Kako je Vasco da Gama vedel za južni križ?

Kako je Vasco da Gama vedel za južni križ?



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Rečeno je, da predcesijski cikel zemeljske osi traja približno 26.000 let. Rečeno je tudi, da so stari Grki lahko videli Crux (aka južni križ), od koder so živeli. To je ozvezdje, ki spominja na križ:

Menijo tudi, da je bil Vasco da Gama prvi Evropejec po dolgem času, ki ga je videl, ko je potoval na jug vzdolž afriške obale, vendar je nekako pričakovano da ga vidim. O tem so bile govorice in legende.

Ali to ne bi pomenilo, da sta on in astronomi svojega časa vedeli za precesijo (skoraj stoletje pred pojavom Keplerjeve in Galilejeve teorije)?


Leta 1460, v času smrti princa Henryja, navigatorja, so Portugalci kartirali zahodno obalo Afrike do vzporednika 8 N. Južni križ je na tej zemljepisni širini dobro viden. Resnično, vse zvezde je mogoče videti med tropi, severni tropski pa je bil dosežen še prej. Leta 1471 so prečkali ekvator in jih je začel voditi Crux.

In potovanje Vasca da Game se je začelo leta 1497. Seveda je pričakoval in preprosto vedel, da bo videl južni križ. Evropejci so ga gledali že več kot 40 let. Računal je na to. Bil je dobro pripravljen, da ga uporabi za navigacijo, kot so to že storili. Le križ je bil zanj višje na nebu kot za njegove predhodnike in je bil tako v bolj primernem položaju.

In tudi če bi bil prvi Evropejec, ki bi ga videl, bi o križu preprosto slišal od arabskih pomorščakov. In od njih kupite navigacijske karte, ki bi povedale, kako uporabiti južni križ za postavitev južnega pola. (Ni tako preprosto kot s Polar Star)

Dva znanja - o obstoju Križa in o precesiji - sta praktično neodvisna. Ali slabše kot neodvisno, ker precesija pomeni, da se bodo čez tisoč let točke sever/jug opazno premaknile. Torej, če bi imel da Gama podatke o uporabnosti južnega križa v daljni preteklosti in bi uporabil podatke iz precesija, bi sklenil, da križ zdaj NI več uporaben.

In ja, Evropejci so v tistem trenutku vedeli za precesijo najmanj 13 stoletij, saj jo je že Ptolomej uporabil za napačno ponarejanje svojega kataloga na podlagi kataloga Hipparchos. Zgodovina katalogov zvezd, stran 5


Potovanje "odkritja" Vasca da Game 1497

Vasco da Gama je izvedel 2 odpravi med letoma 1497 in 1502. Ta funkcija se osredotoča na prvo, saj je prav med to odpravo posadka Vasca da Game pristala v Južni Afriki.

Razlog za odkritje vejice je, da dežele niso odkrili, kot trdijo številni raziskovalci. Zemlja je bila že zasedena in so jo prebivalci uporabljali. Razlog, zakaj skupine pogosto navajajo svoj prihod na neko tujo deželo kot "odkritje", je, ker po primitivnem pravilu "imetnikov imetnikov" to podpira vse njihove trditve o "lastništvu" zemlje. Za razpakiranje te mistifikacije zgodovine raziskovanja.

Prva odprava

Portugalska odprava se je 8. julija 1497 odpravila iz reke Tagus s posadko 148 mož v eskadrilji treh kvadratov, Sao Gabriel, Sao Raphael, Berrio in oskrbovalne ladje. Vrhovni poveljnik Vasco da Gama se je v spremstvu svojega pilota Pedra de Alenquerja odpravil na Sao Gabriel. Vascov brat Paulo je vodil Sao Raphael. Skoraj štiri mesece so pluli čez Atlantik brez pogleda na kopno, dokler *4. novembra 1497 niso prišli do zaliva (današnji dan Sveta Helena). Vasco da Gama je zaliv poimenoval Bahai da Santa Elena (zaliv svete Helene), po verski materi Konstantina Velikega. Blizu ali blizu izliva reke Berg so se raziskovalci odpravili popravljati, iskati vodo in preveriti svoj položaj. Tu so se prvič srečali s Khoikhoijem. Med njima je prišlo do nesporazuma in v strahu pred napadom je Khoikhoi vrgel kopja in ranil Da Gamo v stegno.

V zobeh burje je portugalska eskadrila 22. novembra zaokrožila Cape, tri dni kasneje pa so pretrgane ladje priplule v Santa Bras (zaliv Mossel), kjer so opazovali otoke, debele s hrupnimi pticami. Raztovorili so poškodovano trgovsko ladjo in jo nato požgali, da Gama pa je s Khoikhoijem zamenjal darila. Vendar so užalili Khoikhoi, ko so vzeli svežo vodo, ne da bi vprašali poglavarjevo dovoljenje, in Khoikhoi so se začeli zbirati v oboroženi masi. Mornarji so se naglo odpravili na svoje čolne, medtem ko je nekaj topovskih udarcev razblinilo Khoikhoi.

Vzhodna obala

Do božiča je bila eskadrila ob nevarni obali Pondolanda, ki so jo poimenovali Natal. Tri dni kasneje so uživali v dobrem ribolovu na točki, ki so jo poimenovali Ponta de Pescaria (Durbanski blef). Napihnjeni vetrovi so jih raznesli v morje in ko so spet uspeli priti do obale, so se zasidrali pri Inharrimeju na obali Mozambika. Napolnili so svoje vodne sode in, ko so našli železne prednike Tsonge prijazne in radodarne, so območje poimenovali Terra da Boa Gente ("dežela dobrih ljudi").

Na otoku Mozambik so silovito angažirali dva arabska pilota in ko so muslimanski prebivalci spoznali, da so raziskovalci kristjani, so postali sovražni. Da bi jih zadrževal, je da Gama bombardiral mesto in nato odplul. 7. aprila se je Da Gama zasidral pri Mombasi. Sultan jim je radodarno poslal ovce, svežo zelenjavo in sadje, toda ko je eden od arabskih pilotov skočil na morje, ko so vstopili v pristanišče, so Portugalci postali sumničavi do sultanovih namenov. Da Gama je na krov prisilil nekaj muslimanov, jih mučil z vrelim oljem in izvedel za zaroto, da bi se maščeval portugalskemu napadu na Mozambik. Tako opozorjeni so uspeli preprečiti napad in nadaljevali pot. V bližini Malindija (blizu Mombasa) so ugotovili, da je sultan veliko bolj prijazen in ustrežljiv. Zagotovil jim je strokovnega pilota, ki jih je usmeril v Indijo, s čimer je postavil temelje dolgega in vzajemno koristnega zavezništva.

Iz Malindija so ladje odplule proti Calicutu v Indiji in se zasidrale na obali Malabarja 20. maja 1498. Tam so muslimanski trgovci zanihali hindujskega vladarja proti krščanskim raziskovalcem, ki so se spet za dlako izognili smrti. Portugalska eskadrila je 20. septembra 1498 odplula iz Indije, a jih je na povratnem potovanju doletela katastrofa. Najprej so jih pomirjali več dni, nato pa so nasprotni vetrovi in ​​tokovi vlekli njihov prehod. Trideset moških je umrlo. Preživeli so prispeli v Malindi 7. januarja 1499. Tu so postavili padrÁƒ £ o (kamniti križ), ki še vedno obstaja. Ker ni imel sposobnih moških za jadranje po vseh ladjah, je da Gama požgal Sao Raphael.

20. marca 1499 sta dve preostali ladji zaokrožili Cape in odpluli proti portugalski postojanki na Azorih, kjer je da Gama zamudil plovbo, ker je njegov brat Paulo umrl. Berrio je odplul na Portugalsko, kjer se je 10. julija 1499 spustil sidro v Tagusu. Ko je Da Gama približno tri tedne pozneje prišel v Lizbono, so mu Portugalci priredili herojsko dobrodošlico. Kralj mu je podelil veliki naslov "Gospodar osvajanja, plovbe in trgovine v Etiopiji, Arabiji, Perziji in Indiji" ter "Admiral Indijskega morja" z ranom Dom in številne druge nagrade. Kmalu zatem se je poročil s Catherino de Ataide, s katero je imel šest sinov in hčer.

Druga odprava

Da bi uvedel monopol v trgovini z začimbami, je da Gama leta 1502 odplul s floto iz Portugalske proti Mozambiku in Sofali. Tam je pridobil nekaj zlata uveljavljenih trgovalnih pravic in prisilil novega mozambiškega sultana, da se pokloni portugalskemu kralju z letnim poklonom zlata. V Indiji je da Gama napadel Calicut, grozno mučil njegove ujetnike - povedali so nam, da jim je odrezal nos in ušesa ter jih poslal sultanu v Calicut - in se po plenjenju na muslimanskih ladjah vrnil na Portugalsko, obremenjen s plenom. Od takrat naprej so Portugalci redno potovali z zalivi Mossel in Mombasa kot glavno mesto za polnjenje. Vzhodne svile, sateni in začimbe ter afriška slonovina in zlato so prinesli bogastvo kroni in pripeljali do prevlade Portugalske na rtu. Leta 1524 je Jono III ukazal Da Gami, naj se vrne v Indijo kot podkralj. Do Goe je prišel 11. septembra 1524, a je tri mesece kasneje umrl v Cochinu. Njegovi posmrtni ostanki so bili nazadnje vrnjeni na Portugalsko in leta 1880 pokopani v St Jeronimos.


Zakaj je potovanje Vasca da Game leta 1497 pomembno za zgodovino ZAE?

Leta 1497 je kraljeva oblast zaupala da Gami, ki je bil do takrat strokovni navigator, izjemno pomembno nalogo: odpreti novo pot od Portugalske do indijskih trgov začimb. Takrat so Arabci, Benečani in Perzijci že nadzorovali kopenske poti, kot je Svilena cesta. Ideja Vasca da Game je bila obkrožiti Afriko.

Upam, da to razumete, prijazno se naročite na naš kanal "MADHANVICKY" v YOUTUBU.

Odgovor:

Potovanje Vasca da game leta 1497

Potovanje Vasca da game leta 1497pomembno za zgodovino srednjega veka

Potovanje Vasca da game leta 1497pomembno za zgodovino srednjega sveta.

Pojasnilo:

Vasco da Gama je bil znan po tem, da je našel a

nova trgovska pot okoli južnega roba

Afriki in do Indija.

Leta 1497 je kraljeva oblast storila

Vasco da Gama, do takrat že usposobljen

navigator, z izjemno pomembnostjo

Za začetek nove poti od Portugalska do

trgih začimb v Indiji. Takrat Perzijci

in Arabci so že uredili kopenske poti.

Ideja Vasca da Game je bila kritično krmariti po Afriki

Ideja Vasca da Game je bila kritično krmariti po Afriki, ki je bila za zgodovino najpomembnejša.


Kako se zgodovina spominja Vasca da Game?

Oglejte si celoten odgovor. Podobno se sprašujejo, kako je krmaril Vasco da Gama?

Vasco da Gama je bil portugalski raziskovalec, ki je iz Indije priplul v Indijo. Zlato, začimbe in druga bogastva so bili v Evropi dragoceni. Morali pa so krmariti dolge poti po morju in kopnem do Azije. Evropejci so v tem času iskali hitrejši način za dosego Indije s plovbo po Afriki.

Drugič, kaj je bilo pomembno pri potovanju Vasca da Game leta 1497? Major pomembnost od Potovanja Vasca Da Game da so odprli pomorsko trgovino med Azijo in Evropo ter pomagali ustvariti portugalski imperij. Vasco Da Gama je bil prvi Evropejec, ki je plul okoli afriške celine do Azije. To je Portugalski omogočilo začetek trgovanja z začimbami v Aziji.

Nato se postavlja vprašanje, kaj je Vasco da Gama dosegel?

Vasco da Gama je bil uspešen portugalski raziskovalec. Njegov najpomembnejši dosežek je bilo jadranje iz Portugalske v Indijo leta 1497. Portugalci so iskali vodno pot v Indijo. Leta 1497 je zapustil Portugalsko in odplul proti jugu vzdolž zahodne afriške obale.

Je bil Vasco da Gama dobra oseba?

Vasco da Gama je bil v času raziskovanja zelo uspešen portugalski pomorščak in raziskovalec. Bil je prvi oseba pluti neposredno iz Evrope v Indijo, okoli rta Dobro Upam.


Zakaj je Vasco da Gama odšel v Indijo

Portugalski pomorščak Vasco da Gama je 8. julija 1497 odplul iz Beléma, vasice ob izlivu reke Tagus, ki je danes del večje Lizbone. kralja Manuela I., ki bo vodil ambiciozno odpravo in načrtoval novo pot v Indijo. Kralju ni prizadela predvsem želja po ropanju. Imel je vizionarsko miselnost, ki je mejila na motnje, videl je, kako vodi sveto vojno, da bi zrušil islam, vrnil Jeruzalem od »nevernikov« in se uveljavil kot »kralj Jeruzalema«.

Da Gama je delil te sanje, toda podobno kot njegova prizadeta posadka, prevaranti ali kriminalci moškemu, si je zaželel slavnega bogastva Vzhoda-ne le zlata in draguljev, ampak tudi začimb, takrat najdragocenejšega blaga. Na tem potovanju se je, tako kot na svojih dveh kasnejših, izkazal za briljantnega navigatorja in poveljnika. Kjer pa ga pogum ni mogel prebiti skozi silovite nevihte, v nasprotju z morji in mahinacijami sovražnih vladarjev, mu je priskočila na srečo. Plesal je slepo, skoraj po instinktu, brez zemljevidov, kart ali zanesljivih pilotov, v neznane oceane.

Kot je v svoji živahni in ambiciozni »svetovni vojni« prikazal Nigel Cliff, zgodovinar in novinar, je da Gama podprl tako nevednost kot spretnost in drznost. Da bi odkril morsko pot v Indijo, se je namerno umeril v drugo smer od Kolumba, svojega velikega pomorščaka. Namesto da bi šel proti zahodu, je da Gama odšel proti jugu. Po mesecih jadranja je zaokrožil Cape of Good Hope. Od tam se je plazil po vzhodni obali Afrike in se odpravil na neznano prostranost Indijskega oceana. Neizvedeno, torej s strani evropskih navigatorjev. Kajti takrat so Indijski ocean prečkala muslimanska plovila in muslimanski trgovci, ki so jih podpirali močni lokalni vladarji, so nadzorovali trgovske poti in so to storili že stoletja. Da Gama je poskušal še močneje prekiniti to pomorsko prevlado. Njegova ambicija je bila odkriti indijske kristjane in njihovega "davno izgubljenega krščanskega kralja", legendarnega Presterja Janeza in z njimi zaveziti, združiti krščanstvo in uničiti islam.

Ambicije niso bile povsem domišljijske, v Indiji so bile krščanske skupnosti, ki jih je po legendi ustanovil sveti apostol Tomaž. Da Gama indijskega kristjana ni mogel razlikovati od kazuarja, toda ob tej priložnosti je bila nevednost resnično blaženost. Ko so se njegove ladje končno privezale v Calicutu, blizu južnega dela podceline, sta se s svojo posadko vesela spoznala, da je tam res že veliko kristjanov. Kot pripoveduje Cliff, je "pristajalna skupina domnevala, da so hindujski templji krščanske cerkve, napačno so razumeli sklicevanje brahminov na lokalno božanstvo kot čaščenje Device Marije in so se odločili, da so hindujski liki na stenah templja tuji krščanski svetniki. ” Res je, "templji so bili tudi nabito z živalskimi bogovi in ​​svetimi falusi", vendar so ti zagotovo odražali eksotične lokalne krščanske prakse. Za Portugalce je bilo pomembno, da so ti davno izgubljeni indijski kristjani dovolili podobe v svojih »cerkvah«. Tako ne glede na njihove posebnosti niso mogli biti muslimani. Portugalci so se z užitkom pridružili napevom in prizivom. Ko so hindujski duhovniki vzklikali "Krišna", so Portugalci slišali kot "Kristus".

Slika

Takšne farsične epizode se ponavljajo v Cliffovem pripovedovanju in dodajajo nepričakovano lahkotnost temu, kar je sicer žalosten zapis pohlepa, divjaštva in fanatizma, zlasti - vendar ne izključno - s strani evropskih raziskovalcev. Portugalci niso vedeli, da obstaja hinduizem, kaj šele budizem ali džainizem. Zanje je bil svet močno razdeljen med krščanstvo in islam. Vedeli so za Jude, seveda so jih v 1490 -ih letih s pretirano močjo nenehno preganjali s prisilnim spreobrnjenjem, izgonom in pobojem, toda zanje je bil judaizem zgolj predhodnik krščanstva in ne vera sama po sebi.

Cliffova pripoved zajema velik čas. Enkrat se zdi izraz "epski" podcenjen. Podvigi Da Game samo zahtevajo take pogoje. Njegovo prvo potovanje je trajalo dve leti in prevozilo izjemnih 24.000 milj, vse to v puščajočih lesenih plovilih, ki so jih pretrgale nevihte in preplavile skorbut, in to je bilo šele prvo od njegovih treh pionirskih potovanj, ki so skupaj vzpostavila malo Portugalsko kot svetovno silo.

Da bi zagotovil čim širši kontekst, Cliff začne s prerokom Mohamedom in vzponom islama v začetku sedmega stoletja in konča z obleganjem Dunaja leta 1529 in kasnejšim vzponom nizozemske pomorske širitve. Njegov opis zgodnje islamske zgodovine je živahen in dejanski, vendar ima nekoliko grozljiv občutek, tako kot njegovo poglavje o križarskih vojnah, za vse grozljive podrobnosti, ki jih ponuja. To je navsezadnje dobro uhojena trava. Ko končno pride na Portugalsko in njeno nasledstvo vnetih, zlobnih in precej pikčastih monarhov, je v svojem elementu in njegova knjiga se resnično razvije. Ima romanopisčevo darilo za upodabljanje značaja. Od slavnega Henryja Navigatorja, ki kljub temu, da se imenuje, "nikoli ni stopil na ladjo na morju", do samega Vasca da Game, hkrati jeklenega in kihotskega, do grozljivih osebnosti, kot sta Magellan in brutalni Afonso de Albuquerque, ki je teroriziral njegove žrtve z grožnjo, da jim bo zgradil utrdbo iz kosti in pribil ušesa do vrat, oživi Portugalsko iz vsega njenega sijaja in obupnosti.

Cliff je dober tudi pri tako vsakdanjih, a zapletenih zadevah, kot so ladjedelništvo, kraljevski protokoli in trgovinske nevarnosti, vse to pa dokumentira z dobro izbranimi navedbami s potovalnih računov, uradnih dokumentov in osebne korespondence. Precej presenetljivo pa mu ni uspelo pripeljati v svoj račun velikega portugalskega pesnika iz 16. stoletja Luísa de Camõesa (čeprav je omenjen v zelo popolni bibliografiji), čeprav je Camões sodeloval na poznejših portugalskih odpravah in napisal svoj epski v virigalskem slogu Lusiads «v pohvalo da Gama.

Medtem ko Cliff svojo zgodbo vrti pod okriljem »svete vojne« in se v svojem podnaslovu sklicuje na Samuela P. Huntingtonovega obrabljenega »spopada civilizacij«, se po njegovem mnenju ta okvir zdi več kot malce škripav. Čeprav je bilo med kristjani in muslimani dolgotrajno medsebojno sovraštvo, se zdi, da je bil pravi antagonizem trgovski. O "spopadu civilizacij" ni bilo govora. Portugalci so v poželenem občudovanju gledali lastnosti muslimanskih sodišč, ki so jih obiskali, muslimani pa niso pokazali nobenega zanimanja za evropsko kulturo (za katero so menili, da je žalostno manjvredna od svoje). Ko sta se spopadla, sta to storila zaradi donosnih trgovskih poti in teritorialne hegemonije, pri čemer sta bila oba ponosno nevedna glede veroizpovedi drugih.

Cliff se trudi najti pomembnost za današnje dogodke, vendar so njegovi poskusi neprepričljivi. Opaža na primer, da je leta 2006 Ayman al-Zawahri, zdaj vodja Al Kaide, pozval k osvoboditvi Ceute-severnoafriškega mesta, ki ga je leta 1415 oblegal portugalski kralj Janez-od španskih kristjanov, ki ga zdaj obvladujejo . Kljub temu danes pravi spopad ni med krščanstvom in islamom niti med nasprotnimi civilizacijami, ampak med našo odločno posvetno in potrošniško kulturo ter togo in absolutistično miselnostjo, ogorčeno nad blaginjo, v kateri uživajo zahodni "neverniki". To pa je še ena epopeja, ki jo še ni treba napisati.


10 zanimivih dejstev o Vascu Da Gami

Napisal sem članek o dobi odkritij, zato sem očitno moral pisati o Vascu da Gami, enem najbolj znanih portugalskih raziskovalcev! Preberite in odkrijte moje 10 najbolj zanimivih dejstev o Vascu da Gami.

Vasco da Gama je večinoma znan po združevanju Evrope in Indije po morju. Je zelo pomembna osebnost v portugalski zgodovini. Potoval je in odkrival nova ozemlja ter s svojih potovanj prinesel novo blago in znanje.

Od štirinajstega in sedemnajstega stoletja so dejanja Vasca da Game močno vplivala na zgodovino, pa tudi na življenje ljudi. Odkril je nove dežele, spodbujal trgovino, širil pa je tudi verske ideale.

V tem članku boste izvedeli več o Vascu da Gami in razumeli razlog, zakaj je eden najbolj znanih portugalskih raziskovalcev.

Kdo je bil Vasco de Gama? Njegovo zgodnje življenje in mladost

Vasco da Gama se je rodil leta 1469 v mestu Sines. Bil je sin Estêvão da Gama, ki je bil tudi navigator.

Vasco de Gama je skoraj vse svoje otroštvo preživel v mornarskih in potovalnih okoljih in obogatil svoje znanje na tem področju.

Vasco de Gama je bil pri osemnajstih letih že vključen kot član ladijske posadke, zadolžen za patruljiranje po portugalskih pristaniščih na afriški obali in njihovo obrambo pred piratskimi ladjami. Tudi Vasco de Gama je v tej mladosti že prečkal Sredozemlje in obiskal mesto Tânger v Maroku.

Vasco de Gama je slovel po svoji osebnosti, opisali so ga kot nasilnega, nesramnega in neusmiljenega. Ker je prihajal iz revne družine, je imel problem manjvrednosti, zato so bile njegove ambicije doseči velik družbeni status in bogastvo.

Kaj je odkril Vasco de Gama?

Veliko let je veliko popotnikov poskušalo najti neposredno morsko pot od Portugalske do Indije, da bi se izognili posla s trgovci in trgovci iz Sredozemlja in Egipta, za katere je bilo znano, da uvajajo visoke davke za menjavo svojega blaga.

Julija 1497 je portugalski kralj ukazal Vascu de Gami, naj odkrije morsko pot od Portugalske do Indije, kjer je 17. maja 1498, deset mesecev po odhodu, vzpostavil stik v Calecuteju v Indiji. Muslimanski trgovci so ob prihodu Portugalcev v Indijo pripravili zasedo, vendar jim to ni uspelo. Vasco de Gama se je boril proti njim in zlahka zahteval dežele na jugovzhodu.

S tem osvajanjem je bila uradno trgovska pot od Portugalske do vzhodnih dežel končno odprta, kar je prekinilo arabski in beneški monopol na vzhodu. Razširil je portugalsko trgovino z blagom in idejami na nova dežela, ki jih je našel.

Kralj ga je poslal na raziskovanje zahoda

Portugalski kralj Manuel I. je zaupal Vascu da Gami, da je bil vodja raziskovanja na zahodu in da je bil tudi veleposlanik pri vladarjih Indije.

Vasco de Gama je bil prva oseba, ki je dosegla status “Count ”, kar je mogoče prevesti v Conde v portugalščini, ne da bi bil pravi krvni kraljevski član. Naziv je prejel po zaslugi številnih potovanj in dosežkov v vseh letih, ko je bil kralj kot kapitan listin.

O njegovi posadki

Za to misijo je potoval s 170 možmi in štirimi plovili, ki so bila naslednja: São Gabriel, São Rafael, Bérrio in nato São Miguel, ladja, namenjena oskrbi.

Vasco da Gama je bil znan kot brutalen

Vasco da Gama je bil znan kot brutalen in aroganten. Nekatere lastnosti njegove osebnosti so vodile v negativne odnose z muslimani.

Na svoji prvi poti v Indijo je ugotovil, da je Indija že vzpostavila trgovino z mnogimi različnimi državami, kot sta Afrika in Kitajska. To in dejstvo, da je imel agresivno naravo, sta zapletla vzpostavitev dobičkonosnih odnosov z domačini. Nekateri zgodovinarji pravijo, da so bili Vasco da Gama in njegova posadka nespoštljivi do hindujskih svetišč in celo ugrabili nekaj domačinov, ki so jih uporabili kot tolmače pri naslednjih odpravah.

Bil je junak za Portugalce

Zahvaljujoč svojim raziskovanjem in odkritjem je Vasco da Gama pridobil velike vloge v vojski in mornarici. Ko se je vrnil na Portugalsko, so ga Portugalci vsekakor videli kot junaka. Ne moremo zanikati dejstva, da je imel pomembno vlogo v zgodovini Portugalske.

Vasco da Gama je močno prispeval k bogastvu Portugalske

V petnajstem in šestnajstem stoletju je bila Indija še vedno skrivnost. To je bila neraziskana dežela, kjer je bilo mogoče najti veliko lepih začimb in osupljivega nakita. Ko je Vasco da Gama vzpostavil trgovinski odnos z Indijo, je za Portugalsko ustvaril nov vir bogastva in ji dal moč.

Njegovo gospodarstvo je bilo v vzponu

Odprave Vasca da Game po afriški obali in v Indijo so izboljšale gospodarstvo Portugalske in njeno širitev trgovine. Zahvaljujoč njemu in številnim drugim raziskovalcem, kot je on, je bila Lizbona nekoč največje trgovsko središče Evrope!

Njegovo raziskovanje je vplivalo na verski svet

Eden glavnih razlogov, da se je zgodil Doba odkritij, je bilo širjenje vere. Med potovanji Vasca da Game in drugih raziskovalcev se je veliko ljudi spreobrnilo v katolištvo in jih poučilo o običajih krščanske vere. Ves srednji vek sta religija in politika delovali skupaj. Eden ne bi deloval brez drugega, zato je veliko pobud iz obdobja odkritja izviralo iz volje po širitvi krščanstva.

Evropejci so morali odkriti veliko novega blaga

Odkritja Vasca da Game#8217 so Evropejce seznanila z obilico novega blaga. Ko se je vrnil domov, je prinesel veliko edinstvenih začimb, tkanin, nakita in mnogih drugih stvari, ki jih ljudje še nikoli niso videli, vonjali ali okusili!

Kako je torej umrl Vasco de Gama?

Morda bi si mislili, da je ta veliki popotnik in osvajalec umrl na častitljiv način, kot je to, da si je prizadeval za pridobitev dežele ali branil svoj teritorij na Portugalskem, vendar resnica ni.

Leta 1524 je bil Vasco de Gama na svoje tretje in zadnje potovanje poslan v Indijo, z namenom in ukazom portugalskega kralja, da postane guverner Indije, zamenjal je Duarteja de Menesesa, za katerega je bilo znano, da je do takrat vladal Indiji. nepremišljen in uničujoč način.

Čeprav je varno prispel v Goo v Indiji, je kmalu zbolel zaradi ugriza komarja in zbolel za malarijo, eno najsmrtonosnejših bolezni tistega časa na vzhodu. Ime bolezni je malarija in zelo pogosto se ta bolezen okuži s komarji v krajih, kot so Južna Afrika, Papua Nova Gvineja in Indija, če ne vzamete ustreznega cepiva.

Kljub dejstvu, da je bil bolan, je še vedno lahko zahteval svoj naslov podpredsednika Indije in za kratek čas vzpostavil red v vzhodnih deželah. Vasco de Gama je umrl v mestu Cochim, na božični večer, 24. decembra 1524.

Še eno zanimivo dejstvo

Slavno delo Luísa de Camõesa je navdihnilo potovanje Vasca de Game v Indijo.

Zdaj veste 10 zanimivih dejstev o Vascu da Gami! Če poznate več dejstev o njem, jih delite v komentarjih! Tudi če vas zanima portugalska zgodovina, sem napisal nekaj člankov, ki vam bodo verjetno všeč: eden govori o revoluciji nageljnov, potem imate tudi enega o dobi odkritij, ki vam bo omogočil, da o tem izvedete še več obdobje zgodovine!

Igrajmo se malo: v Lizboni obiščite območje Belém in pojdite na Padrão dos Descobrimentos. Oglejte si spomenik in poskusite opaziti Vasca da Gamo. Če ga najdete, ga fotografirajte in objavite v komentarjih ali pa ga delite na instagramu in nas označite na @discoverwalks!

  1. Najboljša potovalna knjiga: Rick Steves – Portugal– Več o tem tukaj
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Travel Gear

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Na seznamu najbolj prodajanih potovalnih dodatkov poiščite Amazonov seznam prodajalcev. Ta seznam včasih beremo samo zato, da ugotovimo, katere nove potovalne izdelke ljudje kupujejo.

Anna se je rodila in odraščala v Parizu. Študirala je jezike v Parizu in socialno komunikacijo v Lizboni. Anna je eno leto živela tudi v Madridu. Bila je na številnih mestih in upa, da bo šla. Kamor koli gre, vedno poskuša vsako mesto doživeti tako, kot to počnejo domačini. Anna ima običajno zajtrk v Parizu, se sprehodi po Camden Townu v Londonu, poje kosilo v Chiadu v Lizboni in uživa v nočnem življenju Madrida.


Steber Vasco da Gama je bil zgrajen

Zasnovan po starodavni portugalski arhitekturi, steber Vasco da Gama vzdolž kenijske obale v Malindiju je zdržal preizkus časa in je eden najstarejših poklonov zgodovini.

Ali ste vedeli, da je steber Vasco da Gama, ki veličastno stoji na pečini, drugi, ki ga je v istem mestu zgradil pomorščak - Vasco da Gama?

Prvi steber je bil postavljen v bližini sultanove palače.

Malindi je tako kot Mombasa in Lamu med najstarejšimi mesti v Keniji.

PREBERITE

Strateško je bil postavljen kot morska pot do trgovcev do vzhodne obale Afrike in iz nje.

Vasco da Gama je prišel v Kenijo, da bi poiskal morsko pot v Indijo.

Prisrčno ga je sprejel sultan Malindi, ki takrat ni bil v pogovoru s sultanom Mombasa.

Vodnica Josephine Kinyamasyo pravi, da vladajoče muslimansko in krščansko sovraštvo, ki je vladalo v Malindiju, ni dopuščalo, da bi steber stal.

Muslimani so ga porušili, ker je imel križ, kar je bilo videti kot spodbudno krščanstvo.

Kinyamasyo pravi, da je Vasco da Gama po rušenju začetnega stebra sultanu razložil, zakaj je steber pomemben, in takrat mu je bilo dovoljeno zgraditi sedanjega na pečini, kjer stoji.

Danes ga mnogi obiskovalci vidijo le kot spomenik, v resnici pa je bil to mejnik, ki ga je bilo mogoče videti od daleč - bolj kot svetilnik brez luči ponoči.

Malindi je ležal zahodno od stebra, Indija pa na vzhodu.

Ko so se približali morju, so bili Portugalci vidni skozi daljnogled.

Križ na vrhu stebra je obrnjen proti oceanu in je bil simbol, ki je označeval pot v Indijo.

Ta starina je bila zgrajena približno stoletje pred utrdbo Jezus v Mombasi, zaradi česar je ena najstarejših evropskih instalacij v vzhodni Afriki.

Med cunamijem, ki je v bližnji preteklosti pretresal Indijski ocean, je bil steber ogrožen, saj je bil greben, na katerem je zasnovan, delno razpadel.

Zaradi tega je morski oddelek postavil težke kamnite bloke v vodo okoli grebena, da bi prebil močne valove.

Če obiskujete steber, še posebej ob večerih, boste našli pare, ki se okoli njega sprehajajo in uživajo v toplini morskega vetra.

Fotografi so si postavili bazo, da bi skušali zaslužiti vsakdanji kruh s ponudbo takojšnjih fotografskih storitev obiskovalcem.

Nekateri to mesto uporabljajo tudi kot ribiško igrišče za prosti čas ali šport.

Steber Vasca da Game skupaj z utrdbo Jezus in ruševinami Gede stojijo kot monumentalne strukture, ki opredeljujejo začetek kolonialnega vdora v vzhodno Afriko.

Kenijski nacionalni muzeji zdaj upravljajo steber in zagotavljajo njegovo zaščito za potomce.

Steber je razmeroma preprost spomenik, vendar veliko pomeni za zgodovino Malindija, Kenije in Afrike kot celote.


Zgodbe o stebru Vasca da Game, ki ga niste vedeli ’t

Pogled na steber Vasco da Gama v Malindiju morda ne bo vzbudil velikega navdušenja obiskovalca, ki ne pozna bogate zgodovine.

Pravzaprav današnji steber slovi ne po svoji estetiki, ki je tako ali tako nima, ampak bolj po tem, kar predstavlja – starost zore raziskovanja.

Konec 15. stoletja leta 1498, ki ga je zgradil portugalski raziskovalec Vasco da Gama, je eden najstarejših evropskih objektov v Afriki. Če si ga želite ogledati, se ga dotakniti in fotografirati, je bil to že dolgo zastarel projekt s seznama žlic.

Morda mnogi ne vedo, da je steber, ki danes stoji ob robu pečine, pri cesti Silversand Road v Malindiju, pravzaprav drugi. Prvo, postavljeno v bližini sultanove palače, kjer so danes stara sodišča, so porušili muslimani, ki so menili, da bi križ na vrhu lahko spodbudil krščanstvo v Malindiju.

Dolgo in kratko je, da je Vasco da Gama nekako uspel prepričati sultana o pomenu stebra v Malindiju in zato danes stoji tam, kjer stoji.

It is also not known to many that the bell-shaped pillar was a navigational aid, a sort of lighthouse without the lights. Its primary purpose had been to guide ships passing here to India. It was not to be a monument of Portuguese occupation of Malindi. The pillar was also one of 4 that Vasco da Gama put up during his voyage.

Seafarers arriving at this point would know that Malindi lay to the west of the pillar while India was to the east. The cross, made out of Lisbon stone, while seeming to represent the Christian faith, was actually an emblem signifying the route to India.

The Vasco da Gama Pillar did not always have the shape of a bell that it has today. In 1873, Captain Malcolm built a cone of cement around the pillar to support the cross hence giving it its new look.

This ancient monument that existed a century before Fort Jesus in Mombasa, was ruffled a bit by a tsunami which had hit the Indian Ocean not too long ago. The tsunami had caused the reef on which the pillar is grounded to disintegrate partially.

That now has been sorted out, thanks to a KES 15 million grant from the Portuguese government which also sent its marine engineers to assess the state of the pillar and stabilise the reef with rock boulders to break the strong waves.

Nowadays, I think the pillar serves no critical role, at least not a navigational one, but it still continues to be a pivotal part of Malindi’s landscape.

Everyone you meet tells you not to leave the town before you go to see the Vasco da Gama Pillar. Indeed visitors from around the world flock here to take selfies and portraits in front of it.

In the evening it gets quite romantic as couples arrive to while away the evening as they enjoy the warmth of the sea breeze. For others, a fish catch or 2 for sport is sufficient.

For me, the Vasco da Gama Pillar is a reminder of how, on that July 8, 1497, a man dared to make a historical voyage to a place he had never been to before so his country could benefit from his discovery.

He had set sail equipped with a crew of 170 men aboard a fleet of 4 ships Sao Gabriel, Sao Rafael, Berrio, which was later renamed Sao Miguel and a nameless storage ship.

This 4th ship intrigues me because it is strange for a seaman to set sail with a vessel that has no name, particularly one involved in a voyage of such standing as this was. Usually, ship naming is a near-sacred ritual that is given great significance especially in those days.

The residents of Malindi regard the Vasco da Gama Pillar with a great sense of pride, especially the older ones. It reminds them of how one of their sons, Ahmad Ibn Majid, played a significant role in the success of one of the most monumental voyages in world history.

A skilful navigator familiar with the route to India and versed in navigating the monsoons, Ahmad was hired by Vasco da Gama for 50 gold Cruzados so he could show the way.

I have not yet figured out how much his fee would be in current terms but a Numismatic estimate puts the value of an antique gold cruzado dating back to this time at € 2,200 a piece. Whatever the value, it is highly likely this legendary voyage would never have happened without Ahmad’s input.

Photographers these days camp here hoping they can offer the opportunity of an instant photo or 2, especially for the odd visitor who is not confident they can take a lasting photo to a rare site.

The pillar is recognised as a national monument and is today under the management of the National Museums of Kenya who ensure it is protected for posterity. They charge a small fee, only KES 100.00, hopefully towards its preservation.

If you happen to be in Malindi, make sure the Vasco da Gama Pillar features in your bucket list. As for me, that is 1 bucket list idea done and dusted!


Vasco da Gama (c.1460 - 1524)

Vasco da Gama © Da Gama was a Portuguese explorer and navigator, and the first person to sail directly from Europe to India.

Vasco da Gama was born in about 1460 into a noble family. Little is known of his early life. In 1497, he was appointed to command an expedition equipped by the Portuguese government, whose intention was to find a maritime route to the East.

Setting off in July 1497, da Gama's expedition took advantage of the prevailing winds by sailing south down the coast of Africa, then veering far out into the Atlantic and swinging back in an arc to arrive off the southern African coast. This established a route still followed by sailing vessels. The expedition then rounded the Cape of Good and, after sailing up the coast of east Africa, took on an Arab navigator who helped them reach the Indian coast, at Calicut (now Kozhikode) in May 1498. This voyage launched the all-water route from Europe to Asia.

Da Gama returned to Portugal. The king immediately dispatched another expedition to secure a trading post at Calicut. After hearing of the massacre of all those at the trading post, da Gama sailed for India again in 1502 attacking Arab Muslim ships he met on the way. He forced the ruler of Calicut to make peace and, on his return voyage along the east African coast established Portuguese trading posts in what is now Mozambique.

Back in Portugal, da Gama was granted further privileges and revenues and continued to advise the king on Indian matters. After 20 years at home, in 1524, he was nominated as Portuguese viceroy in India and sent to deal with the mounting corruption among Portuguese authorities there. Arriving in Cochin, he fell ill and died on 24 December 1524. In 1539, his body was taken back to Portugal for burial.


Vsebina

Vasco da Gama was born in 1460 or 1469 [7] in the town of Sines, one of the few seaports on the Alentejo coast, southwest Portugal, probably in a house near the church of Nossa Senhora das Salas.

Vasco da Gama's father was Estêvão da Gama, who had served in the 1460s as a knight of the household of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu. [8] He rose in the ranks of the military Order of Santiago. Estêvão da Gama was appointed alcaide-mór (civil governor) of Sines in the 1460s, a post he held until 1478 after that he continued as a receiver of taxes and holder of the Order's commendas in the region.

Estêvão da Gama married Isabel Sodré, a daughter of João Sodré (also known as João de Resende), scion of a well-connected family of English origin. [9] Her father and her brothers, Vicente Sodré and Brás Sodré, had links to the household of Infante Diogo, Duke of Viseu, and were prominent figures in the military Order of Christ. Vasco da Gama was the third of five sons of Estêvão da Gama and Isabel Sodré – in (probable) order of age: Paulo da Gama, João Sodré, Vasco da Gama, Pedro da Gama and Aires da Gama. Vasco also had one known sister, Teresa da Gama (who married Lopo Mendes de Vasconcelos). [10]

Little is known of da Gama's early life. The Portuguese historian Teixeira de Aragão suggests that he studied at the inland town of Évora, which is where he may have learned mathematics and navigation. It has been claimed that he studied under Abraham Zacuto, an astrologer and astronomer, but da Gama's biographer Subrahmanyam thinks this dubious. [11]

Around 1480, da Gama followed his father (rather than the Sodrés) and joined the Order of Santiago. [12] The master of Santiago was Prince John, who ascended to the throne in 1481 as King John II of Portugal. John II doted on the Order, and the da Gamas' prospects rose accordingly.

In 1492, John II dispatched da Gama on a mission to the port of Setúbal and to the Algarve to seize French ships in retaliation for peacetime depredations against Portuguese shipping – a task that da Gama rapidly and effectively performed. [13]

From the earlier part of the 15th century, Portuguese expeditions organized by Prince Henry the Navigator had been reaching down the African coastline, principally in search of west African riches (notably, gold and slaves). [14] They had greatly extended Portuguese maritime knowledge, but had little profit to show for the effort. After Henry's death in 1460, the Portuguese Crown showed little interest in continuing this effort and, in 1469, licensed the neglected African enterprise to a private Lisbon merchant consortium led by Fernão Gomes. Within a few years, Gomes' captains expanded Portuguese knowledge across the Gulf of Guinea, doing business in gold dust, melegueta pepper, ivory and sub-Saharan slaves. When Gomes' charter came up for renewal in 1474, Prince John (future John II), asked his father Afonso V of Portugal to pass the African charter to him. [15]

Upon becoming king in 1481, John II of Portugal set out on many long reforms. To break the monarch's dependence on the feudal nobility, John II needed to build up the royal treasury he considered royal commerce to be the key to achieving that. Under John II's watch, the gold and slave trade in west Africa was greatly expanded. He was eager to break into the highly profitable spice trade between Europe and Asia, which was conducted chiefly by land. At the time, this was virtually monopolized by the Republic of Venice, who operated overland routes via Levantine and Egyptian ports, through the Red Sea across to the spice markets of India. John II set a new objective for his captains: to find a sea route to Asia by sailing around the African continent. [16]

By the time Vasco da Gama was in his 20s, the king's plans were coming to fruition. In 1487, John II dispatched two spies, Pero da Covilhã and Afonso de Paiva, overland via Egypt to East Africa and India, to scout the details of the spice markets and trade routes. The breakthrough came soon after, when John II's captain Bartolomeu Dias returned from rounding the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, having explored as far as the Fish River (Rio do Infante) in modern-day South Africa and having verified that the unknown coast stretched away to the northeast. [17]

An explorer was needed who could prove the link between the findings of Dias and those of da Covilhã and de Paiva, and connect these separate segments into a potentially lucrative trade route across the Indian Ocean.

On 8 July 1497 Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships [18] with a crew of 170 men from Lisbon. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than the length of the equator. [18] [19] The navigators included Portugal's most experienced, Pero de Alenquer, Pedro Escobar, João de Coimbra, and Afonso Gonçalves. It is not known for certain how many people were in each ship's crew but approximately 55 returned, and two ships were lost. Two of the vessels were carracks, newly built for the voyage the others were a caravel and a supply boat. [18]

  • São Gabriel, commanded by Vasco da Gama a carrack of 178 tons, length 27 m, width 8.5 m, draft 2.3 m, sails of 372 m²
  • São Rafael, commanded by his brother Paulo da Gama similar dimensions to the São Gabriel
  • Berrio (nickname, officially called São Miguel), a caravel, slightly smaller than the former two, commanded by Nicolau Coelho
  • A storage ship of unknown name, commanded by Gonçalo Nunes, destined to be scuttled in Mossel Bay (São Brás) in South Africa [8]

Journey to the Cape

The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July 1497. It followed the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands. After reaching the coast of present-day Sierra Leone, da Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the Equator and seeking the South Atlantic westerlies that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in 1487. [20] This course proved successful and on 4 November 1497, the expedition made landfall on the African coast. For over three months the ships had sailed more than 10,000 kilometres (6,000 mi) of open ocean, by far the longest journey out of sight of land made by that time. [18] [21]

By 16 December, the fleet had passed the Great Fish River (Eastern Cape, South Africa) – where Dias had anchored – and sailed into waters previously unknown to Europeans. With Christmas pending, da Gama and his crew gave the coast they were passing the name Natal, which carried the connotation of "birth of Christ" in Portuguese.

Mozambik

Vasco da Gama spent 2 to 29 March 1498 in the vicinity of Mozambique Island. Arab-controlled territory on the East African coast was an integral part of the network of trade in the Indian Ocean. Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, da Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique. With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, the explorer was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler. Soon the local populace became suspicious of da Gama and his men. Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, da Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation. [22]

Mombasa

In the vicinity of modern Kenya, the expedition resorted to piracy, looting Arab merchant ships that were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons. The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa from 7 to 13 April 1498, but were met with hostility and soon departed.

Malindi

Vasco da Gama continued north, arriving on 14 April 1498 at the friendlier port of Malindi, whose leaders were having a conflict with those of Mombasa. There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut, located on the southwest coast of India. Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid, but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time. [23] None of the Portuguese historians of the time mentions Ibn Majid. Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April 1498.

Calicut, India

The fleet arrived in Kappadu near Kozhikode (Calicut), in Malabar Coast (present day Kerala state of India), on 20 May 1498. The King of Calicut, the Samudiri (Zamorin), who was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnani, returned to Calicut on hearing the news of the foreign fleet's arrival. The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3,000 armed Nairs, but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results. When local authorities asked da Gama's fleet, "What brought you hither?", they replied that they had come "in search of Christians and spices." [24] The presents that da Gama sent to the Zamorin as gifts from Dom Manuel – four cloaks of scarlet cloth, six hats, four branches of corals, twelve almasares, a box with seven brass vessels, a chest of sugar, two barrels of oil and a cask of honey – were trivial, and failed to impress. While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador. [25] Vasco da Gama's request for permission to leave a factor behind him in charge of the merchandise he could not sell was turned down by the King, who insisted that da Gama pay customs duty – preferably in gold – like any other trader, which strained the relation between the two. Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen (mukkuva) off with him by force. [26]

Vrnitev

Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August 1498. Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore. The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell. They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October 1498. But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey. On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took 132 days.

Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January 1499, passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu, then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa. The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets. [27]

Da Gama's fleet finally arrived in Malindi on 7 January 1499, in a terrible state – approximately half of the crew had died during the crossing, and many of the rest were afflicted with scurvy. Not having enough crewmen left standing to manage three ships, da Gama ordered the São Rafael scuttled off the East African coast, and the crew re-distributed to the remaining two ships, the São Gabriel in Berrio. Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. By early March, they had arrived in Mossel Bay, and crossed the Cape of Good Hope in the opposite direction on 20 March, reaching the west African coast by 25 April.

The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Reconstructing from other sources, it seems they continued to Cape Verde, where Nicolau Coelho's Berrio separated from Vasco da Gama's São Gabriel and sailed on by itself. [28] Berrio arrived in Lisbon on 10 July 1499 and Nicolau Coelho personally delivered the news to King Manuel I and the royal court, then assembled in Sintra. In the meantime, back in Cape Verde, da Gama's brother, Paulo da Gama, had fallen grievously ill. Da Gama elected to stay by his side on Santiago island and handed the São Gabriel over to his clerk, João de Sá, to take home. The São Gabriel under Sá arrived in Lisbon sometime in late July or early August. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route. Da Gama disembarked at the Azores to bury his brother at the monastery of São Francisco in Angra do Heroismo, and lingered there for a little while in mourning. He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August 1499 (according to Barros), [29] or early September [18] (8th or 18th, according to other sources). Despite his melancholic mood, da Gama was given a hero's welcome and showered with honors, including a triumphal procession and public festivities. King Manuel wrote two letters in which he described da Gama's first voyage, in July and August 1499, soon after the return of the ships. Girolamo Sernigi also wrote three letters describing da Gama's first voyage soon after the return of the expedition.

The expedition had exacted a large cost – two ships and over half the men had been lost. It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut. Nonetheless, the small quantities of spices and other trade goods brought back on the remaining two ships demonstrated the potential of great profit for future trade. [30] Vasco da Gama was justly celebrated for opening a direct sea route to Asia. His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas.

The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed. For example, da Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the Contra Costa, was essential to Portuguese interests its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather. One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown.

In December 1499, King Manuel I of Portugal rewarded Vasco da Gama with the town of Sines as a hereditary fief (the town his father, Estêvão, had once held as a commenda). This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago. The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastre, might have endorsed the reward – after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself. But the fact that Sines was awarded by the king provoked Lencastre to refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the king to make other donations of the Order's properties. [31] Da Gama would spend the next few years attempting to take hold of Sines, an effort that would estrange him from Lencastre and eventually prompt da Gama to abandon his beloved Order of Santiago, switching over to the rival Order of Christ in 1507.

In the meantime, da Gama made do with a substantial hereditary royal pension of 300,000 reis. He was awarded the noble title of Dom (lord) in perpetuity for himself, his siblings and their descendants. On 30 January 1502, da Gama was awarded the title of Almirante dos mares de Arabia, Persia, India e de todo o Oriente ("Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia, India and all the Orient") – an overwrought title reminiscent of the ornate Castilian title borne by Christopher Columbus (evidently, Manuel must have reckoned that if Castile had an 'Admiral of the Ocean Seas', then surely Portugal should have one too). [32] Another royal letter, dated October 1501, gave da Gama the personal right to intervene and exercise a determining role on kaj future India-bound fleet.

Around 1501, Vasco da Gama married Catarina de Ataíde, daughter of Álvaro de Ataíde, the alcaide-mór of Alvor (Algarve), and a prominent nobleman connected by kinship with the powerful Almeida family (Catarina was a first cousin of D. Francisco de Almeida). [33]

The follow-up expedition, the Second India Armada, launched in 1500 under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral with the mission of making a treaty with the Zamorin of Calicut and setting up a Portuguese factory in the city. However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed. Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut.

Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th India Armada, scheduled to set out in 1502, with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms. The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February 1502. It was followed in April by another squadron of five ships led by his cousin, Estêvão da Gama (the son of Aires da Gama), which caught up to them in the Indian Ocean. The 4th Armada was a veritable da Gama family affair. Two of his maternal uncles, Vicente Sodré and Brás Sodré, were pre-designated to command an Indian Ocean naval patrol, while brothers-in-law Álvaro de Ataíde (brother of Vasco's wife Catarina) and Lopo Mendes de Vasconcelos (betrothed to Teresa da Gama, Vasco's sister) captained ships in the main fleet.

On the outgoing voyage, da Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold.

Pilgrim ship incident

On reaching India in October 1502, da Gama's fleet intercepted a ship of Muslim pilgrims at Madayi travelling from Calicut to Mecca. Described in detail by eyewitness Thomé Lopes and chronicler Gaspar Correia, da Gama looted the ship with over 400 pilgrims on board including 50 women, locked in the passengers, the owner and an ambassador from Egypt and burned them to death. They offered their wealth, which "could ransom all the Christian slaves in the Kingdom of Fez and much more" but were not spared. Da Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy. [34]

Calicut

After stopping at Cannanore, Gama drove his fleet before Calicut, demanding redress for the treatment of Cabral. Having known of the fate of the pilgrims' ship, the Zamorin adopted a conciliatory attitude towards the Portuguese and expressed willingness to sign a new treaty but da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down. [35] At the same time however, the Zamorin sent a message to his rebellious vassal, the Raja of Cochin urging cooperation and obedience to counter the Portuguese threat the ruler of Cochin forwarded this message to Gama, which reinforced his opinion of the Indians as duplicitous. [36] After demanding the expulsion of Muslims from Calicut to the Hindu Zamorin, the latter sent the high priest Talappana Namboothiri (the very same person who conducted da Gama to the Zamorin's chamber during his much celebrated first visit to Calicut in May 1498) for talks. Da Gama called him a spy, ordered the priests' lips and ears to be cut off and after sewing a pair of dog's ears to his head, sent him away. [37] The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the unfortified city for nearly two days from the sea, severely damaging it. He also captured several rice vessels and cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with a note to the Zamorin, in which Gama declared that he would be open to friendly relations once the Zamorin had paid for the items plundered from the feitoria as well as the gunpowder and cannoballs. [38] [39]

Seabattle

The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill. The Zamorin ventured to disptach a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada, but which Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor.

Cochin

Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore, small nearby kingdoms at war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets. The 4th armada left India in early 1503. Da Gama left behind a small squadron of caravels under the command of his uncle, Vicente Sodré, to patrol the Indian coast, to continue harassing Calicut shipping, and to protect the Portuguese factories at Cochin and Cannanore from the Zamorin's inevitable reprisals.

Vasco da Gama arrived back in Portugal in September 1503, effectively having failed in his mission to bring the Zamorin to submission. This failure, and the subsequent more galling failure of his uncle Vicente Sodré to protect the Portuguese factory in Cochin, probably counted against any further rewards. When the Portuguese king Manuel I of Portugal decided to appoint the first governor and viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, da Gama was conspicuously overlooked, and the post given to Francisco de Almeida.

For the next two decades, Vasco da Gama lived out a quiet life, unwelcome in the royal court and sidelined from Indian affairs. His attempts to return to the favor of Manuel I (including switching over to the Order of Christ in 1507), yielded little. Almeida, the larger-than-life Afonso de Albuquerque and, later on, Albergaria and Sequeira, were the king's preferred point men for India.

After Ferdinand Magellan defected to the Crown of Castile in 1518, Vasco da Gama threatened to do the same, prompting the king to undertake steps to retain him in Portugal and avoid the embarrassment of losing his own "Admiral of the Indies" to Spain. [40] In 1519, after years of ignoring his petitions, King Manuel I finally hurried to give Vasco da Gama a feudal title, appointing him the first Count of Vidigueira, a count title created by a royal decree issued in Évora on 29 December, after a complicated agreement with Dom Jaime, Duke of Braganza, who ceded him on payment the towns of Vidigueira and Vila dos Frades. The decree granted Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related, [41] thus establishing da Gama as the first Portuguese count who was not born with royal blood. [42]


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