Koliko je znanega o sendviču Earl of Sandwich?

Koliko je znanega o sendviču Earl of Sandwich?


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Glede na članek Wikipedije o sendviču je bila hrana poimenovana po grofu Sandwichu. Koliko podrobnosti obstaja o njegovem prvem sendviču? Ali obstaja dovolj podrobnosti za natančno poustvarjanje?


Rečeno je, da je bil četrti grof od sendviča, John Montagu, izumitelj sendviča. Bil je tudi podpornik kapitana Jamesa Cooka kot prvega gospoda Admiralitete, ki je odobril sredstva za Cookovo drugo in tretjo odpravo v Pacifik. V zameno je kapitan Cook po njem poimenoval Sandwich Islands (Hawaii).

Zgodba pravi, da je The Earl igral poker in je hotel jesti meso, ne da bi zapustil poker mizo. Zato je prosil svoje služabnike, naj meso položijo med dve rezini kruha. Ideja za poker mizo morda ni povsem točna. Morda so si ga izmislili ljudje, ki mu niso bili prijatelji, ali pa tudi ne. Druga zgodba pravi, da je morda delal in ni hotel zapustiti svoje mize.

Mnogi članki, ki sem jih prebral, preprosto pravijo, da je med kruh postavil "meso". Vendar pa ta članek pravi, da je bila soljena govedina (goveje meso), ki se ujema z dobo. Sol je bila uporabljena kot konzervans.

Upam, da to pomaga.

http://www.npr.org/blogs/waitwait/2010/11/29/131670129/sandwich-monday-the-sandwich-that-may-or-may-not-have-started-it-all


John Montagu, četrti grof od sendviča

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

John Montagu, četrti grof od sendviča, v celoti John Montagu, četrti grof od sendviča, vikont Hinchingbrooke, baron Montagu iz Saint Neotsa, (rojen 13. novembra 1718 - umrl 30. aprila 1792, London, Anglija), prvi britanski gospodar Admiralitete med ameriško revolucijo (1776–81) in človek, po katerem je bil sendvič poimenovan.

Ko je nasledil svojega dedka, Edwarda Montaguja, tretjega grofa, leta 1729, je študiral na Eton in Trinity College v Cambridgeu, odpotoval v tujino, nato pa je leta 1739 zasedel svoj sedež v Domu lordov. ) in državni sekretar za severni oddelek (1763–65, 1770–71). V tej vlogi je sodeloval pri pregonu (1763) Johna Wilkesa, britanskega politika in agitatorja, katerega prijatelj je bil nekoč, s čimer si je prislužil trezvenost »Jemmyja Twitcherja«, po zahrbtnem liku v filmu John Gay Beraška opera. Bil je tudi prvi gospodar Admiralitete (1748–51, 1771–82). V zadnjem obdobju so mu kritiki očitali, da je pisarno uporabljal za pridobivanje podkupnine in distribucijo političnih delovnih mest. Čeprav so ga pogosto napadali zaradi korupcije, so bile njegove upravne sposobnosti priznane. Vendar je med ameriško revolucijo vztrajal, da bi večji del britanske flote obdržal v evropskih vodah zaradi možnosti francoskega napada, zato je bil podvržen precejšnjim kritikam zaradi nezadostne pomorske pripravljenosti.

Njegovo zanimanje za pomorske zadeve in spodbujanje raziskovanja sta angleškega raziskovalca kapetana Jamesa Cooka leta 1778 poimenovala Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). Potovanje okoli Sredozemlja je izšel leta 1799. V svojem zasebnem življenju je bil Sandwich razsipni igralec na srečo in grablje. Po njem je bil imenovan sendvič, o katerem se izvorno ime veže na poseben incident leta 1762, v katerem je Sandwich (po poročanju v francoski potovalni knjigi) 24 ur preživel za igralno mizo brez druge hrane biti apokrif.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje popravil in posodobil Jeff Wallenfeldt, direktor geografije in zgodovine.


Zanimiva zgodovina banh mi

Na prvi pogled bi lahko ulico ob ulici Cao Thang v mestu Ho Chi Minh (Saigon) zamenjali z neštetimi drugimi po tem osemmilijonskem mestu. Motocikli se vozijo mimo trgovin z rabljenimi mobilnimi telefoni, športnimi nahrbtniki in šamponi. Služi en ulični prodajalec bun thit nuong (riževi rezanci s svinjino na žaru), drugi –, ki se vozi s trikolesnim motorjem –, pa osvežuje veselje kem dua (kokosov sladoled) na vroč dan.

Razlika je v tem, da je to zasedeno malo ulico Saigon posvečeno za ljubitelje sendvičev. To je zato, ker je počepna bledo breskev z rjavo pločevinasto streho in zbledelim znakom rojstni kraj sendviča, ki je prevzel svet: banh mi. In če pojeste eno tukaj, pri ničli, pride presenečenje.

Toda najprej, kaj je banh mi?

Noben sendvič se res ne more primerjati. To je čista fuzijska hrana, kjer se vsak zalogaj kompleksnih sestavin luskaste baguete, vložene zelenjave, začimb, zelišč in mesa na žaru podvoji kot pouk v zgodovini in filozofiji te dežele.

V času francoskega kolonialnega obdobja od leta 1887 do 1954 je Vietnam izvedel za veliko novih stvari: kavo, krščanstvo, rimsko abecedo, prikupne vile, ogromne zapore v evropskem slogu in hrustljave bagete. Sprva so bili ti hlebčki napolnjeni z najdražjim mesom, postali so izključno bogati sendviči, znani kot banh tay ali "zahodni kruh. ”

Vietnamski banh mi sendvič & mdash Fotografija avtorja Getty Images / rudisill

Potem so se leta 1954, po francoskem porazu pri Dien Bien Phu, vietnamski proizvajalci sendvičev preusmerili v jin-jang. To si vietnamski kuharji vedno prizadevajo: uravnotežiti "vroče" in "hladne" sestavine, da se gostje ob koncu počutijo srečne in zdrave. (Domačini vam bodo povedali, če se odločite za ekskluzivno uživanje recimo mangov in#x2013 redkega "vročega" sadja – se pripravite na neprijeten kašelj.)

Uživanje lokalnega banh mi kaže, kako to deluje.

Začne se z luskastimi ovojnicami iz pšeničnega kruha (mi pomeni pšenica). Nato se poglobi v začimbe čilija, bogastvo ocvrtega ali pečenega svinjinskega mesa, slano tango omake Maggi (fermentirane pšenične beljakovine, ki so jo prinesli Francozi), mehčajočo majonezo in koriander ter tisti značilen drobtine vloženih kumar, redkvice ali korenja . Pisatelj Andrew Lam je vsak okus skrbno povzel kot "trenutek zanosa". Amen.

Verjeli so, da banh mi prihaja iz Hoa Ma, okrožja 3, odprtega od leta 1958, na tej lokaciji pa od leta 1960. Njegovi ustvarjalci so bili severni pari, ki so se po letu 1954 priselili v Saigon in svojo trgovino poimenovali po vasi zunaj Hanoja. Cilj je bil ustvariti hrano za hrano s svežimi sestavinami in za razliko od francoske prequel, ki se prodaja po ugodnejši ceni.

Ta bahn mi spot je še vedno odprt in ga vodi ista družina, pravzaprav vnukinja Thanh Truc vsako jed sestavi spredaj.

Vsako jutro osebje odpelje večerje do ene od 15 zunanjih aluminijastih miz. Dvojezični meni opisuje dva elementa: sendvič iz različnih svinjin in mesa z dvema ocvrtima jajcema ali brez njih. Kar sledi, je malo presenetljivo.

Najprej pride kruh, dostavljen sam na zelenem krožniku, skupaj s strežnikom p ât é, prevlečenim z majonezo, in drugi z vloženo zelenjavo. Kmalu sledi vroči krožnik beljakovin – dve jajci z zlatimi jarmi, na trikotnike narezan tofu na žaru, ocvrta svinjina, narezana klobasa in čebula na žaru.

Številni lokalni gostje, z motorji, parkiranimi ob mizi, dajo svoj krožnik v omako Maggi ali čili, nato pa jedo z vilicami, izmenično z grižljaji kruha, ki so jih razstavili ročno. Drugi nadevajo sestavine v mini sendviče, ki jih gradijo med hojo.

To ni vsakodnevno doživetje v Vietnamu ali kje drugje v resnici. Večino sendvičev tukaj postrežejo ulični prodajalci, ki vse sestavijo v nekoliko skrivnost. Tukaj je bolj podoben banh mi kompletu. Vse je na prostem. In vam pomaga videti kompleksnost banh mi v vsem njenem okusnem sijaju.

Mogoče je, da nekaterim ljubiteljem sendvičev, ki vroče razpravljajo o tem, kaj je in kaj ni "sendvič" v družabnih medijih, morda ne bi bilo prijetno s to metodologijo DIY. Iskreno povedano, Hoa Ma je ​​preveč zaposlen, da bi se veliko sekiral o tem, kaj je "sendvič", vendar zagotovo vedo, kaj je banh mi.

In svet je opazil.

Hoa Ma (53 Cao Thang St, 3. okrožje) je odprt vsak dan od 6. do 11. ure. Sendviči z jajci stanejo približno 2 USD, brez njih pa približno 1,50 USD. Postrežejo tudi z vodo in kavo.


Sendvič

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Sendvič, v svoji osnovni obliki, rezine mesa, sira ali druge hrane, postavljene med dve rezini kruha. Čeprav mora biti ta način uživanja star toliko kot meso in kruh, je bilo ime sprejeto šele v 18. stoletju za Johna Montaguja, četrtega grofa Sandwicha. Po pogosto citiranem poročilu iz sodobne francoske potopisne knjige je Sandwich nekoč pri igralni mizi prinesel narezano meso in kruh, da se je lahko še naprej igral, ko je jedel, vendar se zdi bolj verjetno, da je pojedel. te sendviče, ko je delal za svojo mizo, ali pa se jih je svet zavedel, ko jih je zahteval v londonski družbi. Njegov naslov je posodil priročnik in kmalu je postalo modno streči sendviče na evropski celini, beseda pa je bila vključena v francoski jezik. Od takrat je bil sendvič vključen v skoraj vsako zahodno kuhinjo zaradi svoje preprostosti priprave, prenosljivosti in neskončne raznolikosti.

V sendvič, vroč ali hladen, lahko gredo vse vrste žemljic ali kruha in vse vrste hrane, ki jo je priročno jesti. Britanski čajni sendviči so narejeni iz tanko narezanega kruha, napolnjenega z ribjo pasto, kumarami, krešnjo ali paradižnikom. Skandinavski smørrebrød strežejo odprtega obraza, z umetelno sestavljenimi prelivi iz rib, narezanega mesa in solat. V Franciji so votli zvitki priljubljena podlaga. Združene države so prispevale izdelane sendvič formule, dve najuspešnejši sta klubski sendvič narezanega piščanca ali purana, slanine, zelene solate in paradižnika ter sendvič Reuben iz govejega mesa, švicarskega sira, kislega zelja in ruskega preliva na žaru na črni kruh. Vroči sendviči, zlasti vseprisotni hamburger na žemlji, so sestavni del ameriške prehrane, sendvič z arašidovim maslom in želejem pa je oslonac ameriškega šolarja.


Grof sendvič je pravi fant. Tukaj je vse, kar morate vedeti.

Grof Sandwich zveni kot mitska osebnost iz britanske folklore, v resnici pa je zelo resnična oseba. John Montagu, ki ima trenutno naslov, je 11. grof od sendviča in služi v Domu lordov.

Za začetek meseca epskih sendvičev HuffPosta smo intervjuvali Montaguja, ki je odgovoril na uradni naslov - brez šale - lorda Sandwicha.

Montagu je HuffPostu povedal o svojih upanjih in sanjah o sendvičih z ribami, resničnih občutkih do majoneze in prepričanju, da je treba polovice sendvičev vedno razrezati na trikotnike. Najprej pa se poglobimo v zgodovino njegovega zavidanja vrednega naslova.

Montagu je neposredni potomec Johna Montaguja, četrtega grofa sendviča, ki je pogosto pripisan izumitelju sendviča. Čeprav si ga morda ni izmislil, je bil sendvič po njem poimenovan po posebej lenem trenutku iznajdljivosti:

Po legendi je četrti grof užival v igrah na srečo in sredi posebej vročega raztežaja pri mizi s kartami leta 1762 ni pojedel nič drugega kot kos pečenke med dvema rezinama opečenega kruha, ker ga je lahko držal v eni roki, kar mu omogoča, da nadaljuje z igranjem, ne da bi se ustavil za obrok.

Različne izvedbe te zgodbe so pri grofu izrecno zahtevale goveje meso med dvema rezinama kruha ali pa samo zahteval nekaj, kar bi lahko pojedel, ne da bi mu bilo treba zapustiti mizo s kartami, zaradi česar je bil hišni kuhar ustvarjalen. Nekateri navajajo, da je bil odvisnik od iger na srečo, medtem ko je vsaj en biograf trdil, da ni igral na srečo, ampak je trdo delal za svojo mizo in si ni želel vzeti odmora za obroke.

Ne glede na to, zgodovinarji vedo, da je bil njegov naslov, Earl of Sandwich, povezan z živilskim izrazom "sendvič", ki je takrat v Angliji postal moden.

Leta 1762 je avtor in zgodovinar Edward Gibbon v svojem dnevniku zapisal, da je opazil: »Dvajset ali trideset, morda prvih ljudi v kraljestvu, v modi in bogastvu, ki so se sredi majhnih mizic prekrivali s prtičkom kavarne, na košček hladnega mesa ali sendviča in s kozarcem punča. "

Sedanji grof Sandwich priznava, da so ljudje v Angliji in širše zagotovo jedli sendviče že dolgo, preden so jih kdaj imenovali sendviči. Prav tako ne misli nujno, da je bil njegov prednik odvisnik od iger na srečo, kot kažejo nekatere različice zgodbe.

V pogovoru za HuffPost z družinskega posestva v Mappertonu je Montagu opisal portret četrtega grofa od sendviča, ki visi v hiši.

"Mislim, da je bilo glede na njegovo obleko gospoda iz tega obdobja težje ravnati tako kot mi, ker je bilo težko biti neuraden," je dejal. "Življenje je bilo zelo organizirano in tudi če bi le sedel za majhno mizo v svojem londonskem klubu, bi še vedno nosil različne kostume in bi imel ročaj papirja, kot je na tem portretu."

V tem smislu je bilo uživanje kosa mesa med dvema rezinama kruha enostavnost in udobje sredi formalnosti vsakdanjega življenja za grofa.

»Prepričan sem, da je bilo njegovo delovno življenje zelo aktivno. Seveda pa je vsak plemič tistega obdobja znal igrati karte in verjetno igral na srečo in ni bil izjema. Užival je v družbi drugih ljudi, «je nadaljeval Montagu. »Torej bi verjetno pozno zvečer pojedel nekaj teh [sendvičev]. Mislim pa, da je bila to takratna manjšina. "

V zadnjih nekaj desetletjih je zgodovinska kulinarična povezava Montaguja postala vir družinskega dohodka. Leta 2004 je sodeloval z mlajšim sinom Orlandom in ustanoviteljem Planet Hollywood Robertom Earlom, da bi ustanovil Earl of Sandwich, verigo restavracij s hitrimi sendviči.

Veriga ima več kot 30 lokacij v ZDA in eno v pariškem Disneylandu. Ponujajo sendviče, kot so "The Original 1762", "The Earl's Club" in "The Full Montagu".

Čeprav Montagu hitro poudarja, da ni kuhar, ima nekaj mnenj o soimenski hrani svoje družine. Pomikajte se, če želite več njegovih misli o sendvičih.

Kateri je vaš najljubši sendvič?

»Raje uživam v tradicionalnem sendviču, pečenki in solati, kot je kreša, vendar ne v enem od teh velikih ameriških sendvičev. Te mi niso všeč, "je povedal za HuffPost in dodal, da uživa tudi v klasičnem francoskem krokovskem monsieurju in ima običajno raje svoje sendviče na" polnozrnatem kruhu ".

So sendviči vaša najljubša hrana?

»V času kosila so, ker ob kosilu zelo redko jem. Sem kot veliko drugih ljudi, ki morajo samo še naprej preživeti kosilo. V tem trenutku sedim in razmišljam, da bi res moral iti narediti kosilo. Nisem pa navdušen nad pripravo sendviča. Sem malo len. Moj najljubši bi bil ob kosilu z najmanj težavami. "


Naša zavezanost kakovosti

Približno 250 let po izumu sendviča so restavracije Earl of Sandwich® to idejo sprejele in jo oblikovale v sveže pečen sendvič po naročilu, kakršen še ni bil. Naš meni se pokloni umetnosti sendviča. Od imenskih imen, kot sta The Original 1762® in The Full Montagu, do svežih solat, verjamemo, da v vsem, kar postrežemo, uporabljamo najkakovostnejše sestavine. Verjamemo, da so sendviči več kot priročna hrana, zato jih je treba skrbno pripraviti in v njih uživati.


Vsebina

Splošni vrstni red med grofi je:

Številka Naslov Datum nastanka Roke Trenutni nosilec Opombe
1. Grof Shrewsbury (1442) Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22. grof od Shrewsburyja Tudi Earl Talbot (GB 1784) in Earl of Waterford (Ire 1446)
2. Grof od Derbija (1485) Edward Stanley, 19. grof od Derbija
3. Grof od Huntingdona (1529) William Hastings-Bass, 17. grof od Huntingdona
4. Grof Pembroke (1551) William Herbert, 18. grof od Pembroka Tudi grof Montgomery (E 1605) - glej spodaj
5. Grof Devon (1553) Charles Courtenay, 19. grof Devon
6. Grof Lincoln (1572) Robert Fiennes-Clinton, 19. grof od Lincolna
7. Grof Suffolk (1603) Michael Howard, 21. grof Suffolk Tudi grof Berkshire (E 1626) - glej spodaj
Grof Montgomery (1605) William Herbert, 15. grof Montgomery Tudi Earl of Pembroke (E 1551) - glej zgoraj
8. Grof Denbigh (1622) Alexander Feilding, 12. grof od Denbigha Tudi grof od Desmonda (Ire 1628)
9. Grof Westmorland (1624) Anthony Fane, 16. grof Westmorlanda
Grof Berkshire (1626) Michael Howard, 14. grof Berkshire Tudi Earl of Suffolk (E 1603) - glej zgoraj
10. Grof Lindsey (1626) Richard Bertie, 14. grof Lindsey Tudi grof Abingdon (E 1682) - glej spodaj
11. Grof Winchilsea (1628) Daniel Finch-Hatton, 17. grof Winchilsea Tudi grof od Nottinghama (E 1681) - glej spodaj
12. Grof od sendviča (1660) John Montagu, 11. grof od sendviča
13. Grof Essex (1661) Paul Capell, 11. grof Essex
14. Grof Carlisle (1661) George Howard, 13. grof od Carlisla
15. Grof Shaftesbury (1672) Nicholas Ashley-Cooper, 12. grof iz Shaftesburyja
Grof od Nottinghama (1681) Daniel James Hatfield Finch-Hatton, 12. grof od Nottinghama Tudi grof Winchilsea (1628) - glej zgoraj
Grof Abingdon (1682) Richard Henry Rupert Bertie, 9. grof od Abingdona Tudi grof Lindsey (1626) - glej zgoraj
16. Grof Portland (1689) Timothy Bentinck, 12. grof Portland
17. Grof od Scarbrougha (1690) Richard Lumley, 13. grof od Scarbrougha
18. Grof Albemarle (1697) Rufus Keppel, deseti grof Albemarle
19. Grof Coventry (1697) George Coventry, 13. grof od Coventryja
20. Grof Jersey (1697) William Child-Villiers, deseti grof Jersey

Kot je razvidno iz zgornjega seznama, se držijo moški, ki so: (1) grof Pembroke in Montgomery, (2) grof Suffolk in Berkshire, (3) grof Lindsey in Abingdon ter (4) sta grofa Winchilsea in Nottingham dva grofa v lovstvu Anglije. Obstaja torej 24 takih grofov, katerih imetnik nima višjega perja.

Opomba: Prednost starejših škotskih grofov je določena z Dekretom o uvrstitvi iz leta 1606 in ne glede na starost.

Številka Naslov Datum nastanka Roke Trenutni nosilec Maščevanje Opombe
1. Grof Crawford (1398) Robert Lindsay, 29. grof od Crawforda [Opombe 1] [1] Škotska Tudi grof Balcarres (1651)
2. Grof Erroll (1453) Merlin Hay, 24. grof Erroll Škotska
3. Grof Sutherland (1230 ali 1275 ali 1347) Alastair Sutherland, 25. grof Sutherland Škotska
4. Marina grofica (1114 ali 1457) Margareta Mar, 31. grofica Mar Škotska
5. Grof Rothes (1458) James Leslie, 22. grof Rothes Škotska
6. Grof Mortonov (1458) Stewart Douglas, 22. grof od Mortona Škotska
7. Grof Buchan (1469) Malcolm Erskine, 17. grof Buchan Škotska Govor v Domu lordov na HL Deb 17. junija 1998 vol 590 cc1599-678
8. Grof Eglinton (1508) Hugh Montgomerie, 19. grof Eglinton Škotska Tudi Earl of Winton (UK 1859)
9. Grof Caithness (1455) Malcolm Sinclair, 20. grof Caithness Škotska
10. Marlov grof in Kellie (1404 ali 1565) James Erskine, 14. marc Škotska
11. Grof Moray (1562) John Stuart, 21. grof Moray Škotska
12. Domači grof (1605) David Douglas-Home, 15. grof doma Škotska
13. Grof Perth (1605) John Eric Drummond, 9. grof od Pertha Škotska
14. Grof Strathmore in Kinghorne (1606) Simon Bowes-Lyon, 19. grof Strathmore in Kinghorne Škotska Tudi Earl of Strathmore in Kinghorne (UK 1937)
15. Grof od Haddingtona (1619) George Baillie-Hamilton, 14. grof od Haddingtona Škotska
16. Grof Galloway (1623) Andrew Stewart, 14. grof Galloway Škotska
17. Grof Lauderdale (1624) Ian Maitland, 18. grof Lauderdale Škotska
18. Grof Lindsay (1633) James Lindesay-Bethune, 16. grof Lindsay Škotska
19. Grof Loudoun (1633) Simon Abney-Hastings, 15. grof Loudoun Škotska
20. Grof Kinnoull (1633) Charles Hay, 16. grof Kinnoull Škotska
21. Grof Elgin (1633) Andrew Bruce, 11. grof od Elgina Škotska Tudi grof Kincardine (1647)
22. Grof Wemyss (1633) James Charteris, 13. grof Wemyss Škotska Tudi Earl of March (1697)
23. Grof Dalhousie (1633) [2] James Ramsay, 17. grof Dalhousie Škotska
24. Grof Airlie (1639) David Ogilvy, 13. grof Airlie Škotska
25. Grof Leven (1641) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 15. grof Leven Škotska Tudi grof Melville (1690)
26. Grof Dysart (1643) John Grant, 13. grof Dysart Škotska
27. Grof Selkirkov (1646) Trenutno zavrnjeno James Douglas-Hamilton, baron Selkirk iz Douglasa Škotska
28. Grof Northesk (1647) Patrick Carnegy, 15. grof od Northeska Škotska
Grof Kincardine (1647) Andrew Bruce, 15. grof Kincardine Škotska Tudi grof od Elgina (1633)
Grof Balcarres (1651) Robert Lindsay, 12. grof Balcarres Škotska Tudi grof Crawford (1398)
29. Grof Dundee (1660) Alexander Scrymgeour, 12. grof Dundee Škotska
30. Grof Newburgh (1660)
[3]
Filippo, 11. princ Rospigliosi, 12. grof Newburgh Škotska
31. Grof Annandale in Hartfell (1662) Patrick Hope-Johnstone, 11. grof od Annandale in Hartfell Škotska
32. Grof Dundonald (1669) Iain Cochrane, 15. grof Dundonald Škotska
33. Grof Kintore (1677) James Keith, 14. grof Kintore Škotska
34. Grof Dunmore (1686) Malcolm Murray, 12. grof Dunmore Škotska
Grof Melville (1690) Alexander Ian Leslie-Melville, 14. grof Melville Škotska Tudi grof Leven (1641)
35. Grof Orkney (1696) Peter St John, 9. grof Orkney Škotska
Grof marca (1697) James Charteris, 9. grof marca Škotska Tudi grof Wemyss (1633)
36. Grof Seafield (1701) Ian Ogilvie-Grant, 13. grof Seafield Škotska Hansard 1803–2005: prispevki v parlamentu grofa Seafielda
37. Grof po stopnicah (1703) John Dalrymple, 14. grof po stopnicah Škotska
38. Grof Rosebery (1703) Neil Primrose, 7. grof Rosebery Škotska Tudi Earl of Midlothian (UK 1911)
39. Grof Glasgow (1703) Patrick Boyle, deseti grof od Glasgowa Škotska

Kot je razvidno iz zgornjega seznama, so moški, ki so: (1) grof Crawford in Balcarres, (2) grof Elgin in Kincardine, (3) grof Wemyss in grof marca ter (4) grof Leven in Melville vsak poseduje dva grofja na škotskem gradu. Obstaja torej 43 takih grofov, katerih imetnik nima višjega perja.

  1. Earl Ferrers (1711)
  2. Grof Dartmouth (1711)
  3. Grof Tankerville (1714)
    • Peter Bennet, deseti grof Tankerville
  4. Grof Aylesford (1714)
    • Charles Finch-Knightley, 12. grof iz Aylesforda
  5. Grof Macclesfield (1721)
    • Richard Parker, 9. grof Macclesfield
  6. Earl Waldegrave (1729)
  7. Grof od Harringtona (1742)
  8. Grof Portsmouth (1743)
  9. Grof Warwick (1759) in Brooke (1746)
  10. Grof Buckinghamshire (1746)
    • George Hobart-Hampden, deseti grof iz Buckinghamshira
  11. Grof Guilford (1752)
  12. Grof Hardwicke (1754)
  13. Grof Ilchester (1756)
    • Robin Fox-Strangways, deseti grof Ilchester
  14. Earl De La Warr (1761)
  15. Grof Radnor (1765)
  16. Earl Spencer (1765)
  17. Earl Bathurst (1772)
  18. Grof Clarendon (1776)
  19. Grof Mansfield (1776) in Mansfield (1792)
    • Alexander Murray, 9. grof Mansfield in Mansfield
  20. Earl Talbot (1784) (Earl of Shrewsbury v angleškem Peerageu in Earl of Waterford v irskem Peerage)
    • Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 7. Earl Talbot
  21. Grof z gore Edgcumbe (1789)
  22. Earl Fortescue (1789)
    • Charles Fortescue, 8. Earl Fortescue
  23. Grof od Carnarvona (1793)
  24. Earl Cadogan (1800)
  25. Grof Malmesbury (1800)
    • James Harris, sedmi grof iz Malmesburyja
Številka Naslov Datum nastanka Roke Trenutni nosilec Maščevanje Opombe
Grof od Waterforda 1446 Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 22. grof iz Waterforda Irska Tudi Earl of Shrewsbury v Peerage of England in Earl Talbot v Peerage of Great Britain
1. Grof od Pluta 1620 John Boyle, 15. grof od Corka Irska Tudi grof Orrery (1660)
2. Grof Westmeath 1621 William Anthony Nugent, 13. grof Westmeath Irska
3. Grof Meath 1627 John Brabazon, 15. grof Meath Irska
Grof Desmond 1628 Alexander Feilding, 11. grof od Desmonda Irska Tudi grof Denbigh v Angliji
4. Grof Cavan 1647 Roger Lambart, 13. grof od Cavana Irska
Grof Orrery 1660 John Boyle, 15. grof Orrery Irska Tudi Earl of Cork
5. Grof Drogheda 1661 Derry Moore, 12. grof Drogheda Irska
6. Grof Granard 1684 Peter Forbes, deseti grof Granard Irska
7. Grof Darnley 1725 Ivo Bligh, 12. grof od Darnleyja Irska
8. Grof Bessborough 1739 Myles Ponsonby, 12. grof od Bessborougha Irska Tudi Earl of Bessborough (UK 1937)
9. Grof od Carricka 1748 (Arion) Thomas Piers Hamilton Butler, 11. grof od Carricka Irska
10. Grof Shannon 1756 Richard Boyle, deseti grof od Shannona Irska
11. Grof Arran 1762 Arthur Gore, 9. grof od Arrana Irska
12. Grof Courtown 1762 Patrick Stopford, 9. grof Courtown Irska
13. Grof Mexborough 1766 John Savile, 8. grof Mexborough Irska
14. Grof Winterton 1766 David Turnour, 8. grof Winterton Irska
15. Grof Kingston 1768 Robert King-Tenison, 12. grof od Kingstona Irska
16. Grof Roden 1771 Robert Jocelyn, deseti grof od Rodena Irska
17. Grof Lisburnski 1776 David Vaughan, 9. grof od Lisburna Irska
18. Grof Clanwilliam 1776 Patrick Meade, osmi grof Clanwilliam Irska
19. Grof Antrim 1785 Alexander McDonnell, 9. grof Antrim Irska
20. Grof Longford 1785 Thomas Pakenham, osmi grof Longforda Irska
21. Grof iz Portarlingtona 1785 George Dawson-Damer, sedmi grof iz Portarlingtona Irska
22. Grof Mayo 1785 Charles Bourke, 11. grof Mayo Irska
23. Grof Annesley 1789 Michael Annesley, 12. Earl Annesley Irska
24. Grof Enniskillen 1789 Andrew Cole, sedmi grof Enniskillena Irska
25. Grof Erne 1789 John Crichton, 7. grof Erne Irska
26. Grof Lucan 1795 George Bingham, osmi grof Lucan Irska
27. Grof Belmore 1797 John Lowry-Corry, 8. Earl Belmore Irska
28. Grad Earl Stewart 1800 Arthur Stuart, 8. grad Earl Castle Stewart Irska
29. Grof Donoughmore 1800 Richard Hely-Hutchinson, osmi grof Donoughmoreja Irska
30. Grof Kaledonski 1800 Nicholas Alexander, sedmi grof Kaledonski Irska
31. Grof Limerick 1803 Edmund Pery, sedmi grof iz Limericka Irska
32. Grof Clancarty 1803 Rov Nicholas Le Poer, 9. grof Clancarty Irska
33. Grof Gosford 1806 Charles Acheson, sedmi grof iz Gosforda Irska
34. Grof Rosse 1806 Brendan Parsons, sedmi grof Rosse Irska
35. Grof Normanton 1806 James Agar, sedmi grof Normanton Irska
36. Grof Kilmorey 1822 Sir Richard Needham (6. grof Kilmorey) Irska
37. Grof Listowel 1822 Francis Hare, 6. grof Listowel Irska
38. Grof Norbury 1827 Richard Graham-Toler, sedmi grof iz Norburyja Irska
39. Grof Ranfurly 1831 Edward Knox, osmi grof Ranfurlyja Irska

Kot je razvidno iz zgornjega seznama, je moški, ki je grof od Waterforda, tudi grof v angleškem Peerageu in grof v britanskem Peerageu, moški, ki je grof od Desmonda, pa tudi grof v Peerage of Anglija in mož, ki je grof od Corka, je tudi grof od Orreryja. V Peerage Irski je torej 39 grofov, katerih imetniki imajo od njih prednost.

  1. Grof Rosslyn (1801)
  2. Grof Craven (1801)
    • Benjamin Craven, 9. grof Craven
  3. Grof Onslow (1801)
  4. Grof Romney (1801)
  5. Grof Chichester (1801)
  6. Grof Wilton (1801)
  7. Grof Limerick (Irska)Grof Clancarty (Irska)
  8. Grof Powis (1804)
  9. Grof Nelson (1805)
  10. Grof Gosford (Irska)Grof Rosse (Irska)Grof Normanton (Irska)
  11. Earl Grey (1806)
  12. Grof Lonsdale (1807)
  13. Grof od Harrowbyja (1809)
  14. Grof iz Harewooda (1812)
  15. Grof od Minta (1813)
  16. Voziček z grofom (1814)
  17. Grof Verulam (1815)
  18. Grof svetih Nemcev (1815)
    • Albert Eliot, 11. grof svetih Nemcev
  19. Grof Morley (1815)
    • Mark Parker, sedmi grof od Morleyja
  20. Grof Bradford (1815)
  21. Grof Eldon (1821)
    • John Scott, 6. grof od Eldona
  22. Earl Howe (1821)
  23. Grof Stradbroke (1821)
  24. Stolov grof Stowe (1822)
    • Tempelj Grenville-Gore-Langton, 8. grofov tempelj Stowe
    Grof Kilmorey (Irska)Grof Listowel (Irska)Grof Norbury (Irska)
  25. Earl Cawdor (1827)
  26. Grof Ranfurly (Irska)
  27. Grof Lichfield (1831)
  28. Grof Durham (1833)
  29. Earl Granville (1833)
    • Fergus Leveson-Gower, 6. Earl Granville
  30. Grof Effingham (1837)
    • David Howard, sedmi grof od Effinghama
  31. Grof Ducie (1837)
  32. Grof Yarborough (1837)
  33. Grof Leicester (1837)
  34. Grof Gainsborough (1841)
    • Anthony Noel, 6. grof Gainsborough
  35. Grof Strafford (1847)
    • William Byng, deveti grof Strafford
  36. Grof iz Cottenhama (1850)
    • Mark Pepys, deveti grof iz Cottenhama
  37. Earl Cowley (1857)
  38. Grof Dudley (1860)
  39. Earl Russell (1861)
  40. Grof Cromartie (1861)
  41. Grof Kimberley (1866)
  42. Grof Wharncliffe (1876)
    • Richard Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, peti grof Wharncliffe
  43. Earl Cairns (1878)
  44. Grof Lytton (1880)
  45. Grof Selborne (1882)
    • William Palmer, peti grof iz Selborna
  46. Grof Iddesleigh (1885)
    • John Northcote, peti grof Iddesleigh
  47. Grof Cranbrook (1892)
  48. Grof Cromer (1901)
    • Evelyn Baring, četrti grof Cromer
  49. Grof Plymouth (1905)
    • Ivor Edward Drugi Windsor-Clive, četrti grof Plymouth
  50. Grof iz Liverpoola (1905)
  51. Earl Saint Aldwyn (1915)
    • Plaža Michael Hicks, tretji grof Saint Aldwyn
  52. Earl Beatty (1919)
  53. Earl Haig (1919)
    • Alexander Haig, tretji grof Haig
  54. Grof Iveagh (1919)
  55. Grof Balfour (1922)
    • Roderick Balfour, peti grof od Balfoura
  56. Grof Oxford in Asquith (1925)
  57. Earl Jellicoe (1925)
    • Patrick Jellicoe, tretji grof Jellicoe
  58. Grof Inchcape (1929)
  59. Earl Peel (1929) [4]
  60. Earl Baldwin iz Bewdleyja (1937)
  61. Grof iz Halifaxa (1944)
  62. Grof Gowrie (1945)
  63. Grof Lloyd George iz Dwyforja (1945)
    • David Lloyd George, 4. grof Lloyd George iz Dwyforja
  64. Burmaški grof Mountbatten (1947)
  65. Tuniski grof Aleksander (1952)
  66. Grof Swinton (1955)
    • Mark Cunliffe-Lister, četrti grof Swinton
  67. Earl Attlee (1955)
  68. Grof Woolton (1956)
  69. Grof Snowdon (1961) [5]
  70. The Earl of Stockton (1984)
  71. Grof Wessex (1999) in Forfar (2019) [6]

Navidezni dediči Edit

Peerage of England Edit

1. James Chetwynd-Talbot, vikont Ingestre, najstarejši sin grofa Shrewsburyja in Waterforda

2. Edward Stanley, Lord Stanley, najstarejši sin grofa Derbyja

3. Reginald Herbert, Lord Herbert, najstarejši sin grofa Pembroka in Montgomeryja

4. Jack Courtenay, Lord Courtenay, najstarejši sin grofa Devonskega

5. Alexander Howard, vikont Andover, najstarejši sin grofa Suffolka in Berkshira

6. Peregrine Feilding, vikont Feilding, najstarejši sin grofa Denbigha in Desmonda

7. Henry Bertie, Lord Norreys, najstarejši sin grofa Lindseyja in Abingdona

8. Tobias Finch-Hatton, vikont Maidstone, najstarejši sin grofa Winchilsea in Nottinghama

9. Luke Montagu, vikont Hinchingbrooke, najstarejši sin grofa od sendviča

10. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley, najstarejši sin grofa Shaftesburyja

11. William Bentinck, vikont Woodstock, najstarejši sin grofa Portlandskega

12. Augustus Keppel, vikont Bury, najstarejši sin grofa Albemarleja

13. George Child-Villiers, vikont Villiers, najstarejši sin grofa Jerseyja

Peerage of Scotland Edit

14. Anthony Lindsay, Lord Balniel, najstarejši sin grofa Crawforda in Balcarresa

15. Harry Hay, Lord Hay, najstarejši sin grofa Errolla

16. Alexander Charles Robert Sutherland, Lord Strathnaver, najstarejši sin grofa Sutherlanda

17. John Douglas, Lord Aberdour, najstarejši sin grofa Mortona

18. Harry Erskine, Lord Cardross, najstarejši sin grofa Buchana

19. Rhuridh Montgomerie, Lord Montgomerie, najstarejši sin grofa Eglintona in Wintona

20. Alexander Sinclair, Lord Berriedale, najstarejši sin grofa Caithnessa

21. Jack Stuart, Lord Doune, najstarejši sin grofa Morayja

22. Michael Douglas-Home, Lord Dunglass, najstarejši sin grofa Home

23. James Drummond, vikont Strathallana, najstarejši sin grofa od Pertha

24. Alexander Patrick Stewart, Lord Darlies, najstarejši sin grofa Gallowaya

25. John Maitland, vikont Maitland, najstarejši sin grofa Lauderdale

26. William Lindesay-Bethume, vikont Garnock, najstarejši sin grofa Lindsayjevega

27. William Hay, vikont Dupplin, najstarejši sin grofa od Kinnoulla

28. Charles Bruce, Lord Bruce, najstarejši sin grofa Elgin in Kincardine

29. Richard Charteris, Lord Elcho, najstarejši sin grofa Wemyssa in Marca

30. Simon Ramsay, Lord Ramsay, najstarejši sin grofa Dalhousieja

31. Davis Ogilvy, Lord Ogilvy, najstarejši sin grofa Airlieja

32. James Grant iz Rothiemurchusa, Lord Huntingtower, najstarejši sin grofa od Dysarta

33. John Douglas-Hamilton, Lord Daer, najstarejši sin grofa Selkirka

34. Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn, Lord Scrymgeour, najstarejši sin grofa Dundeeja

35. David Hope-Johnstone, Lord Johnstone, eldest son of the Earl of Annandale and Hartfell

36. Archibald Cochrane, Lord Cochrane, eldest son of the Earl of Dundonald

37. Tristan Keith, Lord Inverurie, eldest son of the Earl of Kintore

38. Oliver St John, Viscount Kirkwall, eldest son of the Earl of Orkney

39. James Studley, Viscount Reidhaven, eldest son of the Earl of Seafield

40. John Dalrymple, Viscount Dalrymple, eldest son of the Earl of Stair

41. Harry Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, eldest son of the Earl of Rosebery and Midlothian

42. David Boyle, Viscount of Kelburn, eldest son of the Earl of Glasgow

Peerage of Great Britain Edit

44. William Shirley, Viscount Tamworth, eldest son of the Earl Ferrers

45. James Finch-Knightley, Lord Guernsey, eldest son of the Earl of Aylesford

46. Edward Waldegrave, Viscount Chewton, eldest son of the Earl Waldegrave

47. William Stanhope, Viscount Petersham, eldest son of the Earl of Harrington

48. Oliver Wallop, Viscount Lymington, eldest son of the Earl of Portsmouth

49. Charles Greville, Lord Brooke, eldest son of the Earl of Warwick

50. Frederick North, Lord North, eldest son of the Earl of Guilford

51. Philip Yorke, Viscount Royston, eldest son of the Earl of Hardwick

52. Simon Fox-Strangways, Lord Stavordale, eldest son of the Earl of Ilchester

54. Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie, Viscount Folkstone, eldest son of the Earl of Radnor

56. Benjamin Bathurst, Lord Apsley, eldest son of the Earl Bathurst

57. Edward Villiers, Lord Hyde, eldest son of the Earl of Clarendon

58. William Murray, Viscount Stormont, eldest son of the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield

59. William Herbert, Lord Porchester, eldest son of the Earl of Carnarvon

60. George Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea, eldest son of the Earl Cadogan

61. James Harris, Viscount FitzHarris, eldest son of the Earl of Malmesbury

Peerage of Ireland Edit

62. Jonathan Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, eldest son of the Earl of Cork and Orrery

63. Sean Nugent, Lord Delvin, eldest son of the Earl of Westmeath

64. Anthony Brabazon, Lord Ardee, eldest son of the Earl of Meath

65. Benjamin Moore, Viscount Moore, eldest son of the Earl of Drogheda

66. Jonathan Forbes, Viscount Forbes, eldest son of the Earl of Granard

67. Ivo Bligh, Lord Clifton, eldest son of the Earl of Darnley

68. Frederick Ponsonby, Viscount Duncannon, eldest son of the Earl of Bessborough

69. James Stopford, Viscount Stopford, eldest son of the Earl of Courtown

70. John Savile, Viscount Pollington, eldest son of the Earl of Mexborough

71. Charles King-Tenison, Viscount Kingsborough, eldest son of the Earl of Kingston

72. Shane Jocelyn, Viscount Jocelyn, eldest son of the Earl of Roden

73. John Meade, Lord Gillford, eldest son of the Earl of Clanwilliam

74. Randal McDonnell, Viscount Dunluce, eldest son of the Earl of Antrim

75. Edward Pakenham, Lord Silchester, eldest son of the Earl of Longford

76. Charles Dawson-Damer, Viscount Carlow, eldest son of the Earl of Portarlington

77. Richard Bourke, Lord Naas, eldest son of the Earl of Mayo

78. Michael Annesley, Viscount Glerawly, eldest son of the Earl Annesley

79. John Lowry-Corry, Viscount Corry, eldest son of the Earl Belmore

80. Andrew Stuart, Viscount Stuart, eldest son of the Earl Castle Stewart

81. John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale, eldest son of the Earl of Donoughmore

82. Frederick Alexander, Viscount Alexander, eldest son of the Earl of Caledon

Peerage of the United Kingdom (also includes heirs apparent for Irish peerages created after 1800) Edit

83. Jamie St Clair-Erskine, Lord Loughborough, eldest son of the Earl of Rosslyn

84. David Marsham, Viscount Marsham, eldest son of the Earl of Romney

85. Julian Grosvenor, Viscount Grey de Wilton, eldest son of the Earl of Wilton

86. Felix Pery, Viscount Glentworth, eldest son of the Earl of Limerick

87. Jonathan Herbert, Viscount Clive, eldest son of the Earl of Powis

88. Thomas Nelson, Viscount Merton, eldest son of the Earl Nelson

89. Lawrence Parsons, Lord Oxmantown, eldest son of the Earl of Rosse (Peerage of Ireland)

90. Arthur Agar, Viscount Somerton, eldest son of the Earl of Normanton (Peerage of Ireland)

91. Alexander Grey, Viscount Howick, eldest son of the Earl Grey

92. Dudley Ryder, Viscount Sandon, eldest son of the Earl of Harrowby

93. Alexander Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles, eldest son of the Earl of Harewood

94. Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Viscount Melgund, eldest son of the Earl of Minto

95. Alan Cathcart, Lord Greenock, eldest son of the Earl of Cathcart

96. James Grimston, Viscount Grimston, eldest son of the Earl of Verulam

97. Alexander Bridgeman, Viscount Newport, eldest son of the Earl of Bradford

98. John Scott, Viscount Encombe, eldest son of the Earl of Eldon

99. Thomas Curzon, Viscount Curzon, eldest son of the Earl Howe

100. Robert Rous, Viscount Dunwich, eldest son of the Earl of Stradbroke

101. Robert Needham, Viscount Newry and Mourne, eldest son of the Earl of Kilmorey (Peerage of Ireland)

102. James Campbell, Viscount Emlyn, eldest son of the Earl Cawdor

103. Adam Knox, Viscount Northland, eldest son of the Earl of Ranfurly (Peerage of Ireland)

104. Thomas Anson, Viscount Anson, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield

105. Frederick Lambton, Viscount Lambton, eldest son of the Earl of Durham

106. Granville Leveson-Gower, Lord Leveson, eldest son of the Earl Granville

107. Edward Howard, Lord Howard of Effingham, eldest son of the Earl of Effingham

108. James Moreton, Lord Moreton, eldest son of the Earl of Ducie

109. George Pelham, Lord Worsley, eldest son of the Earl of Yarborough

110. Edward Coke, Viscount Coke, eldest son of the Earl of Leicester

111. Henry Noel, Viscount Campden, eldest son of the Earl of Gainsborough

112. Samuel Byng, Viscount Enfield, eldest son of the Earl of Strafford

113. Henry Wellesley, Viscount Dangan, eldest son of the Earl Cowley

114. Colin Mackenzie, Viscount Tarbat, eldest son of the Earl of Cromartie

115. David Wodehouse, Lord Wodehouse, eldest son of the Earl of Kimberley

116. Reed Montagu-Stuart-Wortley, Viscount Carlton, eldest son of the Earl of Wharncliffe

117. Hugh Cairns, Viscount Garmoyle, eldest son of the Earl Cairns

118. Philip Lytton, Viscount Knebworth, eldest son of the Earl of Lytton

119. Alexander Palmer, Viscount Wolmer, eldest son of the Earl of Selborne

120. Thomas Northcote, Viscount St Cyres, eldest son of the Earl of Iddesleigh

121. John Gathorne-Hardy, Lord Medway, eldest son of the Earl of Cranbrook

122. Alexander Baring, Viscount Errington, eldest son of the Earl of Cromer

123. Robert Other Ivor Windsor-Clive, Viscount Windsor, eldest son of the Earl of Plymouth

124. Luke Foljambe, Viscount Hawkesbury, eldest son of the Earl of Liverpool

125. Sean Beatty, Viscount Borodale, eldest son of the Earl Beatty

126. Arthur Guinness, Viscount Elveden, eldest son of the Earl of Iveagh

127. Mark Asquith, Viscount Asquith, eldest son of the Earl of Oxford and Asquith

128. Fergus Mackay, Viscount Glenapp, eldest son of the Earl of Inchcape

129. Ashton Peel, Viscount Clanfield, eldest son of the Earl Peel

130. Benedict Bewdley, Viscount Corvedale, eldest son of the Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

131. James Wood, Lord Irwin, eldest son of the Earl of Halifax

132. Brer Ruthven, Viscount Ruthven of Canberra, eldest son of the Earl of Gowrie

133. William Lloyd George, Viscount Gwynedd, eldest son of the Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor

134. Nicholas Knatchbull, Lord Brabourne, eldest son of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma

135. William Cunliffe-Lister, Lord Masham, eldest son of the Earl of Swinton

136. Charles Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley, eldest son of the Earl of Snowdon

137. Daniel Macmillan, Viscount Macmillan of Ovenden, eldest son of the Earl of Stockton

138. James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn, eldest son of the Earl of Wessex


6 Fun Facts about the Sandwich

November 3 rd is National Sandwich Day and we can’t think of anything else we would rather celebrate. When it comes to lunch, you simply can’t beat a sandwich. What other menu option do we have that is easy enough to make that most kids can make their own, portable enough to take just about anywhere, and flexible enough to enable everyone to have exactly what they want? It is easy to see why the sandwich is so synonymous with lunch! Get in the spirit for National Sandwich Day with these fun facts and ready-to-make recipes featuring the sandwich.

1. Ever wonder where the sandwich got its name?

It is named after the man credited with creating the first sandwich, John Montagu, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Legend has it that he was unwilling to free up both hands during a 24 hour gambling event in order to eat. Instead, he asked his servant to put the meat from his meal between two slices of bread so he could hold it in one hand and continue gambling. Ease, convenience, and portability right from the start!

2. Do you know what the most popular sandwich in America is?

If you guessed peanut butter and jelly, you would be close since on average, we each will have eaten about 1,500 PB&Js by the time we graduate from high school. The most popular sandwich is the plain, ordinary ham sandwich followed by second place finisher the BLT.

3. How many sandwiches do Americans eat every day?

It might seem strange, but Americans eat more than 300 million sandwiches each and every day. This is an amazing statistic since there are slightly more than 300 million Americans and not everyone eats a sandwich everyday!

4. What sandwich helped keep Americans fed during the Great Depression?

With the price of peanut butter today, you may not believe it, but the PB&J offered a lot of nutrition for a low cost. This was due in part to two crucial advances in food delivery, the development of the process for making peanut butter and the adoption of the process for pre-slicing and packaging bread. These two advances made the necessary ingredients readily available at a reasonable cost just in time to help feed the families struggling through the depression.

5. Why do we call sandwiches served on oblong rolls subs?

You might think it is because the rolls themselves are shaped kind of like submarines but that is not where the name comes from. Legend has it that during World War II, a deli in New London, Connecticut got an order for 500 hero sandwiches from a local Navy submarine base. As a result, the employees of the deli started referring to the hero as a “sub”. The name stuck and in most parts of the country you are more likely to see subs on the menu than heros.

6. What world records are related to sandwiches?

There are several world records tracked by Guinness related to the sandwich. The most expensive sandwich ever sold was a grilled toast sandwich that seemed to have an image of the Virgin Mary on the toasted bread which sold for $28,000 in 2004. The longest sandwich, created in Italy in 2004 was 2081 ft. The largest sandwich ever made weighed 5,440 lbs. The year, the record for the most sandwiches being made simultaneously was set in New York City by Subway restaurants who had 254 people making sandwiches at the same time.

Making up your family’s favorite sandwiches is a great way to celebrate National Sandwich Day. Don’t have a favorite sandwich? Try one of ours!


The History Of American White Bread Is Anything But Bland

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again. iStockphoto skrij napis

From a scapegoat for the "sapping" of the "white race," to a symbol of modern engineering, to a target of the counterculture movement: White bread's been a social lightning rod time and again.

Editor's note: Today is National Sandwich Day. To mark the occasion, we bring you this story from our archives. It was originally published in 2012.

White bread, like vanilla, is one of those foods that have become a metaphor for blandness. But it wasn't always that way.

Aaron Bobrow-Strain, an associate professor of food politics at Whitman College, tells Weekend Edition's Rachel Martin that white bread was a deeply contentious food — from the early 1900s ideas of "racial purity" up to the countercultural revolution of the 1960s. He documents that cultural legacy in his book, White Bread: A Social History of the Store-Bought Loaf.

White bread first became a social lightning rod with the Pure Foods movement of the late 1800s. Bobrow-Strain says well-meaning reformers were concerned about a host of legitimate food safety issues, and their activism led directly to many of today's food safety laws.

A Social History Of The Store-Bought Loaf

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But food purity ideals bled into the social realm in the form of what Bobrow-Strain calls "healthism" — the idea that "perfect bodily health was an outward manifestation of inward genetic fitness."

One proponent of healthism was Bernarr Macfadden, whom Bobrow-Strain calls "the original strong man food guru in a leopard-skin tunic." Macfadden believed that "white bread was sapping the vitality of the white race, threatening white racial superiority," Bobrow-Strain says.

In the 1920s, white bread became a symbol of industrialization and modernity, as companies like Tip Top and Wonder Bread brought factory automation to bread-making. The invention of sliced bread, allegedly in Chillicothe, Mo., in 1928, was "really the culmination of a long process in which bread was engineered and designed to look like a streamlined wonder, like an edible piece of modern art," Bobrow-Strain says.

At the same time, the '20s and '30s saw a backlash against white bread, and a revival of Macfadden's idea that whole wheat bread was imbued with moral as well as dietary fiber. And another wave of criticism came in the 1960s.

The counterculture movement "took up white bread as an emblem of everything that was wrong with America. It was plastic, corporate, stale," Bobrow-Strain says. Eating handmade, whole wheat bread became "an edible act of rebellion, a way of challenging The Man."

These days, of course, artisanal breads are a common sight at supermarkets. "We see bread going from a kind of manifestation of grass-roots food activism to being a high-end, niche product," Bobrow-Strain says.

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Food reformers could learn a thing or two from these decades-long bread battles. Bobrow-Strain says focusing on individual food choices creates divisive in-groups and out-groups, defined by who makes the supposedly "right" food choices. And activists often overlook the root causes of problems in the food system.

Like, for instance, the economy. It's hard to pay twice as much for artisanal bread when you're strapped for cash.

And some foods are just better with white bread, he says, whether it's a simple grilled cheese or something fancier.

"I made a sandwich that had garlicky braised kale with Manchego cheese, a fried egg, and I did it on grilled Wonder Bread," Bobrow-Strain says. "It was fabulous."


Durham University’s Castle Theatre Company presents one of Shakespeare’s most charming comedies: All’s Well at Ends Well. A fairy-tale story of true love finding a way, featuring colourful characters and a hilarious sub-plot, this is the tale of a heroine who tries to secure her own happy ending.

Low-born Helena is madly in love with the noble Count Bertram, but he won’t take a second look at her. When she saves the King of France’s life, he oers Helena anything she desires in return – she asks for Bertram’s hand in marriage. Horrified, Bertram flees to fight in the war, and refuses to love Helena until she can take the ring from his finger. Meanwhile, Bertram’s boastful friend Parolles is tricked by his fellow soldiers, who have had enough of his behaviour. Can Helena fulfil Bertram’s demands and persuade him to love her after all?

For over three decades, Castle Theatre Company has taken its annual summer Shakespeare tour around the south of England and the USA, performing classic comedies on the lawns of stately homes, gardens and abbeys. Renowned for its high standard of performance, Castle Theatre Company promises fantastic entertainment for audiences of all ages. Bring a picnic and enjoy an afternoon of riotous Shakespearean fun!


Who Invented the Peanut Butter and Jelly Sandwich?

The Earl of Sandwich is credited with inventing the sandwich because he wanted to eat his meal with one hand during a 24-hour gambling event and instructed his servant to put his meat between two slices of bread. But what many may not know, is how an American classic sandwich&mdashthe iconic peanut butter and jelly sandwich&mdashcame to be. If the Earl of Sandwich invented the sandwich, who invented the PB&J?

The story begins with the three essentials parts of the PB&J&mdashpeanut butter, jelly and bread. First, let&rsquos start with the bread, which is, of course, an ancient food that has been around for tens of thousands of years.

The significance of the bread component in the PB&J sandwich is the invention of pre-sliced bread in the early 1900s. Otto Frederick Rohwedder invented a bread slicer but bakers were not interested because they thought no one would want their bread pre-sliced. Rohwedder kept refining his invention and changing things until it was ready to use in bakeries. He advertised the machine as &ldquothe greatest step forward in baking since bread was wrapped.&rdquo Later, the slogan evolved into &ldquothe greatest thing since sliced bread.&rdquo

Sliced bread proliferated. Soon people were looking for spreads to use with this newfound wonder food.

Next, let&rsquos look at jelly which is another food that has been around for a long time. In the case of the quintessential American PB&J sandwich, the most important person in this part of the story is a man named Paul Welch. In 1917, Welch secured a patent for pureeing grapes and turning them into jelly. He developed and advertised Grapelade (rhymes with marmalade) from Concord grapes&mdashthis was popular with America&rsquos troops in WWI. When soldiers came home after the war, it was popular to spread Grapelade on bread.

Finally, there&rsquos the peanut butter. Contrary to popular belief, peanut butter was not invented by Dr. George Washington Carver. But he is crediting with advancing the peanut crop in the South in the early 1900s and published his &ldquo300 Uses for Peanuts,&rdquo which included a peanut paste.

The forerunner of the peanut butter we know today was first brought to light sometime during the 1880s when a St. Louis physician, Dr. Ambrose Straub, made a peanut paste for geriatric patients who had trouble swallowing, or had bad teeth. Around the same time, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg (same as the cereal) was the first to patent a process for manufacturing peanut butter. Peanut butter was first introduced at the 1893 Chicago World Fair. In 1904 Dr. Straub got a food company to develop the peanut spread and they took it to the St. Louis World Fair where it became so popular, grocery stores began ordering it.

Around the same time, peanut butter appeared in upscale tea rooms in New York City and was considered a delicacy. On the menu of Vanity Fair Tea Room was peanut butter with watercress. Other tea rooms featured peanut butter and pimento sandwich and peanut butter on toast triangles with soda crackers.

In 1901, the first peanut butter and jelly sandwich recipe appeared in the Boston Cooking School Magazine of Culinary Science and Domestic Economics written by Julia Davis Chandler. She said to use currant or crab-apple jelly and called the combination delicious and as far as she knew, original.

Still, the peanut butter and jelly sandwich was an exclusive food, and its popularity among the masses was yet to come. As Grapelade and pre-sliced bread became popular, another breakthrough happened with peanut butter&mdashcommercial brands found a way to create creamier peanut butter that didn&rsquot stick to the roof of the mouth so easily. And during the Great Depression of the 1930s, families discovered peanut butter provided a satisfying, high protein, less expensive meal.

But the major event that took the peanut butter and jelly sandwich over the top in popularity was WWII.

Peanut butter and jelly were on the U.S. Military ration menus in World War II. Peanut butter was a high-protein, shelf-stable ingredient and easily portable on long marches. Grapelade had already accompanied soldiers in the first world war and added a sweetness to the sandwich. With pre-sliced bread so easy to use, the natural inclination was to combine these three items, and before long the good ol&rsquo PB&J was a part of the American soldier&rsquos life.

When soldiers came home from the war, peanut butter and jelly sales soared. Kids loved it because it tastes great, parents loved how easy it was to make and how kids could make it themselves with pre-sliced bread. Many families and college students on a budget relied on PB&J.

So, the story of the peanut butter and jelly sandwich is the story of three essential ingredients all of which have been around for a long time, joining together to give us America&rsquos favorite and enduring sandwich.


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