Rastafarijanstvo

Rastafarijanstvo


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Rastafarijanstvo, ki je nastalo zaradi širjenja etiopijstva in vseafrikanstva, se je na Jamajki ukoreninilo po kronanju etiopskega cesarja Haileta Selassieja leta 1930. Duhovno gibanje, ki temelji na veri v božanstvo Selassieja, so se njegovi privrženci združili okoli pridigarjev, kot je Leonard Howell, ki je ustanovil prva vidna rastafarijanska skupnost leta 1940. Dodatne veje so se pojavile v petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, v dveh desetletjih pa si je gibanje zaslužilo svetovno pozornost zaradi glasbe predanega rastafarijanca Boba Marleyja. Čeprav sta smrt Selassieja leta 1975 in Marleyja leta 1981 odvzela njegove najvplivnejše osebnosti, rastafarijanstvo vzdržuje sledenje v Združenih državah Amerike, Angliji, Afriki in na Karibih.

Ozadje rastafarijanizma


Korenine rastafarijanstva lahko zasledimo v 18. stoletju, ko so se med črnimi sužnji v Ameriki začeli uveljavljati etiopijanstvo in druga gibanja, ki so poudarjala idealizirano Afriko. Tistim, ki so bili spreobrnjeni v krščanstvo, je Sveto pismo ponudilo upanje skozi odlomke, kot je Psalm 68:31, v katerem je napovedoval, kako bodo »knezi prišli iz Egipta in Etiopije kmalu iztegnili roke k Bogu«.

Etos se je okrepil s porastom sodobnega vseafriškega gibanja v poznem 19. stoletju, zlasti z naukom rojenega Jamajčana Marcusa Garveyja, ki je svojim privržencem menda rekel: »Poglejte v Afriko, kjer bo okronan črni kralj, on bo Odrešenik. " Poleg tega so dvajseta leta na Jamajko prinesla tako vplivna proto-rastafarijanska besedila, kot sta »The Holy Piby« in »The Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy«.

Haile Selassie in vzpon rastafarijanizma


2. novembra 1930 je bil Ras Tafari Makonnen okronan za etiopski cesar Haile Selassie I. Selassie je po prepričanju potomec kralja Salomona in kraljice Sabe prevzel naslove kralja kraljev, gospodarja lordov in zmagovalnega leva iz Judovega plemena, nekaterim, ki izpolnjujejo svetopisemsko prerokbo črnega kralja, ki je bila poudarjena avtor Garvey.

Jamajški pridigarji so začeli promovirati vladajočo oblast Selassieja nad kraljem Georgeom V. (Jamajka je bila takrat kolonija Anglije), do sredine tridesetih let prejšnjega stoletja so privrženci etiopskega cesarja imeli za živo utelešenje Boga. Čeprav ni prišlo do formalizirane osrednje cerkve, so začele rastne frakcije rastafarijanizma našle skupni jezik s svojim prepričanjem v rod, ki sega v starodavne Izraelce, črno premoč in repatriacijo diaspore iz zatiralske dežele "Babilon" v Afriko. Njihovo gibanje je odražalo vrsto vplivov, vključno s starozaveznimi navodili o izogibanju nekaterim živilom in lokalnim prepričanjem v duhovne moči marihuane.

Pridigarji, kot so Robert Hinds, Joseph Hibbert in Archibald Dunkley, so v desetletju dosegli ugled, toda za mnoge učenjake je bil najpomembnejša osebnost zgodnjega rastafarijanstva Leonard Howell. Howell, nekdanji član Garveyjevega univerzalnega združenja za izboljšanje črncev, je po vrnitvi z obsežnih potovanj na Jamajko leta 1932 pritegnil veliko število sledilcev in z objavo "The Promise Key" okoli leta 1935 predstavil načela nastajajočega gibanja.

Jamajkanska vlada je Howella štela za nevarno in subverzivno osebnost, zato so ga večkrat aretirali, njegove privržence pa preganjali. Kljub temu je leta 1939 ustanovil Etiopsko društvo za reševanje (ESS), naslednje leto pa je ustanovil občino Rasta, znano kot Pinnacle.

Pinnacle je v gorah svete Katarine postal avtonomna skupnost za tisoče ljudi, ki so gojili marihuano zaradi svojih duhovnih sej in gospodarskega preživetja. Vendar pa je bila njegova odvisnost od nezakonitega pridelka tudi izgovor, da so oblasti zatirale skupnost, prebivalci Pinnaclea pa so prestali vrsto napadov. Maja 1954 je policija aretirala več kot 100 prebivalcev in uničila približno 3 tone marihuane, s čimer je učinkovito izbrisala občino.

Novi razvoj


Konec štiridesetih let se je iz slumov jamajške prestolnice Kingston pojavila radikalna različica rastafarijanstva, znana kot mladinska črna vera. Kot predhodnica obstoječega dvorca Nyahbinghi ali podružnice je Youth Black Faith postala znana po agresivnem stališču do oblasti. Poleg tega so predstavili nekatere značilnosti, ki so postale široko povezane z rastafarijanci, vključno z rastjo las v dredovih in edinstvenim narečjem skupine.

Čeprav je domnevno zavrnil rastafarijansko upodabljanje o njem kot božanstvu, je cesar Selassie leta 1948 očitno sprejel njihov namen z doniranjem 500 hektarjev za razvoj etiopske skupnosti po imenu Shashamane. Zemljiška podpora, potrjena leta 1955, je Shashamane Jamajčanom in drugim črncem ponudila priložnost, da izpolnijo dolgo željeno upanje na vrnitev v domovino.

V naslednjih dveh desetletjih so dodatne veje rastafarijanstva pridobile predane privržence. Leta 1958 je princ Emanuel Charles Edwards ustanovil Etiopski mednarodni kongres ali Bobo Ashanti, ki pripisuje ločitev od družbe ter stroge zakone o spolu in prehrani. Leta 1968 je dvanajst izraelskih plemen ustanovil Vernon Carrington, prerok Gad, ki se je zavzemal za vsakodnevno branje Svetega pisma in poudarjal rod.

Sprejem na Jamajki


Čeprav se je novo poglavje jamajške zgodovine začelo z njegovo formalno neodvisnostjo od Anglije leta 1962, so ostala dolgotrajna negativna stališča in vladno zatiranje Rastafarija. Najbolj razvpit incident se je zgodil na »slab petek« aprila 1963, ko je policija aretirala in premagala približno 150 nedolžnih rastafarijancev kot odziv na militantni vžig na bencinski črpalki.

Obisk cesarja Selassieja aprila 1966 je zdel boljše dojemanje med neverniki, čeprav so bili še vedno grdi trenutki, na primer vpletenost rastafarijancev v nemire leta 1968 zaradi prepovedi profesorja in aktivista Walterja Rodneyja. V zgodnjih sedemdesetih letih je bilo jasno, da se je gibanje utrdilo med mladimi na Jamajki. To je podčrtala uspešna predsedniška kampanja voditelja Ljudske narodne stranke Michael Manley, ki je leta 1972 nosil "palico popravljanja", ki mu jo je podaril cesar Selassie, in na shodih uporabljal narečje Rasta.

Glasba, Bob Marley in globalizacija


Medtem ko so se rastafarijanske prakse razširile s selitvijo Jamajčanov v Anglijo, Kanado in ZDA od petdesetih do sedemdesetih let, je k njegovi svetovni rasti pripomogel vpliv privržencev na popularno glasbo. Prvi sodelavec na tem področju je bil grof Ossie, ki je začel bobnati na duhovnih sejah v Nyahbinghiju in pomagal razviti slog, ki je postal znan kot ska.

Kasneje je gibanje našlo svojega najpomembnejšega veleposlanika v Bobu Marleyju. Preobraženi v Rastafarija in ustanovitelj reggae glasbe, je karizmatični Marley v svojih pesmih brezskrbno omenil svoja prepričanja in v sedemdesetih letih 20. stoletja dosegel široko priznanje z vsestransko privlačnimi temami bratstva, zatiranja in odrešenja. Marley je gostoval na številnih turnejah in svoj zvok prinesel v Evropo, Afriko in ZDA, hkrati pa je postal plakat za rastfarijanske vzroke.

Medtem pa je vse večja priljubljenost rastafarijanizma med ljudmi različnih ras in kultur privedla do sprememb v nekaterih njegovih strožjih kodah. Knjiga rimskokatoliškega duhovnika in socialnega delavca Josepha Owensa iz sedemdesetih let »Strah: rastafarijanci na Jamajki« je poudarila nekatere izzive, s katerimi se sooča gibanje, pri čemer so se nekatere sekte odločile poudariti pomen črne superiornosti v prid sporočilu enakosti.

Sodobni rastafarijanstvo


Prelomnica za rastafarijanstvo se je zgodila leta 1975, ko je cesar Selassie umrl in prisilil svoje privržence, da se soočijo s protislovjem živega božanstva, ki je umrlo. Leta 1981 je gibanje izgubilo drugo pomembno vlogo s smrtjo Marleyja zaradi raka.

Vedno decentralizirana vera in kultura je poskušal uvesti povezovalni element z vrsto mednarodnih konferenc v osemdesetih in devetdesetih letih. Manjši oddelki, kot so afriška enotnost, zaveza Rastafari in selasijska cerkev, so se pojavili na prelomu tisočletja, v istem obdobju, ko so umrli dolgoletni voditelji princ Emanuel Charles Edwards (1994) in prerok Gad (2005).

Od leta 2012 je bilo ocenjeno, da je po vsem svetu približno 1 milijon rastafarijancev. Njegove tradicije se nadaljujejo v skupnostih v ZDA, Angliji, Afriki, Aziji in na Jamajki, kjer je vlada s prizadevanji za trženje turizma kooptirala velik del svoje simbolike. Jamajška vlada je v letu 2015, ko se je želela odpraviti prestopkov, dekriminalizirala marihuano, leta 2017 pa se je premier Andrew Holness uradno opravičil rastafarijancem zaradi neuspeha v Coral Gardens.


Rastafarijeva prepričanja in prakse

Rastafari je novo abrahamsko versko gibanje, ki sprejema Haileja Selassieja I., etiopskega cesarja od leta 1930 do 1974 kot utelešenega Boga in Mesijo, ki bo vernike pripeljal v obljubljeno deželo, ki jo je Rastas označil za Etiopijo. Njegove korenine segajo v gibanja opolnomočenja črncev in gibanja nazaj v Afriko. Izvira iz Jamajke in njeni privrženci so še naprej koncentrirani tam, čeprav je danes v številnih državah mogoče najti manjše populacije Rasta.

Rastafari se drži številnih judovskih in krščanskih prepričanj. Rastas sprejema obstoj enega samega troedinega boga, imenovanega Jah, ki se je večkrat inkarniral na zemlji, tudi v obliki Jezusa. Sprejemajo velik del Svetega pisma, čeprav verjamejo, da je njegovo sporočilo sčasoma pokvaril Babilon, ki ga običajno identificirajo z zahodno belo kulturo. Natančneje, sprejemajo prerokbe v Knjigi razodetjev o drugem Mesijevem prihodu, za katere menijo, da so se že zgodile v obliki Selassie. Pred njegovim kronanjem je bil Selassie znan kot Ras Tafari Makonnen, po katerem je gibanje dobilo ime.


Rastafarijanstvo - ZGODOVINA

Ta vera izvira iz leta Marcus Garvey (rojen leta 1887), katerega filozofske ideologije so bile katalizator, ki je sčasoma prerasel v rastafarijansko gibanje leta 1930. Rastafarijanstvo je pogosto povezano s temnopoltim siromašnim prebivalstvom Jamajke. Zanje to ni le vera, ampak način življenja, boj za njihove pravice in svobodo.

V začetku dvajsetih let prejšnjega stoletja je bil Garvey, vplivni črni predstavnik, ustanovitelj gibanja "quotback-to-Africa". Govoril je o odrešitvi črncev prek bodočega črnega afriškega kralja.

& quotNi ena dirka nima zadnje besede o kulturi in o civilizaciji. Ne veste, kaj je črnec sposoben, ne veste, kaj misli, zato ne veste, kaj bi zatirani in zatirani črnec zaradi svojega stanja in okoliščin lahko svetu dal presenečenje. & Quot (Govor, 6. junija 1928, Royal Albert Hall, London. Citirano v Adolph Edwards, Marcus Garvey) Medtem ko je Garvey poskušal temnopoltim dati pravo mesto, je zamenjal vloge ras. Garvey je belo religijo označil za zavračanje črne kulture in vztrajal, da morajo črnci zapustiti "Babilon" (zahodni svet) in se vrniti v svojo domovino Afriko. Prva mednarodna konvencija Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) se je odprla v dvorani Liberty Hall v New Yorku in Harlemu pod vodstvom Marcusa Garveyja. Udeležilo se ga je 25.000 delegatov iz 25 držav. Garvey je začel poveličevati afriško lepoto in promovirati kampanjo & quotback to Africa & quot z načrtom za ponovno naselitev v Liberiji (Liberija je bila prva afriška kolonija, ki se je osamosvojila). Leta 1920 je Liberija zavrnila načrt Marcusa Garveyja za ponovno naselitev črncev ZDA, ker se je bala, da je njegov motiv spodbuditi revolucijo. Naslednje leto je bil Garvey obsojen zaradi goljufanja v zdaj bankrotiranem podjetju Black Star Steamship Co., ki ga je ustanovil. Garvey je bil nato leta 1927 deportiran nazaj na Jamajko (uporabljena referenca: kronologija The People.)

Rastas verjame, da so vsi ljudje na svetu enaki, povezani z enim bogom, Jah. Prav tako menijo, da so njihovi predniki na nek način užalili Jaha, kar jih je pripeljalo v izgnanstvo suženjstva na Jamajki. Temnopolti so še vedno potlačeni zaradi revščine in nepismenosti in zavedeni s sistemom belega človeka, ki je Babilon.

Leta 1927 je Garvey razglasil, "Poglej v Afriko za kronanje Črnega kralja, bo Odrešenik" (Rastafarijanci, str. 67). Nekaj ​​let kasneje je novi etiopski kralj Haile Selassie ocenil, da se je njegova napoved uresničila.

Zdi se, da je bil Hale Selassie zelo izobražen in ni bil rastafarijanec, nekateri pa trdijo, da obstaja nekaj dokazov, da je bil pobožen kristjan (koptski kristjan).

Ni izjave o tem, kaj si je mislil o celotnem rastafarijanskem gibanju, vendar je rekel: & quot; Danes človek vidi, da pred njim propadajo vsi njegovi upi in težnje. Zmeden je in ne ve, kam hodi. Zavedati pa se mora, da je rešitev sedanjih težav in vodstvo za njegovo prihodnje delovanje Biblija. Če s čisto vestjo ne sprejme Biblije in njenega velikega sporočila, se ne more upati odrešenja. Zame, Hvalim se v Svetem pismu. & quot (Selassie I)

2. novembra 1930 je bil Ras Tafari Makonnen okronan za kralja Etiopije, kralja kraljev v Adis Abebi. Ob svojem kronanju je zase prevzel naslov "cesar Haile Selassie I (Moč svete Trojice), Osvajajoči lev iz Judovega plemena, Božji izvoljenec in kralj etiopskih kraljev." (Judov lev predstavlja Haile Selassie, osvajalec, kralj kraljev kot lev, kralj vseh živali, nekateri ga uporabljajo za prevladujoče gibanje). Nekateri rastafarijanci verjamejo, da Biblija uči, da je Bog duh, ki ga je pokazal in zastopal kralj H.I.M. (Cesar Haile Selassie I). Mnogi trdijo, da je on mesija (sin) v drugem psalmu, proti kateremu se zarotijo ​​babilonski narodi. Tistim, ki čakajo na rešitev, so novega cesarja videli kot izpolnitev Garveyjeve razglasitve. (to so verjeli zlasti Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Leanord Howell in Robert Hind).

Poročali so, da je 225. potomec in obnovitelj Salomonove dinastije, ki izvira iz rodu kraljice Sabe in kralja Salomona. Njegov prestol je predstavljal Božji prestol na zemlji, ki ga je vzpostavila zaveza med Bogom in kraljem Davidom, zapisana v Stari zavezi (2. Samuelova 7). Bog je obljubil, da bo po Davidovem semenu, Judovem plemenu, postavil svoje obljubljeno kraljestvo na zemlji, ki bo luč svetu. Njegovi ljudje bodo vrnjeni v svojo deželo in ne bodo več trpeli.

Žal ti naslovi že pripadajo tistemu, ki si jih edini zasluži in se je izkazal, Gospodu Jezusu Kristusu. V Iza 9: 6 je rojen otrok device Iza.7: 14, Mih.5: 2 in je od večnosti, sam Bog, stvarnik. Ta sin, edinorojeni Božji Sin, bi imel večno kraljestvo. Umrl bi za grehe sveta in vstal (Apd. 2: 22-36) Sveto pismo jasno pove, da bo na Davidovem prestolu ne moški, ampak Bog/ človek sedel na mesijo, Jezusa Kristusa.

Ko je rastersko gibanje raslo, so bili Hebrejci označeni za črne. Bog se je identificiral s črnci in krščanska vera ni bila več monopol belih misijonarjev. Vsako sklicevanje na Etiopijo v Svetem pismu je imelo za gibanje velik pomen. Rastas verjame, da je bil Selassie pravi Jezus v krščanstvu. Da je beli človek prevaral svet, da je prepričan, da ni črnec. Leonard Howell je rastafarijance učil sovraštva do bele rase in da so belci manjvredni. To je bil pretiran odziv na zatiranje. Poučevanje je vključevalo idejo, da je hudič dejansko bog belega človeka in da je črna rasa boljša. Cesar Haile Selassie naj bi bil priznan kot vrhovno bitje in edini vladar črncev. (podobnosti z islamskim narodom so na nekaterih področjih presenetljive.)

Hebrejci niso črne rase, ampak semiti. Abraham je prišel iz Mezopotamije: ni bil črnec. Biblija pa poudarja, da se je Mojzes poročil z Zipporahom, ki je bila Etiopljanka. Apostolska dela 17:26 nam povejo, da je Bog iz ene krvi naredil vsak človeški narod. V Kristusu ni črne, bele, rjave ali rdeče barve. Raz 5: 9 nam pove, da nas je Bog odrešil s krvjo svojega sina iz vsakega plemena, jezika, ljudstva in naroda. Biblija uči, da nobena rasa ni boljša od katere koli druge rase (Gal. 3:28 Kol. 3:11). Učiti drugače pomeni biti v nasprotju s svetim pismom in naukom Jezusa Kristusa. Zbere vse ljudi, da bi bili eno v sebi, tako Judje kot pogane, črne, bele, rdeče in rumene itd.

Haile Selassie je Jamajko obiskala 21. aprila 1966. To je postal pomemben zgodovinski dogodek v rastafarijanskem gibanju. Selassie je prepričal brata Rastafariane, da se ne smejo preseliti v Etiopijo, dokler ne osvobodijo prebivalcev Jamajke. & Quot (Rastafarijanci, str. 158, 160). Rastafarijani zaradi njegovega obiska še naprej praznujejo 21. april kot poseben sveti dan. Eno ključnih naukov rastafarijancev je bilo njihovo pričakovanje, da se bodo nekega dne vrnili v Afriko, "Sion, ki jim bo vrnjen po stoletjih v diaspori." Mnogi Rasta verjamejo, da je Etiopija njihova obljubljena dežela, nebesa na zemlji.

Rastafarijani verjamejo, da se je Bog razkril v Mojzesovi osebi, ki je bil prvi avatar ali rešitelj. Drugi avatar je bil Elija. Tretji avatar je bil Jezus Kristus. Zdaj je prihod Ras Tafarija vrhunec Božjega razodetja. & Quot (Rastafarijanci, str. 112) Nekateri Rastas verjamejo, da je Haile Selasie vsemogočni bog (bog, ki ni umrl zaradi greha, ampak zaradi greha!) živi Bog. Nekateri menijo, da je to drugi Kristusov prihod, prerokovan v Svetem pismu. (Nobeno kraljestvo ni vzpostavljeno, niti on ne bo premagal zla in sodil narodov.) Nekateri menijo, da je podoben Kristusu in izvira iz Kristusa. Učijo celo, da je Jezus napovedal prihod Haile Selassie (Rastafarijanci, str. 106). Rastafarijanci opozarjajo na svete spise in pravijo, da je zanj prerokovalo kot za tistega, »lasje, katerih glava je bila podobna volni (to so zamračeni lasje črnega človeka), katerih noge so bile podobne goreči medenini (črna koža)« (Raz. 1) : 14-15). Njegova glava in lasje so bili beli kot volna, bel kot sneg, in njegove oči kot ognjeni plamen, Njegove noge so bile kot iz medenine, kot bi bil prečiščen v peči, in Njegov glas kot zvok številnih voda. & quot Je sklicevanje na starodavne dni v Danielu. Dan. 7:10 lasje na glavi so bili kot čista volna. Njegov prestol je bil ognjeni plamen, njegova kolesa goreč ogenj. & QuotTo je vizija Boga stvarnika v nebesih, Selassie komaj izpolnjuje pogoje, saj pravi, da je ta oseba starodavnih časov, idiom, ki pravi, da je večen.

Leta 1974 je bil Selassie odstavljen z vojaškim udarom in (po jedrnata enciklopedija Columbia) 27. avgusta 1975 je pod skrivnostnimi okoliščinami umrla Haile Selassie. Ko je Selassie umrl, mnogi Rastas tega sprva niso mogli sprejeti. Njegova smrt je spodbudila rastafarijance. nekateri so verjeli, da gre za medijski trik, nekateri so na njegovo smrt gledali kot na izmišljotino. Nekateri Rastas verjamejo, da so pravi Rastas nesmrtni in božanskost Selassieja ni umrla z njim. Za razlago njegove smrti so nekateri dejali, da so se njegovi atomi razširili po vsem svetu in postali del novorojenčkov, zato se njegovo življenje nikoli ne konča. Trenutno velja prepričanje, da Ras Tafari živi skozi posamezne rastafarijance. Skupine, ki trdijo, da so zvestobe Ras Tafariju, so etiopska sionska koptska cerkev in etiopska svetovna federacija (ne v etiopski koptski cerkvi).

Znotraj tega gibanja imajo svoj besednjak. Jaz in jaz se nanašava na Boga v vsem ali na bratstvo človeštva. Ker so vsi ljudje popolnoma enaki in jih povezuje en bog, Jah, ne bi smeli uporabljati tebe in mene. Zdi se, da obstaja konflikt med njihovim glasbenim sporočilom o enosti človeštva in drugimi, ki držijo prvotno sporočilo Garveyja in črnci. Gibanje se v bistvu zavzema za enake pravice in pravičnost.

Na Jamajki in Karibih naj bi bilo 250.000 rastafarijancev. Njihovo trenutno članstvo je več kot 700.000 (od leta 1988), čeprav veliko več eksperimentira z njegovim življenjskim slogom in nanj vpliva več kot tisti, ki se mu dejansko pridružijo. Majice in nalepke za odbijače še naprej spodbujajo gibanje, ki ima svojo reggae glasbo svoje sporočilo svetu.


Rastafari uporabljajo marihuano kot del svoje vere. Med “Reasoning Sessions ” kadita skupaj in razpravljata o vprašanjih v skupnosti. Vsako srečanje ima potem tudi veliko pojedino.

Uradna verska glasba Rastafari je Nyabingi. Ta glasbeni slog je kombinacija gospel glasbe iz 19. stoletja s tradicionalnimi afriškimi bobni. Spominja tudi na glasbo Burru, o kateri so jamajčanski sužnji peli drug drugemu, da so poživili. Glasba se običajno predvaja, medtem ko ljudje kadijo in se pogovarjajo med razpravljalnimi sejami.


Izvor rastafarijanske kulture in vere

Avtor:

Rastafarijansko gibanje se je v tridesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja začelo na Jamajki med temnopoltimi delavci. Začelo se je deloma kot družbeno stališče proti belcem in srednjemu sloju, ki so jih rastafarijanci videli kot zatiralce.

Rastafarijanci so med svojimi zamerami verjeli, da so jim trgovci s sužnji, ki so jih odpeljali na Karibe, oropali afriško dediščino, ki so jo poskušali ponovno ujeti in proslaviti.

Rastafarijansko gibanje jemlje Sveto pismo kot svoje sveto besedilo, vendar ga razlaga na afrocentričen način, da bi obrnilo tisto, kar Rastas vidi kot spremembe, ki so jih v besedilo vnesle bele sile.

Gibanje je imelo za svojega duhovnega vodjo Haileja Selassieja I., nekdanjega etiopskega cesarja, ki je bil pohvaljen za temnopoltega voditelja v osrčju Afrike. Zanje je postal Jah, ki bo nekega dne vodil ljudi afriškega izvora v obljubljeno deželo.

Tako kot vsaka duhovnost imajo tudi Rasta svoja prepričanja, simbole in tradicije, vendar uradnega rastafarijanskega veroizpovedi ni in obstajajo majhne razlike v pogledih različnih skupin.

Menijo, da je Haile Selassie živi Bog, črna pa reinkarnacija starodavnega Izraela, ki je bil po roki bele osebe v izgnanstvu na Jamajki.

Rastafarijanci menijo, da je "Jamajka pekel, Etiopija je nebesa, nepremagljivi cesar Etiopije zdaj poskrbi, da se bodo izseljene osebe afriškega izvora vrnile v Etiopijo in v bližnji prihodnosti bodo temnopolti zavladali svetu."

Verjamejo, da Boga najdemo v vsakem človeku s poudarkom, da se svojim sledilcem razodeva po svoji človečnosti.

Po Tuff Gong Isimbiju (28), enem od rastafarijancev v Kigaliju, je odrešenje za rastafarijance zemeljska ideja in ne nebeška.

"Človeška narava je za nas zelo pomembna in naredimo vse, da jo ohranimo in zaščitimo," je dejal Isimbi.

Omenil je, da so rastafarijanci izbrano božje ljudstvo in da na zemlji spodbujajo njegovo moč in mir.

Isimbi je opozoril, da se je prejšnje prepričanje, da so beli ljudje zli, zmanjšalo in ni več osrednjega pomena za rastafarijanske sisteme prepričanj.

Dreadlocks
Imajo več pomenov. Prvič, so del svetopisemske nazarenske zaobljube, ki prepoveduje britje in česanje las.

Toda dredo ne naredijo nekoga rastman, nekateri Rasta pa ne nosijo dredov.

Ključavnice zaradi svojega videza simbolizirajo človekove korenine in njegovo duhovnost, povezavo z Jahom.

Ganja
Pomeni ozdravitev narodov, znanih tudi kot konoplja, konoplja ali marihuana, Rastas pa ga na različne načine uporablja kot sveti zakrament.

Rastas kadi zelišče za meditacijo, ki simbolizira goreč grm, in zaradi njegovih zdravilnih lastnosti, to je astme. Zelišče lahko jeste ali infundiramo.

Zastava Rasta
Zastava je sestavljena iz treh barv, rdeče, rumene in zelene. Rdeča simbolizira kri črnih ljudi, rumena ukradeno zlato, zelena pa izgubljene afriške dežele.

Zastavo Rasta je mogoče videti tudi med koptskim praznovanjem v Etiopiji. Te barve so tudi na senegalski zastavi, od koder je bilo deportiranih tisoč sužnjev, ki so prečkali otok Goree.

Davidova zvezda
To simbolizira povezavo med Hailejem Selassiejem in izraelskim kraljem Davidom, pa tudi Rasta se ima za podobne Izraelcem v izgnanstvu v Babilonu. Davidova zvezda je simbol Izraela.

Osvajanje leva in jagnjeta
Oba simbolizirata Haile Selassie po Razodetjih in odprtju sedmih pečatov. To sta dva obraza iste resničnosti, Alfa in Omega.

Smrt Haileja Selassieja leta 1975 so njegovi privrženci označili za njegovo "izginotje", saj niso hoteli verjeti, da je umrl.

Čeprav ga nekateri rastafarijanci še vedno obravnavajo kot črnega mesijo, se mnogim sodobnim privržencem to ne zdi bistveno za njihovo vero.

Trenutno velja, da je po vsem svetu več kot milijon rastafarijancev. Nekateri živijo v občinah, ki so tudi templji, kjer preučujejo Sveto pismo in molijo.


Sodobna rastafarijanska prepričanja

Sodobna rastafarijanska prepričanja

Od tridesetih do sredine sedemdesetih let je večina rastafarijancev sprejela tradicionalna rastafarijanska prepričanja.

Toda leta 1973 je Joseph Owens objavil sodobnejši pristop k prepričanju Rastafarija. Leta 1991 je Michael N. Jagessar spremenil Owensove zamisli, oblikoval svoj sistemski pristop k teologiji Rastafari in omogočil vpogled v spremembe prepričanj skupine.

Ključne ideje sodobnega Rastafarija so:

  • Božja človečnost in božanskost človeka
    • To se nanaša na pomen Haile Selassie, ki jo rastafarijanci dojemajo kot živega Boga. Podobno poudarja koncept, da se Bog razodeva svojim privržencem po svoji človečnosti.
    • Rastafarijanci verjamejo, da se Bog razodeva po človeštvu. Po Jagessarju "mora obstajati en človek, v katerem obstaja najbolj izrazito in v celoti, in to je vrhovni človek, Rastafari, Selassie I."
    • Zelo pomembno je, da na vsa zgodovinska dejstva gledamo v kontekstu Božje sodbe in delovanja.
    • Odrešenje za rastafarijance je zemeljska ideja in ne nebeška.
    • Človeška narava je za rastafarijance zelo pomembna in jo morajo ohraniti in zaščititi.
    • Ta ideja se nanaša na pomen in spoštovanje rastafarijancev do živali in okolja, kar se odraža v njihovih zakonih o prehrani.
    • Govor je za rastafarijance zelo pomemben, saj omogoča, da se čuti prisotnost in moč Boga.
    • Greh je tako oseben kot podjetniški. To pomeni, da so za fiskalni položaj Jamajke odgovorne organizacije, kot je Mednarodni denarni sklad, in da na zatiranje deloma vplivajo tudi oni.
    • To ustreza blizu sodbe za rastafarijance, ko bodo deležni večjega priznanja.
    • Rastafarijani so izbrano božje ljudstvo in na zemlji spodbujajo njegovo moč in mir.

    (Joseph Owens Rastafarijanci na Jamajki, 1973 str. 167-70 in Jagessar, JPIC in rastafarijancev, 1991, str. 15-17.)

    Za sodobnega Rastafarija je najpomembnejša doktrina vera v božanskost Haile Selassie I. Čeprav nekateri rastafarijanci še vedno menijo, da je Haile Selassie črni mesija, se mnogim sodobnim privržencem to ne zdi osrednjega pomena za njihovo vero.

    Smrt Haileja Selassieja leta 1975 so njegovi privrženci označili za njegovo "izginotje", saj niso hoteli verjeti, da je umrl. Po njegovi smrti in povečanem sprejemanju jamajške kulture v družbi so se spremenila številna rastafarijanska prepričanja.

    Po besedah ​​Nathaniela Samuela Murrella:

    . bratje so nauk o repatriaciji na novo interpretirali kot prostovoljno selitev v Afriko, kulturno in simbolno vračanje v Afriko ali zavračanje zahodnih vrednot ter ohranjanje afriških korenin in črnega ponosa.

    Nathaniel Samuel Murrell v 'Chanting Down Babylon', 1998, stran 6.

    Prejšnje prepričanje, da so beli ljudje zli, se je zmanjšalo in ni več osrednjega pomena za rastafarijanske sisteme prepričanj.

    Ideja o Babilonu se je razvila tudi za zastopanje vseh zatiralskih organizacij in držav na svetu.


    SKIC ZGODOVINE RASTAFARI


    IZVORI: AFRIKANSKA PRAVOSLAVNA CRKVA GARVEYITE.

    Marcus Garvey je bil črno-beli nacionalistični vodja, rojen v Jamajki, katerega Univerzalno združenje za izboljšanje črncev (UNIA) je bila najvidnejša organizacija Black Power v dvajsetih letih prejšnjega stoletja. Čeprav je sam rimskokatolik, je Garvey spodbujal svoje privržence, naj si Jezusa predstavljajo kot Črnega in si organizirajo svojo cerkev. Da bi poudarili, da nova cerkev ni ne katoliška ne protestantska, je bilo sprejeto ime "pravoslavna" in filioque (stavek, dodan latinski različici Nicejske veroizpovedi v zgodnjem srednjem veku, ki so ga pravoslavci zavrnili).

    Afriška pravoslavna cerkev je začela pogajanja z rusko Metropolijo (danes OCA) za uradno priznanje kot pravoslavno jurisdikcijo. Na žalost so se ta pogajanja razbila: Metropolija je zahtevala nesprejemljivo stopnjo upravnega nadzora, medtem ko so Garveyiti želeli razglašati vse doktrine, ki so se jih odločili. Sčasoma so afriškega pravoslavnega škofa posvetili "ameriški katoličani", skupina, ki je zavrnila avtoriteto papeža, sicer pa je bila podobna rimski cerkvi.

    Cerkev Garveyite je imela na tisoče članov na treh celinah in je bila simbol protikolonializma v Keniji in Ugandi. Afriški pravoslavci v teh državah so hitro prekinili odnose z newyorško cerkvijo in namesto tega postali del grškega patriarhata v Aleksandriji in popolnoma pravoslavni. Enak postopek se je v zadnjem času ponovil v Gani, kjer je p. Kwami Labe, maturant semenišča svetega Vladimirja v New Yorku, gradi močno pravoslavno skupnost na temeljih, ki so jih postavili Garveyiti. (Moti pa me, da se zdi, da se mnogi zdaj kanonski afriški pravoslavci pogosto sramujejo svojega "heretičnega" izvora in se poskušajo distancirati od prejšnjega gibanja.)

    Danes je Afriška pravoslavna cerkev kot taka v veliki meri propadla, čeprav župnija sv. Janeza Coltranea (!) V San Franciscu ostaja precej aktivna.

    VEČ POREKLOV: ČRNI IZRAELITI.

    Črni sužnji so do zasužnjenih Hebrejcev vedno čutili očitno sorodnost, nekateri pa so to naklonjenost sprejeli do skrajne logike in trdili, da so v resnici Judje. To gibanje je verjetno obstajalo v ZDA v času suženjstva in v sinagogi v predhodnem Charlestonu je bil vsaj en temnopolti spreobrnjenec. Širjenje informacij o judovski manjšini "falaša" v Etiopiji je v poznem 19. stoletju prispevalo k rasti črnega judovstva, judovske sekte pa so se poleg muslimanskih pojavile v severnih getih. Številne te in podobne skupine novejšega izvora so še danes zelo aktivne. These groups (a few of them very anti-Semitic in their claim of being "real Jews") are in some cases "Christian", although with an Old Testament emphasis. Frequently they claim that whites have distorted the text of the Bible, and there are attempts to "restore" the text.

    One of these, of importance in this story, is the "Holy Piby", an occult bible allegedly translated from "Amharic" and emphasizing the destruction of white "Babylonia" and the return of the Israelites to Africa, the true Zion. The Piby was adopted by Rastafarians as the source of their liturgical texts.

    The Marcus Garvey of history books is a mainly political leader interested in making the black race economically equal with the white. In oral tradition, however, he appears as a divinely annointed prophet, the Forerunner of Haile Selassie. In addition to many miracles and prophecies, he is credited with having predicted that a "mighty king" would arise in Africa and bring justice to the oppressed. When the Prince (Ras) Tafari of Ethiopia was crowned emperor to world-wide fanfare, many Jamaicans claimed the prophecy of Garvey had obviously just been fulfilled: the Ras Tafari Movement was born.

    Garvey himself was still alive, although his movement had largely collapsed and he himself had been jailed on (subsequently disproved) allegations of business fraud. Garvey was no admirer of Haile Selassie, observing that slavery still existed in Ethiopia, and he attacked the Rastafarians as crazy fanatics. They, however continued to revere Garvey nonetheless, remarking that even John the Baptist had had doubts about Christ!

    From 1930 until the mid '60s, Rastafari was a local Jamaican religious movement with few outside influences. Several Garveyite leaders had independently declared that Haile Selassie fulfilled Garvey's prophecy, and the movement remained dominated by independent "Elders" with widely varying views. Not only did no Jamaica-wide "Rastafarian Church" develop, but there was not even agreement on basic doctrine or a canon of Scripture--both the Holy Piby and the King James Bible were used by various Elders, but were freely emended and "corrected".

    This "anarchy" was considered a virtue by classical Rastas. Rastafari was not a religion, a human organization, or a philosophy, but an active attempt to discern the will of JAH (God) and keep it. Classical Rastas were mainly uneducated Third World peasants, but they approached Rastafari in an almost Talmudic spirit, holding "reasonings" --part theological debate, part prayer meeting-- at which they attempted to find the Truth.

    Their attitude differed, however, from that of Protestants interpreting the Bible. They were certain that they would arrive, by divine guidance, at an "overstanding" (rather than understanding) of the Truth. The Truth cannot be known by human effort alone, but "Jah-Jah come over I&I", one can participate in the One who is Truth.

    Early Rasta mystical experience emphasized the immediate presence of JAH within the "dread" (God-fearer). The doctrine of theosis was expressed with great subtlety (although not all Elders correctly distinguished essence from energy). Through union with JAH, the dread becomes who he truly is but never was, a process of self-discovery possible only through repentance. (For this reason, Rastas did not proselytize, but relied on compunction sent by JAH.) The mystical union was expressed by the use of the pronoun "I&I" (which can mean I, we, or even you, with JAH present) or simply "I" in contrast to the undeclined Jamaican dialect "me".

    Many Rastas lived (and live today) in the bush in camps ruled by an Elder. Some of these camps are segregated by sex and resemble monasteries (down to the gong at the gate) more often, they are reconstituted West African villages. The dreads observe the rules of "ital", a dietary code based on the Pentateuch with various additions, and otherwise observe a spiritual rule. Males are usually bearded (uncommon in Jamaica during the classical period, and a cause of social and religious discrimination, so that Rastas who held jobs often were "baldfaces" who kept their affiliation secret.)

    The famous "dreadlocks" were worn during the classical period only by a minority of dreads, mostly those who had taken the oath of Nazirite. Very recent historical research suggests that the dreadlocks were popularized by a monastic movement which opposed the unrestrained and potentially corrupting power of the Elders. These celibate and almost puritanical "nyabinghi warriors" objected particularly to "pagan holdovers" in Rastafari, the continued use by dreads of ritual practices associated with the voudoun-like folk religion of the Jamaican peasantry.

    Another source of "pagan" thought in Rastafari was the religion practiced by the thousands of East Indian labourers imported to Jamaica after the abolition of slavery. Classical Hinduism is a major religious force throughout the West Indies, especially on Trinidad, but its influence on Rastafari has been little remarked. The dreadlocked, ganja-smoking saddhu or wandering ascetic is a well-known figure in India, and bands of saddhus often live in Rasta-style camps and smoke marijuana from a formally-blessed communal chalice-pipe. The Hindu doctrine of reincarnation is also advocated by many dreads, although often with a subtle twist: to say that (for example) today's Jamaicans are reincarnated Israelites, and even "I myself have felt the slave-master's whip", means to some dreads not that they personally have lived before, but that their solidarity with their ancestors is so great that there is a "oneness through time".

    Among the few things all Elders agreed on were that Haile Selassie was "divine" (although what that meant was much debated) and that he intended to restore New World Blacks to Africa. Although a mystical interpretation of "repatriation" was advanced, there is no doubt that all early Elders (and most modern ones) expected outward literal return as well. This gave Rastafari an overt political dimension: the Rastafarians all, without exception, wanted to immediately emigrate to Ethiopia. This was a situation with no analogue except Zionism, and was beyond the ability of the Jamaican authorities to deal with. Revolutionaries are one thing, but the Rasta slogan was not "power to the people", but "let my people go". As time passed, Rastafarian frustration at this unmet demand became explosive. The situation grew especially tense after 1954, when the government overran a Rastafarian mini-state called the Pinnacle, ruled by Elder Leonard Howell in exactly the style of a traditional West African chief. Howell's followers migrated to the slums of Kingston, and the movement went from a rural peasant separatist movement to one associated with the ghettoes of the capital. In the late '50s and early '60s, a few Rastas in desparation rejected the non-violent teaching of all authentic Elders and mounted a series of increasingly violent uprisings, culminating in several deadly shoot-outs between Rastas and British troops. With this violence, the existence of Rastafari came to (negative) worldwide notice more positive publicity was brought by the popularity of Rasta-performed reggae dance music a few years later. The classical period of isolation was at an end.

    I will now treat the issue of direct contact between Rastafari and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

    THE ETHIOPIAN WORLD FEDERATION (EWF).

    As an African country mentioned in the Bible and the only African nation to successfully resist colonialism, Ethiopia was always prominent in New World Black consci- ousness, but actual contact was minimal until the Second World War. In 1937, Haile Selassie's government in exile founded EWF to raise money and political support from Black nationalist groups in the West. After the war, the EWF continued to exist in various forms, some completely under local control but all providing at least some contact with Abyssinia.

    In the 1940s, a Garveyite bishop named Edwin Collins set up what he said was a legitimate Coptic church under the Patriarch of Alexandria. However the Garveyite Coptics were tied more closely to the African Orthodox Church than to Egypt, and their canonicity was widely doubted. In 1952 the Garveyite Coptic diocese of Trinidad and Tobago broke away and placed itself under Addis Ababa. Clergy were imported from Africa and a fully canonical church was organised in the islands. Trinidad is an Ethiopian Orthodox success story: native- born clergy (including old-time Garveyite leaders) were rapidly ordained and parishes were founded all over the country and in Guyana.

    In 1959 the central Garveyite Coptic organisation in New York tried to improve its canonical status. The archbishop went to Ethiopia, where he was supposedly ordained chorepiscopos, and returned with a group of young Ethiopian priests and deacons who were to study in American universities. These clergy almost immediately broke with the Garveyites, however, and set up parishes more oriented to the needs of Ethiopian immigrants the Garveyite Coptic church which had sponsored them went into an evidently irreversible decline. One of the young priests who came over at this time soon became Ethiopian Orthodoxy's main representative abroad. He is Laike M. Mandefro, now Archbishop Yesehaq, exarch of the Western Hemisphere and many would add Apostle to the Caribbean.

    All of the above developments took place independently of the Ras Tafari Movement, which was still confined to Jamaica. An EWF chapter had opened there in 1938 and been almost immediately taken over by Rastafarians, in particular by the prominent Elders Joseph Hibbert and Archibald Dunkley. Both men were noted mystics and initiates of an all-Black "Coptic" Masonic lodge in Costa Rica some might therefore find it ironic that they more than anyone else would prove responsible for the arrival of Orthodoxy in Jamaica!

    Presumably because of the spread of the Ethiopian Church in Trinidad, Haile Selassie was invited to visit that country in 1966. Jamaica was then in the throws of an ongoing national social crisis in which Rastas were perceived by the establishment as a revo- lutionary threat which had to defused a team of social scientists had advised the government that one way to do this was to foster close ties with the real Ethiopia. Accordingly, the Emperor was invited to make a stop in Jamaica.

    On April 21 -- "Grounation Day" to Rastas ever since -- Haile Selassie arrived in Kingston. Contrary to the widely repeated claim that the Emperor was "amazed" or "bemused" upon "discovering" the existence of the Rastafarians (the greater number of whom by 1966 believed him to be God in essence), there is much evidence that Haile Selassie's whole purpose in visiting Jamaica was to meet the Rasta leadership. Greeted at the airport by thousands of dreads in white robes chanting "Hosanna to the Son of David", Haile Selassie granted an audience to a delegation of famous Elders, including Mortimo Planno and probably Joseph Hibbert. The precise details of this historic meeting cannot be reconstructed, and there exist countless variants in Jamaican oral tradition. Almost certainly, he urged them to become Orthodox and held out the possibility that Jamaican settlers could receive land-grants in South Ethiopia. Most traditional versions of the meeting specify that he also gave the Elders a secret message, very much in keeping with the Emperor's known policies on Third World development: "Build Jamaica first."

    In 1970, at Hibbert's invitation, Abba Laike Mandefro began to evangelize the Rastafarians in person. In the course of a year he baptized some 1200 dreads and laid the foundation for the church's subsequent growth. He also encountered fierce opposition from those Elders who taught that Haile Selassie was Jah in essence and demanded "baptism in Ras Tafari's name". In Montego Bay, only one dread accepted Orthodox baptism Laike Mandefro baptized him Ahadu -- "One Man".

    A major crisis struck the young church in 1971, when a public service marking the ninth anniversary of Jamaican independence was held in Kingston. Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox (Greek and Ethiopian) clergy all participated in the service. The Rastas were scandalized that Orthodox would pray with representatives of "false religions" hundreds of baptized members defected, and an entire parish was lost. Many of these persons no doubt joined the organized Rastafarian churches which were beginning to replace the traditional Elder system, and which soon incorporated widely varying degrees of Ethiopian Orthodox liturgical and theological influence.

    Besides the heretical syncretist groups, however, a legitimate Orthodox Rastafari Movement continued to flourish as the backbone of the Jamaican church. The EWF under the leadership of Dunkley and Hibbert had enormous prestige, being tied both to the roots of the movement in Garveyism and directly to Jamaica. The EWF retained the political and social aspects and the distinctive cultural features of classical Rastafari while advocating a rigorously correct and canonical Orthodoxy, venerating the Emperor as a holy living ikon of JAH but not worshiping him. The first steps toward Orthodox Jamaica were being taken -- albeit by people whose main secular goal was to leave the country as soon as possible!

    COMMENT FOR NON-ORTHODOX READERS.

    Orthodox theology distinguishes several levels of divinity. Only the Uncreated is "God-in-essence" humans can become "divine by participation" ikons are visible channels through which divine energy enters the world. The question which divides the "canonical" brethren from non-Orthodox groups is which of these levels of divinity applies to Emperor Haile Selassie. The Orthodox say he is divine by participation and ikonicity, and thus merits "douleia" ("veneration") the Tribes say he is divine in essence and merits "latreia" or absolute worship.

    This was also the time when reggae music was at the height of its popularity, and when explicitly religious lyrics were the norm within reggae. Many popular bands were Orthodox, notably The Abyssinians, a group with priestly and monastic connections. The family of reggae's "superstar", Bob Marley, were mostly Orthodox, although Marley himself was for most of his career a member of the Twelve Tribes sect. In his last years, dying young of cancer, Marley underwent a remarkable spiritual transformation (evident in his music also) culminating in his baptism his Orthodox funeral in 1981 was attended by tens of thousands of mourners.

    Haile Selassie was reported dead in 1975 (to the disbelief of many Rastas even today). The Ethiopian church, like many Orthodox churches under communist rule, endured terrible persecution which it survived partly by compromise with the persecutors. The Marxist regime in Addis Ababa was very unenthused that an emperor-venerating and/or worshiping cult was flourishing in a part of the world otherwise ripe for revolution.

    In addition, I have the impression that some of the increasingly numerous and often middle-class Ethiopian emigres in the West looked down on Rastafarians. The pious suspected their Orthodoxy (no doubt often rightly that many "Orthodox" Rastas continued to secretly harbor heretical views is quite likely) the staid resented association with an impoverished and reputedly criminal Black underclass. The latter consideration was especially strong in Britain, where all forms of Rastafari spread rapidly among the West Indian minority in the '70s. (It is important to add, however, that England's Ethiopian community also provided legal and other support for Rastas subjected to racist and police harassment during this period, especially in the Handsworth section of Birmingham.)

    For whatever reason, in 1976 all Orthodox Rastas were required to cut their locks and to make an elaborate formal repudiation of heretical emperor worship (latreia). Whatever its long-term wisdom, this decree forced people who were "growing into an overstanding" by the slow traditional process to make a sudden decision the cutting of locks, a purely external issue, seemed to many a repudiation of the movement's history.

    In spite of these not-inconsiderable conflicts, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church has spread through the Caribbean thanks to the Ras Tafari movement. While only a minority of Rastas have actually become Orthodox, nearly all have been influenced by Orthodoxy. The makwamya (the prayer stick used by Ethiopian clergy) is ubiquitous among dreads items of clerical garb are also frequently adopted. Rastafarian painters have been heavily influenced by ikonography. Syncretism is particularly evident in the organized sects which have partly supplanted the charismatic Elder system.

    THE TWELVE TRIBES OF ISRAEL (unrelated to the various Black Hebrew churches of the same name) are probably the largest and most famous of the sects. Founded in 1968 by Vernon Carrington (the Prophet Gad), the Tribes hold that Haile Selassie is Jesus Christ returned in majesty as King: the Second Coming has already happened. Their coherent theology and tight organization have won them many converts, including most of the famous reggae singers of the '70s. Something of the syncretistic feel of later Rastafari is conveyed by the cover art on the album "Zion Train" by Ras Michael (a brilliant hymnographer and one of the Ras Tafari Movement's more impressive living spokesmen). The painting shows two clerically-turbaned dreads before the open Royal Doors of an ikonostasis -- beyond which, however, is only a view of mountains against a red sky.

    "PRINCE" EDWARD EMMANUEL, founder of another prominent sect, was a famous Elder of the classical era, responsible for convening the first "Nyabinghi" or Rastafarian general synod in 1958. The Prince was already a controversial figure who claimed to be one of the Holy Trinity along with Haile Selassie and Marcus Garvey presumably, he hoped the Nyabinghi would recognize this claim (which it did not). Thereafter the Prince began transforming his large band of worshipers into an organized church, complete with dogma, liturgy, hierarchy, and a kind of monasticism. The group's priests, some of whom have actually been to Ethiopia, wear Orthodox vestments.

    THE ZION COPTIC CHURCH, a semi-moribund Garveyite Orthodox denomination, was revitalized by white hippie converts in the '60s despite its partly foreign leadership, it enjoyed explosive growth among Black Jamaicans disillusioned with the canonical church's approach. Although the "Coptics", as they are called, insist that they are a legitimate Orthodox jurisdiction and even publish tracts on such theological issues as the _mia physis_ and the Council of Chalcedon, they also engage in some very questionable speculations verging on Gnosticism. To their credit, they have gone much further than the canonical church in incorporating the best of classical Rastafrian culture into church life, and their retention of dreadlocks, nyabinghi drumming, etc. has helped them gain many converts. This success is reflected in their great material wealth, for which they have been criticized (they are supposedly among the largest landholders in Jamaica). One aspect of their "reverse syncretism" has caused much controversy, as well as a landmark church-state case which landed the Coptics' leadership in prison: their gnosticizing theories are used to justify ritual consumption of marijuana.

    Contrary to popular belief, pious Rastas do not smoke marijuana recreationally, and some (the canonical Ethiopian Orthodox and also the followers of certain classical Elders) do not use it at all. Most Rastafarian teachers, however, have advocated the controlled ritual smoking of "wisdomweed" both privately as an aid to meditation and communally from "chalice" pipes as an "incense pleasing to the Lord". The argument is that ganja is the "green herb" of the King James Bible and that its use is a kind of shortcut version of traditional ascetical practice. The Ethiopian Church, of course, strongly discourages this: Orthodox monks have learned over centuries of experience that such shortcuts are at best dangerous and at worst soul-destroying. The issue, however, has been much sensationalized by the press, in keeping with the racist stereotyping of Rastas as stoned criminals.

    I believe that the Rastafarians have been greatly underestimated by the outside world, including, to some extent, many elements in the Orthodox community. The classical Rastas were sophisticated theological and philosophical thinkers, not cargo-cultists worshiping newspaper photos of an African despot. They had discovered many sophisticated theological concepts for themselves, and had retraced many of the Christological and other debates of the early Church. They brought a truly rich cultural and artistic legacy, including some of the twentieth century's most moving hymnography.

    While Abuna Yesehaq, at least, certainly seems to recognize this, in practise Rastas often seem to be told by the church that they must become Ethiopians in order to become Orthodox. Many are willing to do this, so great is their thirst for Truth and so acute their sense of having lost their true African culture. More, however, are not--and in a way rightly so. The Church is the poorer to the extent it does not incorporate what is good about the Rasta experience and instead tiresomely emphasizes the "heresy of emperor-worship" and "herbal sorcery". What is forgotten is that the existence of the Rastafari movement is a miracle: a forgotten people and a lost culture bringing itself by "reasonings" to the very edge of Orthodoxy. Surely this is a supernatural event, and so the Orthodox Rastas see it. An anonymous nyabingi chant goes:

    Michael going to bring them, bring them to the Orthodox Church.
    No matter what they do, no matter what they say.
    Gabriel going to bring them, bring them to the Orthodox Church.
    Raphael going to bring them, Uriel going to bring them,
    Sorial going to bring them, Raguel going to bring them,
    Fanuel going to bring them, bring them to the Orthodox Church.

    I will conclude with a song by Berhane Selassie (Bob Marley), written around the time he was converting to Orthodoxy from the Twelve Tribes and summing up the whole Orthodox Rasta "seen":

    Old pirates, yes, they rob I
    Sold I to the merchant ships,
    Minutes after they took I
    From the bottomless pit.
    But my hand was made strong
    By the hand of the Almighty.
    We followed in this generation, triumphantly.
    Won't you help to sing these songs of freedom?
    Cause all I ever have: redemption songs,
    These songs of freedom.

    This was the last song on the last album Marley released before his death.


    Rastafarian Customs and Worship

    Rastafarians do not have a specific or designated building for worship. However, you will find that they meet weekly whether at the home of a believer or at a community centre.

    Some call these meetings “reasoning sessions”. These sessions include, chanting, prayers, singing and discussions.  Marijuana (often referred to as the holy herb or wisdom weed) is also smoked for an elevated spiritual experience.

    This is usually placed in a Cutchie (chillum pipe) and passed around in a left direction.  The music played at these meetings are called Nyabingi and whenever there is mostly music involved, the meetings are called Nyabingi meetings.

    • Most Rastafarians can often be recognized by the long dreadlocks hair style that they wear.  The view this as spiritual and justify it with the bible verse Leviticus 21:5 (They shall not make baldness upon their head).
    • Whenever there is a newborn into the Rastafarian culture, the child is blessed by elders during a Nyabingi session.
    • You might be accustomed to traditional marriages where there is a wedding ceremony and reception.  This is not the case in the Rastafarian Jamaican culture. A man just takes a woman and call her his “queen” or “empress”.  There is no formal structure and they are considered man and wife as long as they are living together.  In instances where a marriage may take place, it is not considered as religious occasion but more of a social event.
    • Whenever a Rastafarian dies, there is no traditional funeral service as you would normally see for regular persons.  They believe in re-incarnation after death and that life continues perpetually.

    New! Watch Video Of Rastas In The Hills Of Jamaica (below)


    The Rastafari Way Of Life

    Rastafari combine their religious use of cannabis with high moral values that do not conform to societal pressures such as sensual pleasures, oppression, and materialism (also referred to as Babylon). Rastafari acclaims Zion which they believe to be Ethiopia which is the ancestral place where humanity was first born and also the Promised Land and Heaven on Earth.

    Some Rastafari do not ascribe to any denomination or religious sect thus advocating for one to find faith and motivation to live a righteous life within themselves. Other Rastafari such as the Twelve Tribes of Israel, Nyahbhingi, and Bobo Shanti firmly believe in the Mansions of Rastafari while some accommodate some Pan-African and Afrocentric social and political ambitions.


    The African Diaspora, Ethiopianism, and Rastafari

    D iasporas invariably leave a trail of collective memory about other times and places. But while most displaced peoples frame these attachments with the aid of living memory and the continuity of cultural traditions, the memories of those in the African diaspora have been refracted through the prism of history to create new maps of desire and attachment. Historically, black peoples in the New World have traced memories of an African homeland through the trauma of slavery and through ideologies of struggle and resistance.

    Ethiopianism and the Ideology of Nationhood

    Arguably the most poignant of these discursive topographies is that of the Rastafari faith and culture. Like the Garvey Movement and other forms of pan-Africanism before it, the Rastafari fashion their vision of an ancestral homeland through a complex of ideas and symbols known as Ethiopianism, an ideology which has informed African-American concepts of nationhood, independence, and political uplift since the late 16th century. Derived from references in the Holy Bible to black people as 'Ethiopians', this discourse has been used to express the political, cultural, and spiritual aspirations of blacks in the Caribbean and North America for over three centuries. From the last quarter of the 18th century to the present, Ethiopianism has, at various times, provided the basis for a common sense of destiny and identification between African peoples in the North American colonies, the Caribbean, Europe, and the African continent.

    While the present-day Rastafari Movement is undoubtedly the most conspicuous source of contemporary Ethiopianist identifications, the culture of Jah People obscures the wider historical range and scope of Ethiopianist ideas and identifications among African peoples in the Diaspora and on the continent. Names like Phyllis Wheatley, Bishop Richard Allen, Prince Hall, Denmark Vesey, Martin Delany, Casley Hayford, Frederick Douglass, Bishop Henry McNeil Turner, Albert Thorne, and Marcus Garvey all drew upon the powerful identification of this discourse to spread a message of secular and spiritual liberation of black peoples on the African continent and abroad. More so than any of his predecessors or contemporaries, however, it was Marcus Garvey--a Jamaican of proud Maroon heritage--who championed the cry of "Africa for the Africans, at home and abroad" and encouraged his followers in the biblical view that "every nation must come to rest beneath their own vine and fig tree."

    From the period prior to the American Revolutionary War, slaves in North America equated Ethiopia with the ancient empires that flourished in the upper parts of the Nile Valley and--largely through biblical references and sermons--perceived this territory as central to the salvation of the black race. black converts to Christianity in colonial America cherished references to Ethiopia in the Bible for a number of reasons. These references depicted Blacks in a dignified and human light and held forth the promise of freedom. Such passages also suggested that African peoples had a proud and deep cultural heritage that pre-dated European civilization. The summation of these sentiments was most frequently identified with Psalm 68:31 where it is prophesied that "Princes shall come out of Egypt and Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God." During the late 18th century, black churchmen in the North American colonies made extensive use of Ethiopianist discourse in their sermons. Bishop Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, was among those who identified the cause of African freedom with this prophecy in Psalms. During the Revolutionary War, it is reputed that one black regiment proudly wore the appellation of "Allen's Ethiopians." Phyllis Wheatley, the black poet-laureate of colonial America, also made frequent use of this discourse as did Prince Hall, a black Revolutionary War veteran and founder of the African Masonic Lodge. Commenting upon the successful slave insurrection in Haiti (1792-1800), Hall observed: "Thus doth Ethiopia begin to stretch forth her hand, from the sink of slavery, to freedom and equality." There was, in nearly all expressions of Ethiopianism, a belief in the redemption of the race linked to the coming of a black messiah. Perhaps the first expressed articulation of this idea is seen in The Ethiopian Manifesto published by Robert Alexander Young, a slave preacher in North America in 1829.

    In large part because of the movement of peoples spurred in its aftermath, the American Revolutionary War provided a major impetus for the spread of Ethiopianism from Britain's North American to its Caribbean colonies. As British loyalists departed from North America for places like Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados, the churched slaves and former slaves who traveled with them transplanted Ethiopianism to these plantation societies and inaugurated an independent black religious tradition. In Jamaica, George Liele, a former slave and churchman from Savannah, Georgia, founded the first Ethiopian Baptist church in 1783. Liele called his followers "Ethiopian Baptists." Thus began a deep rooted tradition of Ethiopian identification in Jamaica, the birthplace of both Marcus Garvey's United Negro Improvement Association (founded in 1914) and the Rastafari movement (born in 1930).

    Ethiopianism and its associated ideology of racial uplift also spread to the African continent. By the 1880 and 1890s, "Ethiopianist" churches, an independent black church movement, spread throughout Southern and Central Africa. During the same period, African-American churchmen missionized actively on the continent and, through the efforts of figures like Bishop Henry McNeil Turner, Ethiopianism served as an ideology which linked African-American brethren with their African brothers and sisters. During this same period, largely due to the sovereignty of Ethiopia amidst European colonialism on the continent, African Americans fixed greater attention on the ancient Empire of Ethiopia itself, thinking of Ethiopia as a black Zion . In 1896, the defeat of invading Italian forces by Menelik II in the Battle of Adwa served to bolster the mythic status and redemptive symbolism of Ethiopia in the eyes of Africans at home and abroad.

    Ethiopia and Modern Pan-Africanism

    By focusing attention on events on the continent, the Battle of Adwa served as a catalyst for a modern pan-African movement led by men like Casley Hayford of the Gold Coast, Albert Thorne of Barbados, and Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey. Garvey founded the largest mass black movement in history, starting in Jamaica and spreading his message to the rest of the Caribbean, Central and North America. Inspiring blacks through the African world with a vision of racial uplift, Garvey made conspicuous use of 18th century biblical Ethiopianism in his speeches and writings. For Garvey, it was "Every nation to their own vine and fig tree," a theme which continues to resonate in the contemporary Rastafari Movement. Garvey, like other pan-Africanists of his generation, saw the liberation of the African continent from colonialism as inseparable from the uplift of black peoples everywhere. In the 1920s, his movement reached from Harlem to New Orleans, from London to Cape Town, Lagos to Havana, and from Kingston to Panama. During this same decade, Garveyism and its associated rituals of black nationhood became a vibrant and essential element of the Harlem Renaissance.

    Many scholars argue that Ethiopianism peaked during the early 1930s prior to and during the second Italian invasion of Ethiopia. Certainly the single event in this century which resonated with the multiple cultural, political, and religious dimensions of Ethiopianism was the coronation of Ras Tafari Makonnen , the then Prince Regent of Ethiopia. In November of 1930, the biblical enthronement of Ras Tafari as His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I, King of Kings, Lord of Lords, and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, became an internationally publicized event which was unique in the African world. The news of a black regent claiming descent through the biblical lineage of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, stirred the imaginations of an entire generation of African Americans and refocused attention upon ancient Ethiopia. The second Italian invasion of Ethiopia in October of 1935 produced an enormous wave of pro-Ethiopianist sentiments among blacks across the African continent as well as in the Caribbean, Europe, and the United States. Particularly to blacks in the diaspora the invasion was seen as an attack on the dominant symbol of African pride and cultural sovereignty. In Harlem, thousands of African Americans marched and signed petitions asking the U.S. government to allow them to fight on behalf of the Ethiopian cause. In Trinidad, this crisis in the black world coincided with the emergence of calypso and a fledgling Caribbean music industry. Calypsos which described the crisis from a black perspective were carried by West Indian seamen from port to port throughout the black world. Music--always an integral part of African and African American culture--served to crystallize shared sentiments of racial pride in support of the Ethiopian cause.

    The Rastafari Vision and Culture

    It is in the Rastafari movement, with its origins in Jamaica, that Ethiopianism has been most consistently elaborated for nearly seven decades. The biblical enthronement of Ras Tafari Makonnen in 1930 as His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie I, King of King, Lord of Lords, and Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah was an event widely reported throughout the European and colonial world. It was the ensuing interpretation of the Solomonic symbols by which Ras Tafari took possession of a kingdom with an ancient biblical lineage which transformed Ethiopia into an African Zion for the nascent Rasta movement. The independence of Ethiopia as one of only two sovereign nations on the African continent ensured Selassie's placement at the symbolic center of the African world throughout the colonial and much of the post-colonial period. Indicative of this is the fact that the Organization of African Unity (founded in 1963), is headquartered in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. To this day, it is the biblical imagery associated with the theocratic kingdom of Ethiopia which fuels a Rastafari vision of nationhood and underlies their deification of Emperor Haile Selassie.

    Today, it is probably fair to say that when most people hear the word "Rastafari" they think of Bob Marley, the "king of reggae." Through his inspirational music, Marley did more to popularize and spread the Rasta message worldwide than any other single individual. But neither Marley or reggae represents the roots of the Rastafari experience. Reggae, as a music of populist black protest and experience which has had a formative experience upon Jamaican nationalism, emerged in Jamaica only during the early 1970s. For at least three decades previous to this, Rastafari in Jamaica were evolving an African-oriented culture based on their spiritual vision of repatriation to the African homeland.

    The "Roots" or Elders of the movement have built upon earlier sources of African cultural pride, identification, and resistance such as those embodied by Jamaica's Maroons --runaway slaves who formed independent communities within the island's interior during the 17th century. Rastafari, in fact, must be seen as a religion and movement shaped by the African Diaspora and an explicit consciousness that black people are African 'exiles" outside their ancestral homeland. As one Rasta Elder stated, "Rastafari is a conception that was born at the moment that Europeans took the first black man out of Africa. They didn't know it then, but they were taking the first Rasta from his homeland."

    From the early 1930s, Rastafari in Jamaica have developed a culture based on an Afrocentric reading of the Bible, on communal values, a strict vegetarian dietary code known as Ital, a distinctive dialect, and a ritual calendar devoted to, among other dates, the celebration of various Ethiopian holy days. Perhaps the most familiar feature of Rastafari culture is the growing and wearing of dreadlocks , uncombed and uncut hair which is allowed to knot and mat into distinctive locks. Rastafari regard the locks as both a sign of their African identity and a religious vow of their separation from the wider society they regard as Babylon . In the island of its birth, Rasta culture has also drawn upon distinctive African-Jamaican folk traditions which includes the development of a drumming style known as Nyabinghi . This term is similarly applied to the island-wide gatherings in which Rastafari brethren and sistren celebrate the important dates on an annual calendar.

    With the advent of reggae, this deeper "roots culture" has spread throughout the Caribbean, to North American and European metropolis such as London, New York, Amsterdam, Toronto, and Washington, D.C., as well as to the African continent itself. This more recent growth and spread of the movement has resulted from a variety of factors. These include the migration of West Indians (e.g., Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Antiguans) to North America and Europe in search of employment, the travel of reggae musicians, and the more recent travel of traditional Rastafari Elders outside Jamaica. At the same time, many African American and West Indian individuals who have become Rastafari outside Jamaica now make "pilgrimages" to Jamaica to attend the island-wide religious ceremonies known as Nyabinghi and to seek out the deeper "roots culture" of the movement. Despite the fact that Rastafari continue to be widely misunderstood and stigmatized outside Jamaica, the movement embraces a non-violent ethic of "peace and love" and pursues a disciplined code of religious principles.

    Since 1992 and the 100th anniversary of Haile Selassie's birth, the Rastafari settlement in Shashamane, Ethiopia (part of a land grant given to the black peoples of the West by Emperor Haile Selassie in 1955) has come to serve as a growing focal point for the movement's identification with Africa.


    Poglej si posnetek: 2Ret - Rastafari


Komentarji:

  1. Garwig

    rubbish by God))))) the beginning looked at more was not enough))))

  2. Majdy

    Čestitam, kakšne besede ..., občudovanja vredna misel

  3. Wilson

    This any urbanization

  4. Cuuladh

    Po mojem mnenju nimate prav. Prepričan sem. Pišite mi v PM, komunicirali bomo.

  5. Aleron

    Zaenkrat tako dobro.

  6. Tanjiro

    Popolnoma se strinjam s tabo, do tega mnenja sem prišel že zdavnaj.



Napišite sporočilo