Princ Henry - zgodovina

Princ Henry - zgodovina


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Princ Henry

Princ Henry Navigator se je rodil 4. marca 1394 v Sagresu na Portugalskem. Bil je tretji sin portugalskega kralja Janeza I. in Filipe Lancasterske. Henry je vodil vojaško odpravo, ki je zajela Ceuto. To je bilo prvo čezmorsko osvajanje Portugalske, Henry pa se je odločil, da bo Portugal razširil svoje znanje o Afriki. Takrat južno od rta Bojador ni priplul noben Evropejec. Mornarji so se bali, da bi pluli južno od tam, ker so se bali, da jim južni vetrovi južno od rta Bojador ne bodo dovolili vrnitve proti severu. Govorile so se, da so vode na jugu tako tople, da so morja dobesedno vrela.

Henry se je odločil premagati te in druge ovire. Zbral je čim več znanja o področjih. Za posodobitev zemljevidov je najel kartografe (izdelovalce zemljevidov), oblikovalce ladij pa je naročil, naj oblikujejo ladjo, ki bi bila dobro raziskovalno plovilo. Ti oblikovalci so razvili znamenito ladjo Caravel, ki bi lahko plula v veter.

Henry se je nato odločil za sistematično raziskovanje afriške obale. Pošiljal je odpravo za odpravo, vsakič ko je plul naprej na jug. Henryja so sprva kritizirali, ker je za raziskovanje porabil precejšen denar, ki Portugalski ni prinesel nobenega donosa. Ko so njegovi raziskovalci vedno bolj napredovali v Afriki, je Portugalska razvila zelo donosno trgovino z Zahodno Afriko.

Princ Henry je umrl 13. novembra 1460, preden je uresničil svoje sanje o doseganju južne skrajnosti Afrike. Njegova odločenost, da premaga vse ovire, ki so stale na poti raziskovanja, je odprla pot potovanju Dias in daGama, ki sta odprli portugalsko trgovino proti vzhodu.

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Zaradi želje princese Diane, da Harry in njegov starejši brat, princ William, svet doživita izven kraljevskih privilegijev, ju je kot fantka odpeljala v javni prevoz in v restavracije s hitro prehrano ter jim stala v vrsti v Disney Worldju. Odločena, da "razumeta čustva ljudi, njihovo negotovost, stisko ljudi in njihove upanje in sanje," je s seboj vzela tudi Harryja in Williama, ko je obiskovala zavetišča za brezdomce, sirotišnice in bolnišnice. Dianina smrt pri 36 letih je močno vplivala na Harryja. Podoba, kako je pri 12 letih slovesno hodil z Williamom za Dianaino skrinjico, ko so jo nosili po londonskih ulicah, je Harryju zelo všeč.

Tako kot William je Harry pred vstopom na prestižni Eton College obiskoval zaporedje zasebnih šol. Po diplomi na Etonu leta 2003 je Harry obiskal Argentino in Afriko ter delal na postaji za živino v Avstraliji in v sirotišnici v Lesotu. Namesto na univerzo je Harry maja 2005. vstopil v Sandhurst - vodilno britansko vojaško akademijo za usposabljanje vojaških častnikov - aprila 2006 je bil častnik.

Ker je bil Harry v nasledstvu britanskega prestola, je bil pogosto predmet medijske pozornosti. Januarja 2005 je naletel na hude kritike, ko se je udeležil zabave v nacistični uniformi s trakom s svastiko. Princ se je pozneje opravičil za to, kar je priznal kot resno napako pri presoji.


Henrik VIII .: Zgodnje življenje

Henry se je rodil 28. junija 1491, drugi sin Henrika VII, prvega angleškega vladarja iz Tudorjeve hiše. Medtem ko se je njegov starejši brat Arthur pripravljal na prestol, je bil Henry usmerjen v cerkveno kariero s široko izobrazbo iz teologije, glasbe, jezikov, poezije in športa.

Ali si vedel? Uspešen glasbenik, Henry VIII iz Anglije, je napisal pesem z naslovom & quotPastime With Good Company & quot;, ki je bila priljubljena po vsej renesančni Evropi.

Arthur je bil od 2. leta zaročen s Katarino Aragonsko, hčerko španskih vladarjev Ferdinanda in Isabelle, novembra 1501 pa sta se najstniška para poročila. Mesece kasneje je Arthur umrl zaradi nenadne bolezni. Henry je postal naslednji na vrsti za prestol in leta 1503 je bil zaročen z bratovo vdovo.


Skrivno tragedijo, ki jo je princesa Alice skrivala od princa Henryja

Tretji sin kralja Georgea V in kraljice Marije, princ Henry, vojvoda Gloucesterski, se je rodil 31. marca 1900.

Bil je prvi sin monarha, ki se je šolal v šoli in študiral na Eton College.

Njegovo življenje je bilo polno tragedij, začenši s tem, da ni mogel nadaljevati svojega življenja z žensko, s katero je imel afero, Beryl Markham, in je moral njej in njenemu možu do konca življenja plačevati molčeč denar. Ko je abdiciral, je izgubil starejšega brata, Edwarda VIII., Ki se je z Wallis Simpson in njegovim mlajšim bratom, princem Georgeom, vojvodom od Kenta, preselil v Francijo, ko je umrl v vojaški letalski nesreči. Nič hujšega, če ne spoznaš smrti svojega sina.

Nekaj ​​mesecev pred svojim 65. rojstnim dnevom sta se vojvoda in vojvodinja od Gloucestra odpravljala domov s pogreba Winstona Churchilla, ko je princ Henry doživel kap, ki je povzročila prometno nesrečo. Princa Henryja so vrgli iz avtomobila, vojvodinja pa je utrpela poškodbe obraza. To je bil šele prvi od mnogih stokov. Vojvoda je na koncu končal v invalidskem vozičku in v zadnjih letih svojega življenja izgubil sposobnost govora, dokler ni umrl leta 1974.

Dve leti pred smrtjo je umrl njegov sin, princ William. Princ William je bil predsednik britanskega letalskega centra in pilot z licenco, ki je rad tekmoval na amaterskih dirkah.

28. avgusta 1972 je princ William zadnjič vzletel pri 30 letih. Na Halfpenny Green je tekmoval v mednarodni letalski trofeji Goodyear. S princem je letel Vyrell Mitchell, s katerim je pogosto tekmoval.

Leteli so z rumeno -belo Piper Cherokee Arrow. Kmalu po vzletu je letalo naglo naletelo na drevo in padlo na tla.
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Derek Perton je bil eden od treh fantov, ki so poskušali rešiti princa Williama in Vyrella Mitchella, vendar so bili plameni preveliki. Ob spominu na trenutek je Perton rekel: “Poskušali smo vlomiti v letala letala, nato pa jih poskušati prelomiti na pol, tako da smo potegnili za rep.

“ Ampak to ni bilo dobro, zaradi vročine smo se morali vrniti. ”

Gasilci so prišli na kraj dogodka le nekaj minut kasneje, a takrat je bila vročina iz ognja preveč tudi za njihovo opremo. Plamen je trajal dve uri, da je bil pod nadzorom.

Telesa moških so naslednji dan identificirali po zobozdravniških zapisih.

Načrti za obisk kraljice in princese Anne na olimpijskih igrah v Münchnu so bili preklicani. Vojvoda Edinburški, ki je bil že v Münchnu, se je predčasno vrnil na pogreb.

Ker je vojvoda Gloucester v slabem zdravstvenem stanju, vojvodinja od Gloucestra ni bila prepričana, ali bi morala svojemu možu povedati o smrti njunega sina kljub sožaljem.

Takratni premier Edward Heath je bil eden prvih, ki je sožalje poslal tako vojvodi kot vojvodinji od Gloucesterja in kraljici.

Princesa Alice je priznala: “Bila sem popolnoma omamljena in od takrat nisem bila več enaka, čeprav sem se poskušala prepričati, da je bolje, da ga poznam in izgubim, kot da ga sploh ne bi imela. ”

V svojih spominih, ki so bili prvič objavljeni leta 1981 Spomini princese Alice, vojvodinje Gloucesterske in leta 1991 revidiran kot Spomini na devetdeset let, vojvodinja je razkrila, da princu Henryju nikoli ni povedala, da je njihov sin ubit. Vendar je nadaljevala, da je morda o smrti princa Williama izvedel iz televizijske oddaje.

Princ William je bil pokopan na kraljevem grobišču Frogmore. Dve leti kasneje je princ Henry umrl in bil pokopan na istem mestu, da bi se spet združil.


Kralj Poljske in Litve [uredi | uredi vir]

Po smrti poljskega vladarja Sigismunda II. Avgusta 7. Osmansko cesarstvo in finančne subvencije. 16. maja 1573 so poljski plemiči izbrali Henrika za prvega izvoljenega monarha poljsko-litovske skupnosti. Litovski plemiči so tokratne volitve bojkotirali in litovski vojvodski svet je potrdil njegovo izvolitev. Tako je Commonwealth izvolil Henrika namesto habsburških kandidatov, deloma zato, da bi bil bolj prijazen do Osmanskega cesarstva (tradicionalnega zaveznika Francije po francosko-osmanski zvezi) in okrepil poljsko-osmansko zavezništvo, ki je prav tako veljalo.

Na slovesnosti pred pariškim parlamentom 13. septembra je poljska delegacija predala "potrdilo o izvolitvi na prestol Poljska-Litva". Henry se je tudi odrekel kakršnim koli zahtevam po dedovanju in je "priznal načelo svobodnih volitev" v Henrikinih členih in pacta conventa. Šele januarja 1574 je Henry prišel do meja Poljske. 21. februarja je bilo v Krakovu Henrikovo kronanje. Sredi junija 1574 je Henrik, ko je izvedel za smrt svojega brata, francoskega kralja Karla IX, zapustil Poljsko in se odpravil nazaj v Francijo. Henryjeva odsotnost je "izzvala ustavno krizo", ki jo je poskušal rešiti parlament tako, da je Henryja obvestil, da bo njegov prestol izgubljen, če se ne bo vrnil iz Francije do 12. maja 1575. Zaradi njegovega neuspešnega vrnitve je parlament razglasil svoj prestol za prazen. Kratko Henrikovo vladavino na gradu Wawel na Poljskem je zaznamoval spopad kultur med Poljaki in Francozi. Mladi kralj in njegovi privrženci so bili presenečeni nad več poljskimi običaji in razočarani nad revščino na podeželju in ostrim podnebjem v državi. .


Življenjepis

Pred letom 1512

Ko je bil Henry še otrok, je kraljeva družina živela v Château d'Amboise, kjer se je igral na dvorišču med nekaterimi drevesi. Toda po tistem, kar imenuje "vojna", je bila rezidenca opuščena in do leta 1512 je bila ruševina.

Leta 1512 je Henry mladenič. Po očetu pa se v življenju "muha". Zato ga je kralj Frančišek zaročil s špansko princeso Gabriello. Čeprav se princesa in princ med poroko želita poročiti z nekom drugim.

Njegovo prvo srečanje z Danielle

Henry se tej odločitvi upira in ponoči namerava zbežati v Genovo. Njegov konj si na poti zdrsne, zato ukrade konja pokojnega očeta Danielle de Barbarac, da bi pobegnil pred kraljevo stražo, ki ga lovi. Kljub temu ne pride daleč, ker ga Danielle ujame in z jabolkom zruši s konja. Ko razkrije svojo identiteto, plača Danielle dvajset frankov za njeno tišino in nadaljuje na konju.

V gozdu naleti na Leonarda da Vincija, ki ga na poti do kraljeve palače ropajo Cigani. Henry se ustavi in ​​razmisli, ali bi pomagal ali nadaljeval pot, in skoraj se odloči za slednjega, a ga da Vinci vidi in prosi, naj si povrne sliko. Henry popusti in se lovi za tatom. Sledi lov na konja in Henry zmaga, čeprav s tatom pri tem padeta v bližnjo reko. Vrne sliko, za katero se izkaže, da je Mona Lisa, prijela pa ga je kraljeva straža pod vodstvom stotnika Laurenta. Laurent pove Henryju, kdo je da Vinci, in zavedajoč se, da bi mu lahko pomagal, Henry prosi da Vincija, da bi mu pomagal odpraviti očeta iz dogovorjenega zakona z Gabriello.

Njegovo prvo srečanje z Marguerite

Na poti proti gradu z kraljevo stražo in Leonardom da Vincijem se Henry ustavi pri dvorcu, kjer živi Danielle, da vrne konja, ki ga je ukradel. Rodmilli opisuje svoje srečanje z Danielle, preden sta se Marguerite in Jacqueline spotaknila iz hiše, Marguerite pa je na prsih nosila svojo nespodobno veliko broško. Henry pohvali dekleta. Nato pove Rodmilli, da je prišlo do novih dogodkov v zvezi z zaroko s špansko princeso. Njegovo oko pritegne broška Marguerite in jo pohvali pred odhodom.

Njegovo drugo srečanje z Danielle

Na gradu Henry spet sreča Danielle, tokrat pa se neuspešno pogaja o izpustitvi svojega služabnika Mauricea. Henry je ne prepozna, toda presenečen zaradi njenega poguma in odkritosti odredi izpustitev Mauricea. Nato ji sledi po dvorišču, navdušen nad njenim citiranjem Thomasa Moreja Utopijain večkrat prosi za njeno ime, dokler mu ne da vzdevka grofica Nicole de Lancret. Prekine jih Henryjeva mama, kraljica Marie, Danielle pa pobegne, Henry pa ostane zmeden in razočaran.

Marie odpelje Henryja k njegovemu očetu, kralju Frančišku, ki ga očita, da njegovih nalog v svoji državi ne jemlje resno, in zahteva, da se poroči s princeso Gabriello. Henry trdi, da je to njegovo življenje, in zavrača svoj položaj francoskega prestolonaslednika, preden se odpravi.

Načrtovanje žoge

Tisti večer se Henry in njegova mama skupaj sprehajata po vrtovih. Henry poskuša od nje izvedeti, kdo je "Comtesse de Lancret", vendar mu to ne uspe. Pridruži se jim Frančišek in oznani, da meče maskirano žogo v čast da Vincija. Kralj ponudi Henryju kompromis: ali najde ljubezen pred masko, ali pa se poroči z Gabriello. Henry sprejme to ponudbo.

Na reki Henry razpravlja o naravi sorodnih duš z Leonardom da Vincijem. Nato preizkusijo najnovejšo da Vincijevo stvaritev: čevlje za hojo po vodi. Da Vinci se vrne z mokro Danielle, Henry pa ji ponudi svoj plašč. Z Danielle se pogovarjata in začneta se zaljubiti. Henry je znova razočaran, ko Danielle odhaja v naglici.

Kasneje se je izkazalo tudi, da je Henry zaradi govora "grofice Nicole" o napakah v družbi ustavil zasužnjevanje kriminalcev in dolžnikov.

Trg

Naslednji dan Henry igra tenis z markizom de Limogesom. Med tekmo pade nazaj v gledalce. Nemudoma ga požene ducat žensk, ki mu napolnijo dvojnik z robci v upanju, da jih bo vrnil. Nezadovoljen jih Henry namesto tega pobere in jih vrže na tla. Marguerite mu poda žogo, s čimer je Henry spet pritegnil pozornost.

Kasneje na tržnici Henry hodi z Marguerite. Ponudi ji čokolado in se počuti nelagodno, ko Marguerite, namesto da bi sama vzela čokolado, odpre usta in prisili princa, da ji je iz vljudnosti sam dal čokolado v usta. Ko Henry sreča služabnice de Gentov, Louise in Paulette, mu vrže piščanca v obraz, preden lahko prepozna Danielle v stojnici.

Njegovo tretje srečanje z Danielle

To nedeljo se Henry izogiba cerkvi zaradi velikega števila snubcev, ki se zbirajo tja, da bi ga videli. Med iskanjem da Vincija opazi izumiteljevega zmaja, s katerim leti Danielle. Pripelje se do Gustava in prosi za da Vincija. Navdušen je, ko mu mladi slikar pove, da je "Nicole" doma sama pri dvorcu Rodmilla de Ghent. Takoj se odpelje tja in prosi Danielle, naj ga spremlja v samostan. Tam ga navdušuje Daniellejeva strast do knjig in učenja.

Na poti domov se kolo vozička zlomi. Sprva se Henry posmehuje Danielleinemu predlogu, da hodijo, a se po tem, ko ga je malo prepričal, s tem strinja. Vendar se izgubijo, zato se Danielle v spodnjem perilu povzpne po pečini, da bi poiskala grad. Henry je navdušen nad njenimi amazonskimi lastnostmi. Nato ga Cigani zasedejo od zadaj. Po meču z enim od njih se Henry preda, da bi pustil Danielle. Spet je v zadregi in navdušen, ko ga Danielle po sklenitvi dogovora z ciganskim vodjo odnese na hrbet. Cigani jih povabijo na obrok, z Danielle pa se tisti večer pogovarjata, pijeta in igrata, preden jo Henry pospremi domov. Tik preden se ločijo, Henry prosi Danielle, da se naslednji dan sreča pri ruševinah Amboisea.

Njegovo četrto srečanje z Danielle

Naslednje jutro Henry zbudi starše in izjavi, da želi zgraditi univerzo za ljudi in da so Cigani povabljeni na bal.

Kasneje se sreča z Danielle. Popolnoma se ne zaveda razburjenega obraza Danielle in navdušeno pripoveduje o svojem otroštvu v Amboiseu in svojem projektu izgradnje univerze, preden je izjavil ljubezen do Danielle, za katero še vedno misli, da je "Nicole".   Zmeden je, ko Danielle naglo odide. Ko pride domov, ga mati kraljica obvesti, da je po besedah ​​Rodmille "Nicole" zaročena z Belgijcem. Henry je jezen in razburjen.

Žoga

Henry se sprva ne udeleži žoge, namesto tega se je odločil, da se bo duril na praznem hodniku. Nazaj na maski bo napovedal zaroko s špansko princeso, ko Danielle prispe v osupljivem kostumu. Ko pa Rodmilla celotni skupščini sporoči, kdo v resnici je Danielle, je Henry v zadregi in jo hladno zavrne. Da Vinci se mu zdi, da se duši na zidovih gradu in ga prežveči, ker je z Danielle ravnal slabo. Po odhodu da Vincija Henry razmišlja o čevlju Danielle, ki ga je umetnik pustil za sabo.

Po žogi se bo kmalu poročil z Gabriello, vendar se zaveda, da je razlog za jok, ker ljubi drugega moškega. Navdušen nad tem zapusti cerkev, da bi našel Danielle, in zgrožen izve, da je bila prodana Pierru le Pieu. Ni presenečen, ko vidi, da se je že rešila, in jo prosi odpuščanja, preden jo zaprosi.

Epilog

Ko Rodmillo odpeljejo na sodišče in jo Danielle kaznuje, se Henry nasmehne. Potem ko Leonardo Danielle podari poročno darilo, se s Henryjem poljubita.


Neizkušene vode - (Omenjeno)
Kraljica Catherine je obvestila Lorda Narcisse Kraljica Leeza se je vrnila v Španijo, vendar ni zadovoljna. Catherine jo je obvestila Princa Henryja vrnitev v Francijo je bila odložena, ker se v imenu katoliške vere bori s Turki. Nekaj, kar bi ji ugajalo, všeč ji je bil pokol nevernikov, a vseeno si želi na prestolu Henrija, ne njegovega starejšega brata. Leeza je dovolil, da je kralj Charles ostal kralj, medtem ko je Henryjev zamujal. Medtem zahteva, da se udeleži poroke Mary in Darnley. vztrajala, da zastopa podporo Francije in Španije katoliški zvezi.

Boljši človek
Lord Narcisse pove kraljici Catherine, da se Nicole Touchet spreminja v primerno damo in želi biti kurtizana. V zameno pa jim vodi Charlesa in ga drži v vrsti. Vendar Leeza še vedno želi Charlesa z prestola in meni, da je Henri človek, ki Francijo ohranja katoliško. In potem, ko se je strinjal, da ji dovoli, da ji reši zadeve, je Leeza odšel za njen hrbet in pisala Henriju neposredno, zdaj je na poti v Francijo, svež po zadnjem porazu Turkov, zavedajoč se, da si ga Španija želi na prestolu.

Kasneje pride Henri, ki sedi na Leezinih pismih, da Charles ni zdrav in da je potreben takoj. Mama mu je zagotovila, da je brat precej okreval in ne bo odstopil.

Mrtev noč
Princ Henri trdi, da bi bil boljši kralj. Leeza je rekla, da Charles ni imel prav v glavi in ​​da je bil potreben.

Shakedown
Kraljica Catherine pove svojemu sinu kralju Charlesu, da ga je želela zaščititi tako, da ga naredi močnega, vendar vztraja, da je šibek, in to lahko vidijo vsi razen vas. Najprej Leeza, nato Henri. Ni mogel dovoliti, da bi to videla Anglija ali njegovi ljudje, zato je ukazal odrezati te glave, da bi skril resnico, ki se je boji


Vse to jo je stalo
Kraljica Katarina prepriča svoje sinove kralja Charlesa in Princ Henri da jih je uporabila njihova sestra Leeza in jih obrnila med seboj.


Vsebina

V kraljestvu v Začaranem gozdu je princ Henry, sin kralja Xavierja, peti v vrsti za prestol. Nekega dne na gradu z očetom zabavata severno princeso, princeso Evo, ki je prišla na obisk. Sreča Coro, nizko hčerko mlinarja, ki dostavlja moko. Cora je kaznovana, ker je razlila moko po tleh in uničila Evine copate, vendar je edini, ki se je zavzel za Coro in rekel, da ne verjame, da je dekle škodovalo. Vendar pa odide z ostalimi člani kraljeve družine, ko zapuščajo dvorišče, potem ko kralj Xavier prisili Coro, da poklekne in se opraviči Evi. Pozneje sreča Coro na maškarenem balu, ki poteka v čast Evi, in oba plešeta, dokler ne vstopi kralj Xavier. Koro bo obljubil ročno poroko, če bo zmogla slamo v zlato, kot trdi, da zmore. Cora to dokaže tako, da pred celotnim sodiščem vrti zlato, ponižni Henry pa Cori ponudi roko v roki in ona to sprejme. Henry in njegova žena imata sčasoma hčerko Regino. Pred kraljevim dvorom Cora izjavlja, da bo njena hči nekega dne kraljica. ("Mlinarjeva hči")

Nekaj ​​let kasneje sta Henry in Cora odhitela na stran Regine, potem ko se je s čarobnostjo iz Corove palice potrkala v nezavest. Svojo ženo je vprašal, kako se je to zgodilo, saj je palico zaprla v predal, Cora pa z obžalovanjem prizna, da je pozabila vzeti ključ s seboj. Ker hčerki bolečina povzroča njena čarovnija, Cora odšteje, da jo lahko ozdravi le nekdo blizu Regine, ki ji ni poškodoval. Pozneje se vrne z Zeleno, njenim prvorojenim otrokom, ki se mu je nekoč odrekla, pri čemer je deklica s svojo magijo ozdravila Regino. Ko je Regina spet dobro, je Henry presenečen nad njenim čudežnim okrevanjem in sprašuje Coro o identiteti Zelene, vendar ona ne razkrije resnice. ("Sestre")

Nekaj ​​let po tem služi kot hčerkina služabnica. Na domačem posestvu ponosno opazuje, kako Regina prikazuje jahanje, čeprav se zdi Cora preveč nelagodna in otročja. Ko skuša zagovarjati Regino, ga žena na kratko prosi, naj preneha z ljubkovanjem njihove hčerke. Regina, razburjena zaradi materinih besed, odide, a jo Cora ustavi z magijo. Henry nemočno opazuje, kako Cora levitira in drži Regino v zraku, dokler se ne strinja, da bo "dobra". V svojem prizadevanju, da bi svoji hčerki postavila kraljico, Cora namerno ustvari situacijo, v kateri Regina reši hčerko kralja Leopolda, Sneguljčico. Kasneje, medtem ko je prisoten tudi Henry, navdušen kralj Leopold prosi Regino za roko. Takoj po predlogu brez besed Regina pogleda očeta na pomoč, a on molči, ko Cora sprejme poroko v imenu njene hčerke. ("Stabilni deček")

Ko se bliža bližajoča se poroka, se Regina z očetom posvetuje, kako nesrečna je glede svoje prihodnosti. Ker noče biti podobna svoji materi, se vpraša, kako je Cora postala takšna. Nejasno se Henry spominja, da je bil človek, ki je Cora čarovnijo učil skozi knjigo urokov. ("Oba sva")

Med Reginino poroko s kraljem Leopoldom njen mož prinese domov duha, ki ga je osvobodil z eno od treh želja. Duh se vanjo zaljubi na prvi pogled in Regina mu zaljubljenost izkoristi v prid, da se izogne ​​poroki brez ljubezni. O svoji "ljubezni" do njega piše v dnevnik. Kralj Leopold prebere vnos, vendar se ne zaveda, da je moški, za katerim hrepeni, duh. Jezen jo zapre v grad. V strahu za življenje svoje hčerke Henry podari duhu škatlo s strupenimi poskoki v upanju, da jo bo odnesel v Reginine sobe in rekel, da je to edini način, da je Regina svobodna. Na koncu Regina prevari duha, da ubije kralja Leopolda z ježki. ("Sadje strupenega drevesa")

Na obletnico Danielove smrti Henry spremlja Regino, ko prekine poročni obred, ki poteka na ozemlju v bližini njenega gradu. Ker jim tega ni dovolila, ženinu iztrga srce, saj jo oče prosi, naj ne pretirava, zlasti glede na to, katere obletnice je. Regina ga zaskoči, ker jo je opomnil, kateri dan je, in ko je razburjena zaradi njegovega namigovanja na svojo šibkost, stisne ženinovo srce. Ko se je vrnila k svoji kočiji, mu je nato hladno rekla, naj se sam odpravi domov, preden pusti očeta. Kasneje, medtem ko Henry umiva Regini lase po spalnici, vstopi Cora in mu z lahkoto reče, naj gre ven, da bo lahko govorila s svojo hčerko. ("Mati")

Spremljajoč Regino do vasi, kjer se govori, da se skriva Sneguljčica, Henry predlaga, da bi jo umor Sneža naredil neugoden v očeh podložnikov in da bi morala deklici prizanesiti kot usmiljenje. Regina zavrne njegov nasvet in odide v kočo, da bi Snegu iztrgala srce, da bi na njenem mestu našla vabo. Kasneje v Reginini palači Henry vodi svojo hčer v prepričanje, da ji lahko pomaga z zemljevidom iz ene od Corinih knjig urokov, ki jih bo pripeljala do predmeta za iskanje Snow. Ko pridejo do vhoda v domnevno stvar, mu je jasno, da je o kraju izvedel od Tinker Bell. V vratih ji Henry pokaže kip Kupidona s puščico, ki jo lahko usmeri na osebo, ki jo ima najraje, a Regina se razjezi zaradi očetove izdaje do nje. Regina nato na puščico vrne urok, ki jo bo vodil do osebe, ki jo najbolj sovraži, vendar ji s Henryjem sledita nazaj v palačo, kjer puščica vodi Regino do ogledala in dokaže, da je oseba, ki jo najbolj sovraži . ("Stran 23")

Na dan Regininega rojstnega dne Henry vidi, kako se ukvarja s Sneguljčico, in jo poskuša prepričati, naj se odreče maščevanju. Namesto Sneguljčice krivdo nalaga Cori, ki je Danielu iztrgala srce, da bi Regino oblikovala v neusmiljeno kraljico. Trdi, da jo bo Cora vedno držala, dokler si Regina želi maščevanje. Ker ga Regina noče poslušati, Henry potisne čarobno ogledalo, da pokliče Coro. Želi, da pomaga Regini, da nadaljuje, a ko Cora za to ne zanima, poskuša prekiniti pogovor. Cora se spet pojavi v bližnjem ogledalu, da bi ga ustavila, vendar naznani, da namerava govoriti s Sneguljčico, in da ne potrebuje več Corine pomoči. Ni mu znano, če ji pokliče Coro, lahko skozi ogledalo znova vstopi v Začarani gozd. Henry se dogovori za sestanek s Sneguljčico v gozdu, toda Cora, preoblečena v Henryja, pride prva. Prihod pravega Henryja moti Sneguljčico, katere srce prevzame Cora. Henry skrivaj vrne srce Sneguljčici in ga nadomesti s srcem Črnega viteza, preden Cora da srce Regini. Ko Regina to odkrije, Henry vztraja, da je to storil v njeno dobro, saj bo zaradi umora Sneguljčice za vedno postala temna in postala bo podobna Cori. Prepričan je, da lahko Regina srečo najde drugje, in s tem, ko Sneguljčico pusti, ima Regina možnost, da se odreši. Ker ve, da ga bo kaznovala zaradi vmešavanja, Henry trdi, da mu ni vseeno, kaj se mu zgodi, na kar ga Regina skrči v miniaturno velikost in ga zapre v škatlo. Zavedajoč se, da je njen oče glede Core imel prav, Regina naredi nepreklicen urok, da zapečati portal ogledala, in čarobno ogledalo odpelje njeno mamo. Preden Coro potegne nazaj v Čudežno deželo, ukrade škatlo in Regino za vedno loči od Henryja. ("Duše odhajajočih")

Ker nima drugega načina, da bi rešila svojega očeta, Regina pokliče nekdanjega skakalca portala Jeffersona in se z njim dogovori, da bi dosegla Čudežno deželo, čeprav zavaja Jeffersona tako, da mu je povedala, da ji je kraljica src namesto osebe ukradla predmet . Ko je Regina prišla do središča živega labirinta kraljice src, iz trezorja pobere škatlo, v kateri je Henry. Na poti iz čudežne dežele Henryju podari košček gosenice, da mu povrne normalno velikost. Šele takrat Jeffersonu postane jasno, zakaj mu je lagala, saj portalski klobuk, s katerim so prihajali v Čudežno deželo, dovoljuje, da odide le enaka količina ljudi, ki vstopijo v svet. Regina nato ujame Jeffersona v Čudežno deželo, ona in njen oče pa se vrneta v Začarani gozd. ("Hat trik")

Medtem ko Regina vodi vojno proti Sneguljčici in očarljivemu princu, jo na koncu ujamejo in obsodijo na smrt. Preden se to zgodi, obišče hčerko v zaporniški celici in je kasneje priča ob usmrtitvi, ki jo Sneguljčica kmalu ustavi. Potem ko je Regina na ukaz Sneguljčice izgnana iz kraljestva, Henry ostane pri njej v palači. Napoveduje prihod Rumplestiltskina, ki daje Regini idejo, da uporabi Temno prekletstvo, da bi škodila ljudem, ki jih najbolj sovraži. V ta namen Henry pokliče kočijo, da odpelje Regino na poročno slovesnost princa Charminga. ("Igra kriket")

Regina, ki poskuša odvrniti prekletstvo, zbere dlake najtemnejših duš in žrtvuje srce svojega najljubšega konja, vendar urok ne deluje. Medtem, ko ona vre ob neuspehu, ji Henry svetuje, naj se pogovori z ustvarjalcem prekletstva Rumplestiltskinom. Ko se to zgodi, se Regina zbere skupaj z očetom v palači. Henry sprašuje, kako je potekal pogovor, in je osupnjen, ko Regina reče, da bo prekletstvo delovalo le, če vzame srce tistega, kar ji je najbolj všeč, to je on. Poskuša jo prepričati, da ji ni treba ves čas živeti s sovraštvom, oba pa lahko znova začneta novo življenje. V solzah se strinja in ga objame. Vendar mu Regina nato iztrga srce, ko se v šoku zruši na tla. Odločena od svoje odločitve, Regina opravičljivo pojasnjuje, da na tem svetu nikoli ne bi mogla biti srečna. Kasneje pokoplje Henryja z grobnico, na kateri piše: "Henry, ljubljeni oče", in mu položi črno rožo. ("Stvar, ki jo imaš najraje")

V Podzemlju se Henryjeva duša zaradi nedokončanega posla ne more premakniti naprej. Ko Regina prispe na ta svet, uporabi Ale iz Seonaidha, da pokliče svojega očeta. Ker skriva ogromno krivdo, ker ga je ubila, se opravičuje in prosi za odpuščanje. Odpušča ji in ji zagotavlja, da jo ima rad ne glede na vse. Regina vztraja, da stori vse, kar je v njegovi moči, da zmanjša njegovo trpljenje, ker je Cora rekla, da bo plačal ceno, če zdaj ne zapusti Podzemlja. Henry opozori, da ga Cora samo uporablja, da bi Regino odpeljala, vendar ji svetuje, naj ostane in pomaga prijateljem, ker potrebujejo njeno moč, s tem pa bo naredila nekaj dobrega iz njegove smrti. Kasneje Regina sreča svojo mamo, ki poskuša Henryja potisniti v ogenj, da bi Regini pokazala njeno usodo, če se odloči ostati, kar pomeni, da gori v gorečem breznu. Ko Henryja potegnejo v ognjeni obroč, se Cora teleportira v oblaku dima. Regina zgrožena nad usodo svojega očeta opazuje, preden plamen, ki obdaja Henryja, izgine in nastane most, ki ga vabi, naj gre iz Podzemlja. V tem primeru se Henry zaveda, da je bil njegov nedokončan posel zagotoviti, da je njegova hči na pravi poti v življenju, saj je v svojem življenju največ obžaloval, da je pustil Cori, da jo nadzoruje. Olajšan, ker je Regina zdaj na svobodi, jo pohvali, pove, kako ponosen je nanjo, in jo opomni, da mora biti sama. Spozna svojega posvojitelja in soimenjaka Henryja in se mu zahvali, da je pazil nanjo, ko ni mogel. Fantka opomni, naj skrbi zanjo, s tem pa se z njim in Regino poslovi v solzah in se končno povzpne do svojega zadnjega bivališča na gori Olimp. ("Duše odhajajočih")


Meghan Markle

Prince Harry began dating actress Markle, star of the television show Suits, in 2016. They met while Harry was attending the Invictus Games in Toronto, where Suits is filmed. In November of that year, Kensington Palace issued a statement confirming their relationship. The statement also requested privacy and respect for the couple after Markle had been subjected to racist and sexist attacks on social media, as well as harassment by paparazzi.

On November 27, 2017, it was revealed that Prince Harry and Markle had secretly gotten engaged earlier in the month. An official announcement said the two would marry the following spring and move to Nottingham Cottage at Kensington Palace in London. Later, it was revealed that the couple would marry on May 19, 2018, in St. George&aposs Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Prince Harry and Meghan Markle.

Photo: Max Mumby/Indigo/Getty Images

News of the engagement was greeted with enthusiasm by other members of the royal family. Prince Charles and the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh all declared they were "delighted" at the announcement, while Prince William and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, said they were "very excited for Harry and Meghan," adding, "It has been wonderful getting to know Meghan and to see how happy she and Harry are together."

In March 2018, the Dnevna pošta reported that Prince Harry would not sign a prenuptial agreement. According to a source, "There was never any question in Harry’s mind that he would sign a prenup. He’s determined that his marriage will be a lasting one, so there’s no need for him to sign anything." Additionally, prenups were not considered to be legally binding in the United Kingdom, though judges were known to take them into consideration during divorce trials.


Prince Henry 'the Navigator'. A Life

Peter Russell's Henry 'the Navigator' is one of those rare books which has had classic, or rather legendary, status even before it was published. It was no secret that Russell was long at work on a full biography of a figure whom he had already drastically redrawn in his Canning House lecture forty years ago (Prince Henry the Navigator, Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Councils, 1960), and in subsequent lectures and articles. Even his first book, The English intervention in Spain and Portugal in the time of Edward III and Richard II (Oxford, 1955), pointed the way towards this interest in Henry, for both at the start and at the end of his new book Russell makes much of Henry's English ancestry, through his mother Philippa of Lancaster, and of his pride in his membership of the Order of the Garter and in both books his fine mastery of the sources and his understanding of the Spanish as well as the Portuguese dimensions are plain to see.

Fortunately quite a few of Russell's earlier studies of Henry and his era were gathered together in a volume of the Variorum Collected Studies entitled Portugal, Spain and the African Atlantic. Chivalry and crusade from John of Gaunt to Henry the Navigator (Aldershot, 1995). Here already was a title that gave away a good deal about Russell's understanding of Henry as he says in the last words of his new book:


The Gothic tomb he had designed, its representation of himself and everything else about it belonged wholly to the later Middle Ages. So, when all is said and done, did he and all his works. The Henrican discoveries, as well as the way the Prince explained and justified them, are seen to be an entirely medieval phenomenon in which, uniquely, the doctrines of the crusade and the ideology of chivalry came together to make possible, under Prince Henry's direction, a major scientific contribution to European man's knowledge of the wider world about him.

Naturally, the image he presented of Henry in 1960 was not to the taste of a Portuguese régime which sought to identify in the prince one of its greatest national heroes, the founder of Portugal's then still surviving empire, and a scholar who was (it was often suggested) for the art of navigation and the science of geography what Leonardo was for the art of painting and the science of engineering. Indeed, even today the era of the discoveries remains the foundation on which most Portuguese believe their national history rests. Just as for the Catalans a slightly earlier period is seen as the greatest period of national glory, so for the Portuguese the end of the Middle Ages is a time both glorious and highly significant. It was also in this period, as the Portuguese insist with reasonable accuracy, that Portugal established its national boundaries, which have hardly changed since the late Middle Ages, unlike those of every other European state.

But those boundaries do not tell the whole story. Quite apart from the fact that they exclude the region of Galicia, where a language close to Portuguese is spoken, they also do not coincide with the boundaries which Henry conceived for Portuguese power and influence. To the continental lands of Portugal must be added the uninhabited Atlantic islands discovered by his sea captains, colonised by Portuguese and Italians, and made into major sources of wealth, particularly in the case of Madeira, and to some degree in the Azores as well this was mainly as a result of the development of the Atlantic sugar industry. Henry, as Russell shows, was well aware of the financial advantages of sugar production, and he had an uncanny understanding of the fact that Italian merchants were keen, in the early to mid-fifteenth century, to lessen their dependence on eastern Mediterranean sugar and to exploit sources of sugar in western areas such as Granada. So when a group of Venetians, including Henry's eventual chronicler Alvise da Mosto (often wrongly called Cadamosto, by Russell as well as by others), called on the prince in the Algarve, Henry went out of his way to show them examples of Madeiran sugar. And, as Russell surmises, Henry wanted to attract foreign capital after all, sugar production was a complex process, involving elaborate machinery and intensive labour. He did not close his Atlantic voyages to foreign navigators and merchants.

As if founding the Atlantic sugar industry was not enough, Henry can also be blamed for founding the Atlantic slave trade. In the early sixteenth century slaves and sugar would come together to form a tragic combination, and Russell is understandably prepared to allow his own very justifiable feelings to intrude here, when he describes the first public sale of African slaves at Lagos, on the Algarve, in 1444. This he judiciously balances with a survey of the longer history of slave trading in the Mediterranean, particularly in Genoese hands. The horrors of the sale at Lagos, as mother and child were separated while Henry, mounted on his horse looked on (and in due course claimed his royal fifth of the slaves) were not lost on the chronicler Zurara, even though Zurara did not falter in his admiration for Prince Henry. This of course takes us to the heart of Russell's assessment of Henry. He is not, one might say, a very nice man. He proves capable of abandoning his brother to a ghastly death in a Moroccan prison, because Prince Henry is not prepared to honour an agreement to return the city of Ceuta to the Muslims, following the failure of an expedition to Tangier for which he carries much of the responsibility. His refusal to listen to good advice, and his preference for the advice of those in his entourage, is a character flaw that leads on this occasion to disaster.

And yet Russell's Henry is a man with a plan, or rather several interlocking plans: the achievement of great victories against the infidel. Even the settlement of uninhabited Madeira was at one point proclaimed a victory over the unbeliever, though to say this was to lose a sense of reality. Broadly, Henry's schemes can be understood as four projects: one, to gain for himself the crown of Granada or at least a slice of Granadan territory, was completely at odds with Castilian interests, though maybe that was why it appealed to a prince who had an obsessive hatred of Castile. But even the parallel project of Portuguese expansion in Morocco was indirectly hostile to Castile, which had broadly agreed with the Catalans that Morocco should be within its sphere of influence, while the kings of Aragon pursued Catalan objectives in eastern Algeria and Tunisia. The Portuguese plan to attack Ceuta in 1415 had to be kept secret not just so that the Marinid rulers of Morocco would not hear about it at the time, there were rumours that Portugal was fitting out a fleet to capture Málaga, the major port in Nasrid Granada, or Gibraltar, the other Pillar of Hercules facing Ceuta. Moreover, as any reader of L.P. Harvey's authoritative history of Later Islamic Spain, 1250-1500 (Chicago, 1991) will know, the delicate triangular relationship between Castile, Morocco and Granada was placed at risk by Portuguese intervention in Morocco. Ceuta was a prize that Muslim rulers of Spain had often sought to gain for themselves, just as the Moroccans had occasionally reached across to try to grab Algeciras or Gibraltar.

The security of the Straits was a longstanding matter of concern, since on it depended the free movement of Italian and Catalan shipping from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and, by this time, we can add as well the free movement of Portuguese, Galician and Basque shipping from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean (the first signs of Portuguese shipping in the Mediterranean, according to Heers [Société et économie à Gênes, London, 1979], date from the 1390s, while studies by Elisa Ferreira Priegue have much enlarged our understanding of links between Galicia and the Mediterranean: Fuentes para la exportación gallega de la segunda mitad del s. XV, Santiago, 1984, and Galicia en el comercio marítimo medieval, Santiago, 1988). And if the aim was to capture Ceuta's trade, including its gold trade, as some have argued, that was certainly not achieved: business henceforth by-passed Ceuta entirely, and it became the garrison city which it has remained ever since for although Portugal lost Ceuta in 1580 it was lost to Spain, of which it remains a part, and not to the Moroccans. And even in the fifteenth century the running of Ceuta proved a massively expensive business the main return was prestige, particularly for Henry, whose heroic role in the capture of the city was well known. Throughout Henry's career, Morocco continued to fascinate and attract Henry, who was present at the fall of Alcácer-Ceguer, a not very important fortress between Ceuta and Tangier) to the Portuguese in 1458, as he had been at the fall of Ceuta forty-three years earlier. Equally, antagonism to Morocco presented commercial difficulties: the Atlantic coast was an important source of grain (favoured by the Genoese), and Portugal too had need of food supplies it also needed local Moroccan products for its trade further down the African coast. All this is extremely well explained by Russell.

The third project concerned the Canary Islands. The Canaries were sometimes seen as a jumping off point for penetration into Africa and one of Henry's great obsessions, Russell reveals, was the conquest of the Canary Islands. Russell deftly shows how the Canaries stand for many of Henry's faults and virtues. He displayed little understanding of the logistical problems involved in attacks on islands which, unlike Madeira and the Azores had substantial warlike populations, though it was a clever move to win over some Gomerans to the Portuguese side and to let them help in slave raiding on other islands than La Gomera. Still, the familiar priorities are there: an interest in the islands as a source of slaves a wish, in conjunction with King Duarte, to convince the papal curia to uphold Portuguese claims in the face of existing grants of the islands to Castile a wish to present the conquest of the islands as a crusade, while at the same time Henry was only too glad to entertain Gomeran princes in style, or even to use captive Canary islanders in a dance routine set up in order to impress visiting dignitaries. Russell offers a very clear and well balanced account of the lively debate which arose at the papal curia the Portuguese sought to portray the Canary islanders as brute savages, ignorant of letters and of civilised manners. But this can be set alongside another tradition, going back to a Portuguese expedition to the islands as early as approximately 1341 and to a report on that expedition by Boccaccio, which portrays them as innocent beings living in a state of nature: knowledge of the 1341 expedition seems largely to have evaporated outside Italy by this time, though some Florentine humanists were still interested in it in the fifteenth century (see T.J. Cachey, Le isole fortunate, Rome, 1995, and J.K. Hyde, Literacy and its uses. Studies on late medieval Italy, ur. D. Waley, Manchester, 1993, pp. 199-202).

What all this points to, as Russell well knows, is that the west African expeditions which, in the very long term, launched Portugal on the route to the Indies and to empire were only one part, and not the major part, of the schemes of Prince Henry, the fourth of the four interlocking schemes outlined here. We see the traditional obsession with the need to find the sources of gold which were believed to fuel the military machine of Islam this can be traced back to the visit of the king of Mali, Mansa Musa, to Cairo in the mid-fourteenth century, during which he scattered so much gold in the streets that there was a bout of serious inflation. Moreover, as Russell is careful to observe (with the help of contemporary portolan charts) the search for the Rio de Oro had a long pedigree, with particular honour being accorded on the map legends to the Majorcan Jaume Ferrer in the 1340's. He reappears aboard his vessel with monotonous regularity on later illustrated charts, such as the mid-fifteenth-century Este world map in Modena.

When the attention switches to da Mosto's reports, and to the visual images that hung in da Mosto's memory such as hippos and giant palm trees, as well as the physical attributes of newly discovered peoples, we are also reminded that what was being discovered was a world altogether different from those, Christian and Islamic, with which medieval Iberians were familiar. But there were certainly periods when African exploration was a secondary concern of Prince Henry and, more to the point, his interest in it was less obviously guided by the wish to convert the native peoples than he liked people in Portugal and western Europe to think. All this is demonstrated by Russell with enormous skill and any summary does not do justice to the subtlety of his approach and the way he shows Henry's ideas developing and changing back and forth.

Russell is keen to disclaim any understanding of Henry's emotional life the real man, he insist, is not easily accessible. Yet in fact he has done much to make him so by revealing the depth of his commitment to holy war against Islam, the callousness of his approach to the violent seizure of slaves on the African coast, the patronage he was keen to extend to his favourites, and his relationship to other members of the royal family such as his nephew and heir Fernando. On his own entourage there will be more to be said, particularly once Ivana Elbl of Trent University in Canada has completed her own study of Henry and his squires. For Russell is often briefer on the social, economic and institutional setting than the subject deserves. He has tried to concentrate as far as possible on Henry, though in the latter stages of the book we are treated to more discursive discussions of subjects such as slavery and what Alvise da Mosto saw on his journeys along the coasts of west Africa. It is a pity that the background in Portugal itself is dealt with so briefly. There are interesting and relevant questions about how the Portuguese navy emerged, and what the role of Italian businessmen was in the emergence of Lisbon as significant centre of trade for some, such as Jacques Heers (Gênes au XVe siècle, Paris, 1961) the commercial ties between Italy and Portugal were weak, even though there was a significant community of Italians in Lisbon, quite well integrated into local business networks. Charles Verlinden, on the other hand, tended to see the Italians as a major source of inspiration for Portuguese, and later for Castilian, methods of colonial exploitation (The Beginnings of Modern Colonization, Ithaca, NY, 1970). Particularly helpful in setting out the antecedents is a small study by Bailey Diffie, Prelude to Empire (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1960), which in fact Russell does not cite Diffie insists on the importance of several centuries of Portuguese fishing and commerce in explaining the career of Henry the Navigator.

Indeed, it is interesting to compare Russell's approach here with that of the author of another book on Henry, also published in 2000 (though the book in question is a shorter version of a work first published in 1994): Michel Vergé-Franceschi's Un prince portugais (Paris, 2000). Frankly, Vergé-Franceschi's work is very disappointing: it is extensively based on Zurara and da Mosto and it makes little attempt to challenge the classic view of Henry as a far-sighted patron of exploration and discovery in fact, it repeats a number of now exploded errors such as the view that a converted member of the Jewish Cresques family of Majorca was the prince's cartographer. Its author does not even cite Russell's earlier work on Henry (though he does mention The English Intervention, mis-spelling Russell's name). The only reason for dwelling on the work is that Vergé-Franceschi devotes some space to the antecedents (such as the role of Portuguese fisheries in the development of the fleet) and to wider problems of navigation, issues which tend to be summarised rather briefly in Russell's book. The obvious explanation is that Russell did not want to make a long book even longer on the other hand, there are certainly passages where cuts could have been made, because points are repeated within a page or two. Thus on pages 90 and 91 we are twice told that Zurara rejoices in the quantity of wood found on Madeira (whose name means just that: wood), so that it will be possible to take it back home and build houses several stories high back home in Portugal. Da Mosto's interest in dragon's blood (a dye extracted from trees found in Madeira's neighbour Porto Santo, and in the Canaries) is also mentioned twice not many pages apart. Clearly a book so long in the making has gone through many recensions, and to some extent we can identify the different layers in the way the author returns to favourite themes and repeats what are rarely anything but fascinating points. In any case, some room could have been found for more material on the context. And, while Yale are to be congratulated on producing such a handsome volume at such a reasonable price, it is also a pity that there are so many misprints the last chapter seems especially riddled with them, and they should be corrected before a paperback edition is issued, which will, it is to be hoped, also include the excellent colour illustrations. This problem, along with that of occasional repetition, suggests that Yale have not sustained the meticulous standard of copy editing characteristic of some other leading American university presses.

Vergé-Franceschi accepts that the famous panel of St Vincent in Lisbon attributed to the painter Nuno Gonçalves contains a portrait of Henry along with the rest of the court and Yale have chosen this portrait for a very attractive book cover. Russell is somewhat sceptical about this identification. Quite helpful here is a book by Anne Francis, Voyage of Re-discovery (Hicksville, NY, 1979), which seeks to identify each of the figures in the painting without denying that there are infinite problems in so doing. But we can take this painting as an emblem of the Henry problem. Not merely his portrait but the so-called School of Navigators at Sagres (above all its 'wind rose', marked out on the ground in the Sagres complex) and James of Majorca go up in smoke. Yet, far from being left with charred remains, Russell provides us with a living portrait of the career and obsessions of a man who, unwittingly - and that is the point - opened the way to the Indies. The image favoured by modern Portuguese sculptors is of a far-sighted scientist gazing across the open Ocean at the unknown - or not so unknown, because of course he can sense Portugal's destiny out there in the Great Blue Sea. Now the hero's vision is narrowed. His human faults are identified. This is not merely henceforth the standard study of Henry it is also a book with wide ramifications for the study of fifteenth-century Europe and for the study of the early phases of European expansion. And, on top of that, it is immensely enjoyable and readable, a model of scholarly history, well based in the sources, which is also accessible to a wider audience.


Poglej si posnetek: Christopher Lee - I Stole the Prince