings Bryan.

There also was a third party in the 1924 election. Many of the old Progressive supporters of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson opposed the choices of the Republicans and Democrats. They thought the country needed another candidate to keep alive the spirit of reform.

Progressive candidates had done well in the congressional election of 1922. But following the election, communists had gained influence in one of the major progressive parties. Most progressives did not want to join with communists. So, they formed a new Progressive Party. The new party named Senator Robert LaFollette of Wisconsin to be its presidential candidate.

LaFollette campaigned for increased taxes on the rich and public ownership of water power. He called for an end to child labor and limits on the power of the courts to interfere in labor disputes. And LaFollette warned the nation about the dangers of single, large companies gaining control of important industries.

Coolidge won the 1924 election easily. He won the electoral votes of thirty-five states to just twelve for Davis of the Democrats. LaFollette won only Wisconsin, his home state. Coolidge also won more popular votes than the other two candidates together.

The American people voted for Coolidge partly to thank him for bringing back honesty and trust to the White House following the crimes of the Harding administration. But the main reason was that they liked his conservative economic policies and his support of business.

LaFollette's Progressive Party died following the 1924 election. Most of his supporters later joined the Democrats. But the reform spirit of their movement remained alive through the next four years.

They were difficult years for Progressives. Conservatives in Congress passed laws reducing taxes for corporations and richer Americans.

Progressives fought for reforms in national agriculture policies. Most farmers did not share in the general economic growth of the 1920s. Instead, their costs increased while the price of their products fell. Many farmers lost their farms.

Farmers and progressives wanted the federal government to create a system to control prices and the total supply of food produced. They said the government should buy and keep any extra food that farmers produced. And they called for officials to help them export food.

Coolidge and most Republicans rejected these ideas. They said it was not the business of a free government to fix farm prices. And they feared the high costs of creating a major new government department and developing export markets.

Coolidge vetoed three major farm reform bills following his election.

The debate over farm policy was, in many ways, like the debate over taxes or public controls on power companies. There was a basic difference of opinion about the proper actions of government.

More conservative Americans believed the purpose of government was to support private business, not to control it. But more liberal Americans believed that government needed to do more to make sure that citizens of all kinds could share the nation's wealth more equally.

Coolidge and the Republicans were in control in the 1920s. For this reason, the nation generally stayed on a conservative path. The Democrats and Progressives would have to wait until later to put many of their more liberal ideas into action.

Poslušali ste STVARANJE NARODA, program v posebni angleščini. Your reporters were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Our program was written by David Jarmul.


1924 Republican Convention - History

The 1924 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Cleveland, Ohio, at the Public Auditorium from June 10 to 12. President Calvin Coolidge was nominated for a full term and went on to win the general election. The convention nominated Illinois Governor Frank Lowden for vice president on the second ballot, but he declined the nomination. The convention then selected Charles G. Dawes. Also considered for the nomination was Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas, a future vice president.

''Time'' featured the imperial wizard in a cover photograph in conjunction with an article about the organization's role in the Republican convention dubbing it "the Kleveland Konvention." Some delegates supported adding a condemnation of the Ku Klux Klan by name into the party platform, but they lacked enough support to bring their proposed language to a vote. The head of the KKK, Imperial Wizard Hiram Wesley Evans, was in the city for the convention but maintained a low public profile.

Coolidge faced a challenge from California Senator Hiram Johnson and Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette in the 1924 Republican primaries. Coolidge fended off his progressive challengers with convincing wins in the Republican primaries, and was assured of the 1924 presidential nomination by the time the convention began. After his defeat in the primaries, La Follette ran a third party candidacy that attracted significant support. Image:Calvin Coolidge photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg| Predsednik
Calvin Coolidge Image:Hiram Johnson.jpg| Senator
Hiram Johnson
of California Image:Robert_M._La_Follette,_Sr.jpg| Senator
Robert M. La Follette
of Wisconsin

Vice Presidential nomination

As Calvin Coolidge had ascended to the presidency following the death of Warren G. Harding on 2 August 1923, he served the remainder of Harding's term without a vice president as the 25th Amendment had not yet been passed. This also left the Convention with the task of choosing a running mate for Coolidge. With Coolidge having locked up the presidential nomination, most attention was focused on the vice presidential nomination. Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover of California and appellate judge William Kenyon of Iowa were seen as the front-runners for the nomination, as both were popular Western progressives who could provide balance to a ticket led by a conservative from Massachusetts. Coolidge's first choice was reported to be Idaho Senator William E. Borah, also a progressive Westerner, but Borah declined to be considered. Illinois Governor Frank O. Lowden, University of Michigan president Marion Leroy Burton, Ambassador Charles B. Warren of Michigan, Washington Senator Wesley Livsey Jones, college president John Lee Coulter of North Dakota, General James Harbord, and General Charles Dawes also had support as potential running mates. Despite saying that he would not accept the nomination, Lowden was nominated for Vice President on the second ballot over Dawes, Kenyon, and Ohio Representative Theodore E. Burton. However, Lowden declined the nomination, an action, that , has never been repeated, and is now considered unthinkable. The Republicans then held a new vice presidential ballot, with Coolidge favoring Hoover. However, the Republicans picked Dawes, partly as a reaction to the perceived dominance of Coolidge in running the convention.

Each of the three days of the convention opened with a lengthy invocation by a different clergymen—one Methodist, one Jewish, one Catholic. Each was listed among the convention officers as an official chaplain. On June 10, the opening prayer was given by William F. Anderson, Methodist Episcopal bishop of Boston. Among other things, he called for "stricter observance of the law and the preservation of the Constitution of the United States", in other words, for more zealous enforcement of Prohibition. The next day's session was opened by Rev. Dr. Samuel Schulman, rabbi of Temple Beth-El in New York. Schulman spoke with appreciation for "the Republican Party's precious heritage of the championship of human rights" he called for "every form of prejudice and misunderstanding" to be "driven forever out of our land". Speaking of Calvin Coolidge, he praised "the integrity, the wisdom, the fearlessness of our beloved President". On June 12, the final day's invocation was given by Roman Catholic Bishop Joseph Schrembs of Cleveland. Schrembs characterized President Calvin Coolidge as "a chieftain whose record of faithful public service, and whose personality, untarnished and untainted by the pollution of political corruption, will fill the heart of America with the new hope of a second spring". Official Report of the Proceedings of the Eighteenth Republican National Convention, published by the Republican National Committee (1924), pp. 125–26


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